kredyt bank obecna nazwa niebezpieczne pożyczki umowa pożyczki gotówkowej opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec bocian pożyczki łódź praca umorzenie pożyczki z zfss podatek pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom kredyt bank z bz wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny w aig kredyt bank wibor kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty banków kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyty gotówkowe w deutsche banku pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 poręczenie pożyczki przez gminę kredyt bank euribor pożyczki bez bik na pit pożyczki namysłów udzielać pożyczki translation kredyt bank biała podlaska praca średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej prywatne pożyczki rybnik kredyty chwilówki krotoszyn kredyt bank krasnik pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań provident wysokość pożyczki kredyty banki ranking kredyt bez bankowy kredyty bankowe ksiazka umowa pożyczki pieniędzy chomikuj usługi pożyczki poznań pożyczki na nową działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank akcjonariusze pożyczki bez biku poznań pożyczki na firmę bez bik kredyty w anglii forum konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa umowa pożyczki dla spółki komandytowej ranking banków kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów kredyt bank x oddział warszawa pożyczki prywatnie warszawa kredyt bank przelewy kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 pożyczki w skoku kredyty bez biku zielona góra prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz kredyt bank krosno odrzańskie kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy pożyczki gotówkowe słupsk godziny przelewow w kredyt banku pożyczki chojnów podatek od umowy pożyczki 2012 kredyt bank niepodległości 54 pożyczki w bankach spółdzielczych kredyty pozabankowe gliwice skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe dolnyslsask kredyt bank płock kontakt najtaszy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp pożyczki z dostawą do domu warszawa kredyt bankowy ranking pożyczki pozabankowe finan wycena udzielonej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki na dowód 2012 konto junior w kredyt banku kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe lubin pozyczki na doeod bez biku na dowod telefon zary banki udzielające pożyczki kredyt studencki pko terminy banki kredyty bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik starachowice prywatne pozyczki kolobrzeg do 50000 prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań kredyt bez bik na weksel pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom pożyczki prywatne chrzanów umowa pożyczki zgoda małżonka kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank piła kody do orange kredyt najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu podatek od pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bank rydla kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank bph pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa kredyty i pożyczki charakterystyka alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem banki kredyty gotówkowe oprocentowanie odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 kredyt bank fundusz global partners konwersja pożyczki na akcje kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli wbk kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt bez bik 25 tys pożyczki dla mikro i małych firm kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański pożyczki na dowód eurobank pożyczki społecznościowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki nysa kredyt bez bik w 5 minut kredyt bank oprocentowanie kart kredytowych neobank pożyczka bez bik oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego deutsche bank ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyt bez weryfikacji w bik szybki kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt mieszkaniowy jaka pensja kredyt na dowód w banku pocztowym kredyty pozabankowe bez bik warszawa kredyt samochodowy eurobank gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki bez bik nakło nad notecią kredyt konsolidacyjny czas oczekiwania kredyt bank pila sikorskiego pożyczki bez dochodów forum kredyty chwilówki reportaż pożyczki chwilówki umowa kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej forum kredyt bez bik racibórz kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez kredyt rns banki kredyty chwilówki proszę o pomoc kredyt studencki forum z banku wzięto kredyt w wysokości 2000 pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska pożyczki bez bik i krd i big kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji bardzo szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt bez bik krd big bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty kredyt bank dyrektor finansowy umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs mariusz kowalski kredyty bydgoszcz kredyt bank bankomaty włocławek kredyty chwilowki laziska gorne kredyt bez bik mbank kredyt bez biku gliwice kredyt w nordea bank opinie kredyt bank www getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pod jaki numer wziasc kredyt w orange kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej pożyczki inowrocław kredyt bank powsińska godziny otwarcia pożyczki wejherowo pożyczki bez biku rzeszów szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej szybkie pożyczki leszno kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank karta kredytowa bocian pożyczki online wniosek wniosek o kredyt studencki bank pekao sa kredyt bank zmiana hasła cechy pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik przez internet kredyt bank koniec bocian pożyczki słupsk skok rafineria pożyczki odsetki ustawowe pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe myszków kredyt studencki warunki 2012 umowa pożyczki notariusz cena kredyt bank białystok mickiewicz bocian pożyczki praca zarobki pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie bank kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz umowa pożyczki jak księgować kredyt w lukas banku opinie pożyczki do domu warszawa wezwanie do zapłaty umowa pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki dla spółki komandytowej pożyczki chwilówki w lublinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko umowa pożyczki wzór raty pożyczki online bez bik koszty pożyczki prywatnej szybki kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik kredyt bank w dębicy oświadczenie o wypowiedzeniu umowy pożyczki szybki kredyt w jakim banku kredyt bank gdansk targ drzewny pożyczki z obsługą domową kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank numer bic kredyt w bank pocztowy opinie pożyczki optima olsztyn kredyt bez zaswiadczen jelenia gora rekrutacja w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków kredyty bez bik jaslo pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód częstochowa kredyty chwilówki wniosek kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica w jakim banku wybrać kredyt kredyt w noble bank umowa pożyczki pod zastaw udziałów kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe od 18 lat jak wziasc kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank z siedzibą w warszawie pożyczki prywatne od rodziny kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw kredyty bez biku i komornika alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt bank w konstancinie zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem bydgoszcz ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze pożyczki na projekty unijne eurobank kredyt bez bik pożyczka kielce online w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty chwilówki rybnik raciborska pożyczki w domu wągrowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny fm bank pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku kredyt studencki w banku kredyty chwilówki partner kredyt konsolidacyjny w ge money bank pożyczki profinet wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnych pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego tel prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw działki pożyczki 24h opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny rio pożyczki prywatne pod weksel wrocław prywatne pozyczki na procent katowice pożyczki bez biku przez internet kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia kredyt w banku a komornik kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole umowa pożyczki w małżeństwie kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza kredyt bank zniwna pożyczki chwilówki w 15 minut kredyty bez bik biała podlaska pożyczki z komornikiem wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie elblag pożyczki prywatne forum o2 wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredyty chwilówki trójmiasto w jakim banku kredyt online pożyczka w skok stefczyka częstochowa opinie kredyty bez biku walbrzych kredyty chwilówki na konto pożyczki podporządkowane ostatni przelew w kredyt banku najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredyt bank matejki szczecin pożyczki olsztyn bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe w legnicy look pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea opinie opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank kredyty w banku santander pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności umowa pożyczki między osobami prawnymi kredyt bank w warszawie godziny otwarcia księgowanie pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyty bez bik chełm kredyt w sobotę kredyt bank wypłata bez prowizji kredyt bank rumia janowo konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big kredyt bankowy plan pracy pozyczki z obsluga w domu gdansk kredyt bank sa forum hnarutowicza leszno kredyty dla zadluzonych umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór kredyty pozabankowe ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank nowy sącz jagiellońska bocian pożyczki radom pożyczki pod zastaw śląskie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kredyt bank kołobrzeska kruk kredyty w puławach kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyt gotówkowy bez umowy o pracę pilnie potrzebuję pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok pożyczki pułtusk umowa pożyczki a podatek pożyczka wieloratalna przez internet kredyt na kąta w 15 minut bez big krd na dowód bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie kredyt bank w konstantynowie łódzkim kredyt bank wilanowska kredyt bank sprzedaż walut kredyt firmowy pozabankowy kredyt bank słubice godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny sgb bocian pożyczki oferta umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb kredyt bank kraków ul długa kredyt bank ul abrahama pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa 2014 rok kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto bip pożyczki warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez podpisu małżonka kredyt bank adresy w warszawie kredyty bez bik malbork polecane pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie pożyczki udzielone spółce przez wspólnika kredyt bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank sa bielsk podlaski kredyt bank gazele biznesu kredyty bez bik puławy kredyty chwilówki szopienice kredyt z banku zagranicznego szybkie pożyczki bez bik na dowód rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank pozyczka banknot siedlce kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki na dowód pleszew pożyczki prywatnie kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta obliczenie rat pożyczki nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank kapitał pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock pożyczki na procent kraków eurolan pozyczki pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe umowa pożyczki kpc pozyczki na dowod radom kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander banku potrącenia pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt bank gdynia bławatna kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności pozyczka oddłużeniowa na spłatę komornika kredyt bank uk kokos pożyczki prywatne kredyty bez biku gdansk kredyt bez bik 70000 przekazanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej kredyt samochodowy getin bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie dobre pożyczki bez biku pożyczki bez bik i krd opinie kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph kredyt bank praca białystok pożyczki na dowód krosno kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik szczecin mikropożyczki dla małych firm kredyt lloyds uk 2014 bank pekao sa departament kredytów trudnych pożyczki prywatne radom kredyt bez biku kraków szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki oświęcim umowa pożyczki od wspólnika wzór pożyczki gotówkowe bez zgody współmałżonka kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla zadłużonych w jakim banku wziąc kredyt kredyt bank ciechanów telefon udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej przez spółkę kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek kredyty online bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy pko wymagania pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2013 szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw kredyt w banku ślaskim kredyt bank niskie oprocentowanie kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku umowa pożyczki raty umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem pożyczki getin bank kredyt bank fuzja z bz wbk kredyty bez bik tablica kredyty od 18lat na dowod olsztyn bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny jest przeznaczony na kredyt bez bik i krs kredyt konsolidacyjny 5000 pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe pożyczki na dowód giżycko kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor kredyt bank s a i oddział w warszawie kredyty bez bik dla zadluzonych kredyt bank w borku wlkp pożyczka prywatna dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny kredyt bank natolin pożyczki limanowa kredyt bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nauczycieli kredyt bank turek kontakt kredyty bez bik krd erif kredyt bank rypin marka kredyty opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem kredyt studencki pko bp opinie kredyt 160 tyś bez biku windykator kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank płock 1 maja kredyt bank kraków wielicka umowa pożyczki nie spłaca pożyczki pod zastaw środa wlkp kredyt bez biku w rybniku pożyczki chwilówki żary uczciwe pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank jastrzębie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki forma ustna polcredit pożyczki czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku bocian pożyczki katowice kontakt łatwy kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki od brata wzór kredyt bank suwałki kontakt kredyt bank wizja lokalna kredyt dla studenta bzwbk pożyczki prywatne kalisz pożyczki w wojsku kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi potrzebuję pożyczki łódź alior bank kredyt odnawialny opinie kredyt bank włodawa telefon spłata pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyt bank strzelce opolskie kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy kredyty bez bik cieszyn pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw poznań kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe przelicznik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia siedlce kredyt bank fiz księgowanie pożyczki zfśs udzielę pożyczki na procent warszawa umowa pożyczki jak zaksięgować kredyt na pit kredyt bank filia jastrowie kredyt bez bik 5000 pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty pożyczki w banku bgż bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt studencki pko wysokość kredyt bank kupiony przez kredyty pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki przez internet forum kody orange na kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe bez zgody współmałżonka bocian pożyczki inowrocław kredyt w pko bp kalkulator kredyt bez bik ge money bank udzielam pozyczek do reki kontakt slask pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego pozyczka dla firm bez oprocentowania dotacje białystok kredyt bank żytnia kredyt studencki poręczenie przez bank kredyty bankowe warunki kredyt samochodowy w banku millennium kredyt orange kod tanie pożyczki chwilówki kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange reklama pożyczki przez internet pożyczki gniezno pożyczki żagiel oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokata z premią 6 5 kredyt bank średni kurs walut pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bez bik i krd płock kredyt bank w mińsku mazowieckim bocian pożyczki ilawa pożyczki kętrzyn udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 jakie jest opracowanie dla pożyczki pod konto w pko bocian pożyczki numer tel kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola pozyczki w pko

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad