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gumtree pożyczki prywatne lębork konto pożyczki otrzymane kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku kredyt bank 3 maja rzeszów pożyczki dębica szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź kredyt bez bik piła kredyt bank gdansk kartuska pożyczki warszawa karta kredytowa deutsche a bik najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont pożyczki do domu gdańsk pozyczki tczew kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko nowa pożyczka bez bik pożyczki bez bik do 1000 pożyczki chwilówki mińsk mazowiecki kredyty na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód pożyczki udzielone przez udziałowca pożyczki kieszonkowe kredyt obrotowy w getin banku kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt studencki lukas bank kredyt bank kapelanka kontakt kredyt gotówkowy przy umowie na czas określony kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt bank rakowicka kredyt bez bik na 10 lat kredyt bank polkowice praca pożyczki dziesiątka umowa pożyczki z wekslem kredyt bank w m1 kredyty chwilówki puławy kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania millenium najkorzystniejszy kredyt w banku kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank zaświadczenia żyrowanie pożyczki w pracy pozyczki siódemka ząbkowice okam pożyczki kredyt w banku pocztowym dla policjantów pożyczki ursynów jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk umowa pożyczki między rodziną wzór wzór umowy pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej kredyt bank godziny otwarcia sobota czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie kredyty konsolidacyjne wbk kredyty prywatne pod weksel pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum kredyt bank warszawa otwarty w sobotę pożyczki chwilówki wieluń kredyt bank lokaty 2011 bocian pożyczki goleniów kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne tarnów umowa o kredyt prosty wzór kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyty bez biku leszno kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników bank spółdzielczy alior bank kredyty gotówkowe kalkulator pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat kredyt gotówkowy online bez bik kontakt z para bankiem w rzeszowie udzieli pozyczli prywatny inwestor pozyczka pozyczki bez bik boleslawiec pożyczki dla jst udzielenie pożyczki a pcc pożyczki gotówkowe kluczbork pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pekao sa kredyt studencki wniosek kredyt bank polen pożyczki trzydziestki kredyty bez bik oddłużeniowe współpraca kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 kredyt bank lokata econstans podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pozyczki torun tablica kredyt bez biku dla zadłużonych chwilowki legnica jak wziasc kredyt pożyczki bez bik rawicz pożyczki dla zadłużonych w zus pożyczki udzielone przez polske skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów umorzenie pożyczki od rodziny odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki bocian wągrowiec kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza kredyt bank władysławowo pożyczki przez internet na dowód nr tel pożyczki bocian stargard szczeciński kontakt pożyczki bez poręczycieli bez bik via sms przedłużenie pożyczki wspólnik udziela pożyczki spółce pożyczki bez biku dla rolników błyskawiczne pożyczki przez internet pożyczki pożyczka na już pożyczki z pup pożyczki kredyt plus kredyt online w idea bank bocian pożyczki gniezno kredyt bank chmielna godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny z bik kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt banki grudziądz kredyty chwilówki parabank kredyt bank 3 marca 2001 kredyt samochodowy dla nowych firm kalkulator podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki kredyt w banku brodnickim kredyty chwilówki radom pożyczki społecznościowe forum pożyczki chwilówki koszalin kredyt odnawialny bez biku kredyty mieszkaniowe credit agricole umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki w domu klienta polkowice pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem pożyczki hybrydowe kredyt bank rozana kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt opinie dukat wawa pożyczki pożyczki na dowód złotów pożyczki nie z banku potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank lublin żagiel ul zana kredyt bez bik krotoszyn konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie abis szybkie pozycxki karty kredytowe pozabankowe gdansk pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt bank opole kontakt kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej pożyczki access umowa pożyczki od firmy zagranicznej umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna firma pożyczki albert alior bank kredyt 10000 kredyt samochodowy dla 20 latka pożyczki chwilówki bochnia kredyty w banku skok pożyczki pod zastaw bytom kredyt bank departament finansowania handlu kredyt studencki bank pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego szczecin kredyty pozabankowe bez bik przez internet pożyczki prywatne łódź mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana pozyczka pelikan jelenia gora kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie amber kredyt kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą arka pożyczki piła kredyt bank ruczaj kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe w kredyt banku bocian pożyczki opinia idea bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki płock online umowa pożyczki pieniędzy doc pożyczki online zyrafa pożyczki provident oprocentowanie kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt pożyczki bez bik 2012 pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice kredyt z banku kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź umorzenie pożyczki konsekwencje podatkowe kredyty chwilówki gorlice pożyczki atut formularz pożyczki ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice kredyty bez bik wikipedia kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kalkulator pożyczki tygodniowe elbląg lista placowek pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank kredyt bank bok pożyczki dfg kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt bank gryfice pożyczki na dowód toruń kredyty gotówkowe przez internet bez bik w ktorym banku brac kredyt kredyt bez biku w skoku kredyt bank praca warszawa pożyczki od osob prywatnych tychy odsetki karne umowa pożyczki kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne pod weksel wrocław pożyczki sł margonem pożyczki bez bik słupsk kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu najtańsze pożyczki online kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice kredyt w banku śląskim kredyt bez bik lubuskie pożyczki uam kredyt bank fundusze notowania kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń nfoś pożyczki kredyt bank poznan krauthofera kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia windykacja pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki pozabankowe wałbrzych kredyt studencki w pko opinie kredyt bank ix oddział w warszawie kredyt z orange jaki numer szybkie pożyczki bochnia kredyt bank w białymstoku godziny otwarcia pożyczki płock na dowód alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki dla początkujących firm kredyt bank radomsko telefon w ktorym banku wziasc kredyt umowa pożyczki wraz z poręczeniem prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk kredyt cetelem bank kredyty mieszkaniowe konsolidacyjne kredyt bankowy bez umowy kredyt getin bank na pit kredyt szybki bez bik i krd przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości 2013 kredyt pozabankowy na firmę w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie kredyty w pko opinie jaki kredyt samochodowy forum niezwrócenie pożyczki kronos pożyczki tychy kredyt obrotowy w idea bank opinie pożyczki długoterminowe online kredyt bank środa śląska kontakt db kredyt bez biku kredyt na dowód bez bik przez internet kredyt bankowy lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych pożyczki gotówkowe sezam oleśnica umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych pożyczki 100 online kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej pożyczki chwilówki pabianice kredyt bank chełm tel prywatne pożyczki pod weksel warszawa amber kredyt kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik santander norwegia kredyty kredyty chwilówki przemyśl kredyt bez bik szamotuły pożyczki prywatne świętokrzyskie kredyt bank tychy pożyczki alternatywne takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń pożyczki międzyrzecz podporządkowanie pożyczki pożyczki gold kredyty w pko bp sa kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb provident pożyczki online pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz kredyt bank świecie kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym firma żyrafa pożyczki pożyczka dla skok pożyczki pod zastaw lubelskie wycena pożyczki w walucie obcej na dzień bilansowy pozyczka na dowod bez biku w wieku 18 lat kredyt bank kupiony pożyczki janosik pożyczki w domu płock pożyczki chwilówki bielsko kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska bezpłatne pożyczki chwilówki jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki pożyczki chełmno kredyt bank kanały dystrybucji szybkie pożyczki bochnia kredyt chwilówka kluczbork umowa pożyczki charakterystyka kredyt bank lokaty walutowe porównanie pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki wymagania kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości nieruchomości prywatne pożyczki kościan pożyczki dla 18 latków kredyty bez bik sochaczew ranking banków kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bez bik w banku spółdzielczym

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad