kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyt chwilówka krakow justyna liszka pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd pożyczki kalkulator rat kredyt bank ustka kredyt bank warszawa praca pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki bez biku i komornika pożyczki chwilówki artykuł partner pożyczki opinie kredyt bank wizja lokalna kredyt mieszkaniowy wypowiedzenie umowy kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim kredyt bank prabuty pożyczki decyzja online egzekwowanie pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty inowrocław spłata pożyczki w amber gold kredyt bank zmiany pozyczki domowe kredyt bank maestro kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki chwilówki gostyń pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu pożyczki chwilówki bez bik bocian pożyczki wzór umowy umowa pożyczki bezprocentowej kredyty chwilowka sosnowiec szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pożyczki bez bik małopolska kredyt bank w sieradzu kredyty chwilówki system partner panel logowania pożyczki kronos zawiercie pożyczki chwilówki w kielcach prodomo pożyczki opinie deklaracja od pożyczki kredyt bank w luboniu godziny otwarcia prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań pozyczki bez krd i bik tczew abis pozyczka głogów kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn optima pożyczki lublin abis pożyczki dla każdego opinie bocian pozyczki grojec kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd katowice kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt mini pożyczki bez bik umorzenie pożyczki pozew potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki poręczyciel kredyty bez bik jelenia góra pożyczki pozabankowe piła kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku umowa pożyczki w jednoosobowej spółce na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu zmiana oprocentowania pożyczki kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank oddział ursynów kredyt bank wymiana walut kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pożyczki gotówkowe w santander kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank relacje inwestorskie pożyczki prywatne gdzie kredyt bank z bzwbk pożyczki na sam dowód pożyczki toruń pożyczki na dowód ruda śląska allekasa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla samorządów pożyczki dla rencistów wrocław kredyt bank pl kursy walut pożyczki chwilówki nowy tomyśl kredyt w banku bez pracy podatek od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny renta socjalna kredyt bank żniwna poznań bocian pożyczki i podobne kredyt bank rawicz ul sarnowska umowa pożyczki pit umowa pożyczki zawarta w dniu kredyty bez bik opinie kredyty przez internet bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej kredyt konsolidacyjny w pnb paribas kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik jaki bank wybrac kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych za granica kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 pod jaki numer kredyt do orange podatek od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami pożyczki gross skarabeusz pożyczki podkarpacie pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej jaworzno kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe kredyt gotówkowy eurobank reklama pożyczki provident przez internet skarabeusz pożyczki kalisz umowa pożyczki od siostry bocian pożyczki tarnów kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie podatek dochodowy od nieoprocentowanej pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw swarzędz kredyty mieszkaniowe millenium kalkulator plus kasa pożyczki rafał nieckula pożyczki kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 rok kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt bank tarnów telefon kredyt bank oddział łódź kościuszki kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie progresja pożyczki pożyczki dla osób fizycznych pożyczka bez infomonitora pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyt bank zamość kontakt pożyczki w uk dla polaków kredyty bez biku wloclawek kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik piła kredyty bez biku piła fałszywa umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu chwilówki stargard kredyty i pożyczki dla gmin przedawnienie pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyt na dowod olawa ulica pożyczki limanowa wzór umowy pożyczki gotówki umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki kredyt bank nowy targ szybkie pożyczki bez bik warszawa pożyczki tarnów kredyt bank 25 pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt bank białystok radzymińska kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 pożyczki bocian w kaliszu symulacja kredytu w banku wbk udzielić pożyczki po angielsku banki udzielajace kredyty bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewu kredyt bank ostróda kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujacych za granica kredyt bank sa piła prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór kredyt na remont mieszkania kalkulator pko kredyt bank krosno obliczenie spłaty pożyczki bank pko pozyczka na dowod bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt mieszkaniowy bps pożyczki gotówkowe na 10 lat odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej pożyczki chwilówki będzin kredyty pozabankowe gliwice alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny ranking banków kredyt obrotowy pożyczka tax care dla osob prywatnych w którym banku najtańszy kredyt pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin pożyczki online z bikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa o pracę na czas określony wzory umów pożyczki idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy kredyty pozabankowe bez bik siedlce adresy i nr tel kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst pożyczki bocian cieszyn numer kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 procent kredyt bank oferta kont kredyt orange 5 zl kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety kredyt bankowy jako źródło kapitału obcego kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia kredyt bank piotrków armii krajowej kredyt bez zaświadczenia o dochodach forum umowa pożyczki w euro ranking banków kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty bez biku gdynia umowa pożyczki między firmami kredyt bank plock tel kredyt bank wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online pożyczki na świeta kredyt bank kartuska 5 gdańsk kredyty chwilówki chrzanów praca pożyczki pozabankowe gorlice pożyczki żyrafa przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pewne pożyczki dla każdego kredyt bank w pszowie pozyczki od reki w ostrolece kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego pożyczki na wysoki procent gdzie uzyskac kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej gofin kredyt bez bik co to jest kredyt kupiecki w banku pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt bank włodawa kredyt bank karta do bankomatu kredyt w banku santander kredyt bank w tarnowie kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie rat kredyty bez bik i krd slask skarabeusz pozyczki zamość kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa kredyt bez biku bielsko biala lendon pożyczki opinie kredyty bankowe rodzaje kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank zagiel adres kredyt bank 2012 dobre pożyczki bez biku kredyt pozabankowy bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank opinie przewalutowanie pożyczki bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami prywatnymi kredyt bank nadarzyn kredyty chwilówki piekary kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk pożyczki ing umowa pożyczki pieniężnej dla spółki pożyczki w banku pekao sa kredyt bank wyliczenie raty kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki infinity kredyt bank praktyki opinie z banku wzięto kredyt w wysokości 2000 zł bezpieczny kredyt bez bik forum pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki bocian nowy tomyśl kredyt bank litwa kredyt bank radzymińska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica kredyty konsolidacyjne prywatne kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty komornicy alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki bez bik wrocław mikropożyczki 2013 kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk kredyt bank dubois białystok kredyt bank pakiet zdobywcy gdzie kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór czy od pożyczki trzeba zapłacić podatek kredyt bez bik ostróda kredyt samochodowy get in bank czy warto brać kredyt studencki forum najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty bez bik krd gdansk wrzeszcz ul mickiewicza pożyczki bez bik na dowód pożyczki w warszawie kredyt bank lokata terminowa wydawnictwo zaciągnęło kredyt w banku na druk kredyt bank polen euromax pożyczki kredyt samochodowy ranking luty 2014 kruk pożyczki gotówkowe czy od pożyczki z banku płaci się podatek kredyt bank aktualności pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min kredyty bankowe z komornikiem kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bank centrum restrukturyzacji i windykacji czy w paribas kredyt jest bez bik pożyczki chwilówki olkusz kredyt samochodowy dla nowej firmy pkobp kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki w all money pożyczki bez bik krosno pko pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim db kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd kredyt studencki warunki spłaty kredyt bank chuck norris kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala best partner pożyczki jaki kredyt samochodowy forum umowa spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty kredyt bez bik w 5 minut umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a prawną kredyt bank wypowiedzenie rachunku wykop pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez pracy kredyt mieszkaniowy w chf kalkulator w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt kredyt bez bik świebodzin kredyt bank raty żagiel wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa kredyty chwilówki złotów podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyt bank a wbk kredyty bez bik chrzanów feniks pożyczki opinie kredyt internetowy bez biku kredyt bank nadarzyn kredyty bez bik i krd katowice optima pożyczki na konto pozyczka bez sprawdzania pożyczki dla firm poznań kredyt studencki jakie banki 2012 udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi pożyczki bez bik jarosław kredyt konsolidacyjny najkorzystniejszy pożyczki przez internet dla firmy pożyczki pozabankowa kredyty chwilówki optima pożyczki pozabankowe gniezno kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 wyliczenie pożyczki kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen kredyty w bilansie banku kredyt bez biku kraków kredyt w banku na samochód kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2013 prywatne pożyczki pod weksel 2013 bezzwrotne pożyczki dla policjantów kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millenium kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph pożyczki w 15 min bez bik wydanie pożyczki wartość bilansowa pożyczki kredyt bank w grodzisku maz pożyczki na dowód zielona góra pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik bocian pożyczki opinie pracowników umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs 2012 pożyczki na pesel pożyczki na dowód śrem kredyt 3x33 w santander consumer bank w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki na samochód bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw ruchomości promesa udzielenia pożyczki wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy minimalny wkład własny kredyt pozabankowy śląsk pozyczki w domu klienta chwilowki poznan pożyczki środa wlkp pożyczki gotówkowe bank kredyt obrotowy w idea banku kredyt bank bialystok zwyciestwa kredyt w banku polskim szybki kredyt online bez biku kredyt orange nr umowa pożyczki charakter pko bp sa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty bez bik wloclawek kredyt bank w krynicy udziele pozyczki w bydgoszczy kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów prestiż pożyczki kredyty chwilówki we wrześni prymus pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki od brata umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pko bp wrocław kredyt studencki umowa pożyczki pięniędzy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 kredyty chwilowki opole umowa pożyczki pieniędzy chomikuj pożyczki firmowe bez bik wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości marka paslek pozyczki pozabankowe kredyty na mieszkanie pożyczki pod zastaw 24h lombard jagiellońska 11 kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank darmowe konto kredyty chwilówki głogów pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki praca kredyt bank cena akcji pożyczki kalkulator premium pożyczki opinie szybkie mikropożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć kredyt bank wrocławska warszawa domowa pożyczka bocian tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 pożyczki ranking banków umowa pożyczki bez formy pisemnej kredyt studencki pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt samochodowy dla młodych kredyt bank długa kraków pożyczka w domu klienta najtańszy kredyt bankowy firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik pożyczki prywatne z zagranicy kredyt bank złotów odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca księgowanie kredyt bank lodz pilsudskiego kredyt bank lublin godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyty chwilówki bytom ul jagiellońska kredyt bez bik i krd poznań pożyczki pyrzyce kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank promesa pożyczki wzór umorzenie pożyczki a składki zus kredyt samochodowy dla ludzi w bik pozyczka bez bik z obsluga w domu warszawa kredyt bank płock kolegialna telefon pożyczki w domu klienta lubin kredyty bez bik w lodzi kredyt w banku szwajcarskim kredyt bank katowice uniwersytecka godziny otwarcia restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok stefczyka księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi pożyczki 30 tys jaki druk pcc od umowy pożyczki kredyt prowizja banku kredyt konsolidacyjny tłumaczenie pożyczki bocian opinie umowa pożyczki druk pożyczki z inicjatywy jeremie kredyt bank groupon odmowa pożyczki pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza 55b pożyczki chwilówki nakło kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko kredyt bank lezajsk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm kredyt getin bank opinie otrzymanie pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc kredyty pozabankowe bez biku pozyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik online prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyty bez bik ostrow wlkp niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziny bocian pożyczki wejherowo pożyczki udzielę pożyczki kapitałowe pożyczki prywatne 2012 pożyczki wałbrzych na umowe zlecenie slupsk czy latwo dostac auto na kredyt z komisu najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2012 pożyczki gotówkowe dla pracujących za granicą oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm pomocne pożyczki opinie kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kredyty samochodowe ing opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat pożyczki chwilówki skok stefczyka kredyt bank wbk pwr pożyczki warunki pożyczki w providencie pożyczki bez banku bocian pożyczki ilawa pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie kredyt banku infolinia pożyczki bociana pożyczki łapy mikropożyczki dla firm 2013 fast pożyczki kwota pożyczki angielski pożyczki chwilówki forum kredyt bank kasprzaka godziny otwarcia bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomści w tarnobrzegu nisko oprocentowane pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki wodzisław śląski umowa pożyczki historia kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 kredyt bank placówki godziny otwarcia kredyt banku pocztowego proste pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyt bank sa kontakt pożyczki bez bik i big kredyt bank wloclawek plac wolnosci kredyt bank pdf kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany kredyt bank iii oddział poznań kredyt bank suwałki telefon pożyczki od osób prywatnych lods udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki spółce bocian pożyczki chojnice

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad