pozyczka do domu bez bik kredyty bez biku bytom kredyty pozabankowe bez bik w poznaniu pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście kredyty mieszkaniowe 2008 w jakim banku wziąć kredyt forum kredyt chwilówki praca opinie pozyczki prywatne jele gora kredyt bank prabuty kontakt kredyt bank opłaty za przelew kredyt bank kielce kontakt kredyt bez bik kłodzko kredyty w getin banku pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki ostrołęka kredyt chwilowka kredyt bank iphone kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku najlepiej kredyty chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyt bocian pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz kredyt przez internet bez biku bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nauczycieli pożyczki bez bik ostrołęka kredyty chwilówki system partner kredyt bank kapelanka godziny otwarcia przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank koszt kredyt on line pozabankowy kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie ofert udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi księgowanie pożyczki domowe na dowód sandomierz przewalutowanie pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa czynne w sobote kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód pożyczki bez bik koszalin ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa pożyczki oddłużeniowe z komornikiem kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko oprocentowanie kredytu w banku śląskim umorzenie pożyczki w wpf kredyt bank wolska czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest kredytem konsumenckim kredyty chwilówki wymagania kredyty bez bik gdynia kredyt bank pultusk pozyczki dla beezrobotnych kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik alior sync kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator opodatkowanie pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki 10000 pożyczka 3 lata brak zdolności kredytowej kredyty bez bik w szczecinie kredyt bez bik chojnice kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście kredyt bank radom kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe lodz kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank kolo kredyt bank złoto kredyty chwilówki łodź kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie forum kredyty bez bik mikołów kredyt bank poznań oddziały kredyt bank ząbki pożyczki podobne do providenta warszawa kredyt bank poznań oddziały bankowy kredyt samochodowy kwituję odbiór pożyczki pożyczki krapkowice umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem kredyt bank olsztynek godziny otwarcia pożyczki bolesławiec kredyty bez biku szczecin kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa potrącenie z wynagrodzenia pożyczki pożyczki bez bik warszawa pożyczki bez krd na dowód kredyt bez bik do 25 tys czy kredyt konsolidacyjny można skonsolidować umowa pożyczki działalność gospodarcza pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk maz pożyczki polska różne polska usługi kredyt m1 pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent zgierz pożyczki kolno pożyczki bez biku w lublinie kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ kredyt mieszkaniowy belgia kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik pożyczki dla nastolatków w jakim banku pozyczka bik pożyczki start up kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski kredyt bank łuków praca kredyt bank jakie oprocentowanie kredyt bank lipowa 4 pożyczki w domu częstochowa kredyt na orange jaki numer kredyty bankowe praktyczny poradnik klienta kredyt na mieszkanie oferty banków kredyt bank gwarancja kredyt studencki bank pocztowy pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd online umowa pożyczki do druku banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom kredyt bank warszawa marki bank pko sa kredyt kalkulator kredyty bez bik na pit pko pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych przez internet pożyczki w 24h oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki w uk kredyt konsolidacyjny bank spółdzielczy czas oczekiwania na kredyt w credit agricole umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu śląsk kredyt bank wbk umowa pożyczki pisemna tarnobrzegocian pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe rzeszów bartosz ratajczak pożyczki kredyt bank kasprzaka siódemka kredyty bielsko biała opinie getin bank kredyt jakie oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit kredyty i pożyczki ściąga kredyty dlugoterminowe bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki bocian lublin adres i nr tel kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt pożyczki krd uczciwe pożyczki prywatne prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole pożyczki poznań gumtree próba wyłudzenia pożyczki kredyt bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank brodnica pożyczka chorzów pożyczki provident opinie umowa pożyczki podstawowe obowiązki stron kredyt w getin bank opinie pożyczki w domu klienta gdynia bocian pożyczki gorzów kredyt konsolidacyjny 200 tys kredyty bez bik puławy umowa pożyczki z poddaniem się egzekucji pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet bocian kredyt bank szczecin matejki telefon kredyt bank w nowej hucie kredyt w euro lista banków umowa pożyczki do spółki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online pożyczki prywatne lubuskie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc kredyty bez bik konin kredyty chwilówki co sądzicie wymagania kredytowe barclays udzielenie pożyczki ang pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewania grosza kredyt bank radomsko telefon pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski mikropożyczki kraków kredyt bank w pile kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank pocztowy wzór umowy udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki kto płaci pcc wyłudzenia kredytów tarnowskie góry umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki a pcc pożyczki od rodziny i znajomych kredyt bank w wałczu kredyty chwilówki na dowód wrocław do jakiego wieku kredyt w banku kredyt bank gdansk noskowskiego przejęcie kredyt banku przez santander w jakim banku wziasc kredyt kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyty bez bik lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy 70 tys kredyty chwilówki trójmiasto ing pożyczka samochodowa umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy pożyczka bez sprawdzania w krd i bik niespłacanie pożyczki w providencie kredyt bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór kredyty bez bik w lesznie szybki kredyt w jakim banku orange kredyt 5 zł kredyt bank sprzedaż santander umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pdf kredyt bank bric pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów pożyczki bez bik od 19 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw kredyt bank lodz zgierska pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw eurocent pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie ofert kredyt bank wołomin telefon pożyczki na dowód zabrze kredyty chwilówka częstochowa formularz pożyczki kredyty chwilówki praca bytom kredyt bank kurs akcji częstochowa pożyczki bez bik udzielenie pożyczki ang kredyt bank call center forum umowa pożyczki wzór darmowy kredyt bezzwrotny idea bank opinie umowa pożyczki odsetki podatek kalkulator rat kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim pożyczki na własną działalność pożyczki otrzymane pożyczki społecznościowe a podatek pożyczki pod zastaw cieszyn bocian pożyczki kraków kredyt studencki pko wymagania kredyty bez bik jastrzebie pożyczki bez bik mińsk mazowiecki szybkie pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki gotówkowe comperia pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd umowa pożyczki pcc wzór kredyt bank łódz piotrkowska wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie pożyczki bez bik jastrzębie zdrój kredyt mieszkaniowy polbank kalkulator pożyczki między najbliższymi czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki bocian na dowód kredyt bank aukcje poleasingowe kredyt bank warszawa ul kondratowicza pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator pożyczka bez big kraków pożyczki między ludźmi kredyt bank kalwaryjska kredyt chwilówka wrocław ul strzegomska kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny umowa pożyczki 500 zł umowa pożyczki żyrant kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku wzór umowy pożyczki z pracownikiem pożyczki chwilówki online 24h szybkie pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bank nr konta bocian pożyczki gorzów wlkp pożyczki między rodzeństwem pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice umowa pożyczki zastaw wzór kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia pożyczki z funduszu jeremie kredyt bank lokata negocjowana pożyczki gotówkowe na 10 lat kredyt bank oddział w toruniu activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu szybkie pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank ix oddział w warszawie pożyczki pod zastaw pkd umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej prywatne pożyczki kościan umowa pożyczki bez potwierdzenia odbioru kwoty chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów kredyt online w idea bank pożyczki do 12 miesięcy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej 2013 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia marki pożyczki bez bik getin bank koszty odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki bocian chełmno oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia pożyczki infinite udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu pożyczki bez bik kutno pożyczki polskiej kredyt bank warszawa v oddział w jakim banku najlatwiej dostac kredyt bez bik pożyczki oława banki udzielające kredytu bez bik pożyczki bez bik 25000 udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki pod zastaw starachowice gdańsk pożyczki prywatne pożyczki chwilówki online bez bik kredyt w banku za granicą kredyt bank lubin godziny pracy kredyt bank legnicka wrocław kredyt pocztowy na dowód pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd konwersja pożyczki od udziałowca na kapitał zapasowy pozyczka z komornikiem numery telefonu kredyt chwilówka jakie oprocentowanie pcc od pożyczki od firmy pożyczki na dłuższy okres pożyczki od prywatnych osób kredyt w banku pocztowym dla policjantów kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyt bank krasnik kredyt bankowy bez krd kredyt bank został sprzedany zawieszenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyty bez biku gliwice pożyczki na dowód gorlice kredyt bankowy a zamówienia publiczne kredyty chwilowki z dojazdem do domu kredyt bez bik w krakowie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik wrocław promocja pożyczki kredyt bankowy po rozwodzie kredyt pozabankowy pod weksel bocian pożyczki biała podlaska szablon umowy pożyczki chwilówki kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyt bank centrala lublin kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat kredyt bank raszyn godz otwarcia pożyczki dla firm jeremie umowa pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu kredyt bank niemcewicza pożyczki lombard kredyt bank biłgoraj kredyt bank lokata negocjowana pożyczki gotówkowe świdnica pożyczki bez bik żyrardów kredyty bez bik gliwice kredyt bank forum klientów kredyt w banku nordea opinie pożyczki pod zastaw kielce otwock pozyczki chwilowki pożyczki na dowód gdańsk kredyt bank stargard godziny otwarcia alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyt bankowy rodzina na swoim kredyt gotówkowy bez bik opole kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt kredyt bank właściciel kod na kredyt w sieci orange kredyty bez biku i krd na sam dowów w kielcach pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź pro domo pożyczki kołobrzeg kredyt bank w koszalinie kredyt bankowy bez zaświadczeń pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa wola kredyt bank jastrzębia góra kredyt bank sprzedaż dewiz pożyczki w 15 minut na koncie amigo pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska abis pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie 2013 kredyt bank kupon 6 kredyt bank janów lubelski kontakt pożyczki brzesko oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach kalkulator kredyt studencki pko zakończenie studiów umowa pożyczki odsetki ustawowe kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe koszt kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie trudny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny z zabezpieczeniem kredyt bank mokotów kredyt samochodowy bre bank w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochod pozyczka online dla bezrobotnych pożyczki chwiłowki pozyczki na nowa firme kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza 55b kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas pożyczki chwilówki wąbrzeźno kredyt bez historii bik pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyt bank łódź ketlinga godziny otwarcia kredyt bank foksal godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku slaskim kredyty chwilówki za darmo pozyczki pozabankowe kasa do reki kredyt na auto bez bik allegro przelewy w kredyt banku godziny kredyt bez bik dla każdego bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek pożyczki bank śląski pożyczki na spłatę komornika ltwe kredyty poznan kredyty chwilówki tychy ksiegowanie pożyczki od wspólnika uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej kredyt w banku a rozwód pożyczki pozabankowe gliwice trudny kredyt konsolidacyjny poręczenie pożyczki krzyżówka kredyt technologiczny banki getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyt bez bik w pko kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty pożyczki dla górników kredyt w banku warunki pożyczki prywatne oszuści getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator umowa o udzielenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najtaniej kredyty chwilówki stargard kredyt bank rybnik kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe podlaskie umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi pożyczki całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank warszawa kabaty czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie pożyczki skok wesoła kredyt bank punkty pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód osobisty kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia podatek od umowy pożyczki pieniędzy 2012 marka kredyty opinie świdwin kredyty wictoria forum kredyt bankowy a koszty uzyskania przychodu alior bank kredyt firmowy kredyty w millenium bank pożyczki bez bik dla rolników ducato pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyty hipoteczne lodz pod zastaw domu kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja konsolidacja kredytów w wbk kredyt bank ruda śląska pozyczka kredyt bez bik krd bocian pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik pożyczki bez podatku podatek ubezpieczenie kredytu w fm banku kredyt bank warszawa grojecka pożyczki transfer kredyt studencki banki kredyt bank blawatna umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracodawcą a pracownikiem praca dodatkowa rozdawanie pozyczek pomorskie pożyczki z inicjatywy jeremie skarabeusz pożyczki bełchatów kredyt w provident utrata pracy szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczka bez big kraków kredyt bank centrala lublin umowa pożyczki świadek bocian pożyczki praca kierownik pożyczki przeterminowane kredyt bank wyplaty z bankomatu pawinski krzysztof warszawa pozyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodów banki kredyt bez bik pożyczki w pracy kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik na 10 lat kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 kredyt w koncie credit agricole jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt na start firmy bez bik podatek pcc od pożyczki między firmami kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyt chwilówka porównanie pożyczki od ludzi pożyczki chwilówki oleśnica skarabeusz pozyczki zamość pożyczki na procent pożyczki 50000 kredyt konsolidacyjny pko pożyczki jarosław kredyty bez bik pszczyna kredyt bank gotówka kody do orange na kredyt pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego kredyt bank kapelanka godziny pożyczki fines kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa kredyt bank z bzwbk kredyt bank zielona góra godziny otwarcia pozyczka bez bik 5000 pożyczki aasa kredyt samochodowy dominet bank warunki pożyczki w skoku stefczyka bocian pożyczki wniosek online pożyczka bez biku kielce

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad