umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny pożyczki prywatne łódż pożyczki nowa ruda meritum bank kredyt online kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka kredyt konsolidacyjny zła historia bik kredyt bank nowa europa pozyczka online krotkoterminowa dla zadluzonych pożyczki społecznościowe w polsce szybkie pożyczki bankowe kredyt bez bik credit agricole pożyczki chwilówki starachowice objawy pożyczki kredyt studencki bz wbk 2012 szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod pozyczki bez dochodu prywatne firmy pozyczkowe gliwice skarbiec pożyczki infolinia odsetki od pożyczki koszt podatkowy pożyczki chwilówki chełmno pozyczki pod zastaw auta warszawa połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą kredyty mieszkaniowe tanie bank bgż kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wzór raiffeisen bank kredyt samochodowy wzór umowy opodatkowanie pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pożyczki pod zastaw sochaczew kredyt bez bik w getin banku kredyty chwilówki bez opłat kredyty konsolidacyjne opole umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku pożyczki online w 15 minut kalisz skarabeusz pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki bez bik na zakup mieszkania jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa kredyt w banku na dowod ranking pożyczki przez internet druk umowy pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank pozew zbiorowy kredyt bank sobota kasprzaka weksel pożyczki wzór ing czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod pożyczki oszuści umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat bocian pożyczki gorzów pożyczki gotówkowe telefon kredyt bank w suszu pożyczki kredyty dla rolników gdzie dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank awaria systemu kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu pcc czy vat od pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ul grójecka 186 optima pożyczki przez internet pożyczki chwilówki bez pracy kredyty chwilówki uokik kredyt z banku centralnego karty kredytowe dla osob z komornikiem kredyt bank lublin zana 39 żyrafa pożyczki opinie kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny aktywna umowa pożyczki kredyty bez bik forum kredyty bez biku piła pożyczki bez bik zakopane pożyczki na dowód włocławek kredyt bank oddział w bełchatowie kredyt preferencyjny bank oprocentowanie kredytu obrotowego idea bank kredyty chwilówki szczecin wyzwolenia kredyt bankowy raty pożyczki pozabankowe mikołów pożyczki pozabankowe katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz pożyczki chełm pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet pożyczki radom kredyt konsumpcyjny eurobank kredyty mieszkaniowe od nowego roku kredyt bank poznan morawskiego wszystkie pożyczki internetowe kredyt bank morąg umowa podporządkowania pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank szybkie pożyczki bez bik szczecin pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe szybkie kredyty przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe głogów pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewania grosza standardowa umowa pożyczki provident pożyczki online fines pożyczki opinie kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa pożyczki namysłów kredyt bank w zyrardowie kredyt z komornikiem prywatny pożyczki pozabankowe w warszawie kredyt przez internet bez biku 3000zl ing bank śląski kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank 2012 kredyt bank bankomat bez prowizji pożyczki w kasie stefczyka kredyt bank rzecznik prasowy pożyczki gotówkowe białystok kredyt chwilowki rzeszow umowa pożyczki przelew pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz na dowód pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki złe kredyty w działalności banków kredyt bank centrala kontakt szybkie pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu kredyt dla bezrobotnych na dowód pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pko przelew własny w kredyt banku cesja wierzytelności z umowy pożyczki kredyty bez biku na oswiadczenie umowa pożyczki przelewem wzór pożyczki prywatne zdunska wolą umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra pożyczka 25000 kokos kredyt gotówkowy getin bank forum pożyczki online lista kredyt mieszkaniowy w ing forum szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty bez biku bytom kredyt bank piła nowa siedziba umowa pożyczki od spółki dla wspólnika pożyczki bez biku w poznaniu pożyczki online chwilówki bank pko sa kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki jaki procent kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie prywatna pożyczka do ręki bez dochodu warszawa kredyt w banku pekao kredyt bez bik na budowe pożyczki pod zastaw umowa rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt w banku łąckim getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki prywatne ciechanów najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik do 10000 kredyt bez biku bialystok kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska 50 kredyt bank sopot godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno korona pozyczki konin kredyt chwilówka praca forum bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki aviva kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód pożyczki bez bik płońsk kredyt bank rakowicka najtańsze pożyczki chwilówki bocian pożyczki rumia pożyczki w średniowieczu szybkie pożyczki do domu bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator wałbrzych pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez bik żory bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń umowa pożyczki sprawa cywilna kredyt samochodowy mbank forum kredyt na budowe domu w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank kasprzaka kontakt kredyt studencki w pekao kredyt bank program rabatowy pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie kredyt w pko bp opinie 2012 mikropożyczki bydgoszcz wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik jasło oblicz ratę pożyczki w pko bp medicover kredyt bank warszawa kredyty chwilówki kierownik regionalny pożyczki fines pożyczki udzielone księgowanie kredyt w uk na rok kredyt bez bik włocławek pożyczki lojalnościowe kredyt bank dąbrowa tarnowska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe wady i zalety kredyty w uk po polsku skok wesoła pożyczki bez bik kredyt odnawialny w getin banku kredyt bank w kępnie kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznan pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat pożyczki prywatne radomsko udziele szybkiej pozyczki na procent kredyt dla firm bez bik na oświadczenie szybkie pożyczki bez bik kalisz kredyt bank lipowa białystok godziny otwarcia kredyt bank raport roczny 2010 kredyt bez bik w toruniu kredyt w getin banku na oświadczenie kredyty bez bik pszczyna pożyczka pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank polaczenie pożyczki dla wszystkich szybki kredyt online bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku credit agricole euroloan pożyczki opinie udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel umowa pożyczki od brata kredyt chwilówki toruń szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt bank nowa karta czestochowa pozyczka pod zastaw auta krecik pożyczki opinie pozyczki w domu slimak i inne bydgoszcz kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska 25 pożyczki społecznościowe oferty bank pko bp kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys umowa pożyczki postępowanie upominawcze kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkladem wlasnym kalkulator getin bank online kredyty wypowiedzenie pożyczki pożyczki na dowód gorzów umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie warunki kredytu w credit agricole konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty do kapitału kredyt bank sa łomża szybkie pożyczki pleszew pożyczki biznesowe kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spoldzielczym korzystne pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki kolno pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie pożyczki chwilówki mława kredyt mieszkaniowy bez marży umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus bocian pożyczki koszalin pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław ul dworcowa kredyty bez bik swietochlowice kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łomża kredyt bank konto walutowe kredyty bez weryfikacji w biku kredyt bank kasprzaka kontakt pożyczki w instytucjach pozabankowych umowa pożyczki firmie pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów umowa pożyczki w prawie cywilnym kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredytowa druk udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław kredyty chwilówki piekary warunki otrzymania pożyczki w providencie kruk pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank jakie bankomaty bez prowizji kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki do spółki pozyczki do domu radomsko pożyczki pozabankowe długoterminowe poznań kredyt obrotowy w idea bank opinie wydanie pożyczki kredyt bank bric preferencyjny kredyt studencki w bz wbk kredyty chwilówki zduńska wola kredyt bank kondycja finansowa gwarant pożyczki bochnia kredyt na dowod numery telefonu olsztyn pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe w gdańsku kredyt dla studentów bzwbk kredyt bank wrocław legnicka godziny otwarcia pko kwidzyn kredyty studenckie pożyczki gdańsk grunwaldzka kredyt bank marża kredyty pozabankowe sosnowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny czym jest kredyty bankowe praktyczny poradnik klienta banki udzielajace kredyty bez bik pożyczki logo regulamin zfśs pożyczki mieszkaniowe kredyt bank pożyczka kalkulator co grozi za niespłacenie pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank sa adres siedziby kredyty chwilówki komisja nadzoru finansowego kredyt bank radzymińska białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy firma alior bank kredyt dla emerytów kredyt bank węgry idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń toruń fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej pożyczki rolowane szukam taniej pożyczki kredyt bank królewska 55 kraków kredyt konsumpcyjny bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo kredyt bankowy a kredyt kupiecki pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach gdynia łatwe pożyczki online kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy na działalność gospodarczą umowa pożyczki stowarzyszenie kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko marka pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki w 15 minut bez bik kredyt bank nowa dęba umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe pożyczki unijne dla małych firm dolnośląskie kredyt chwilówki głogów połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk pożyczki na weksel gdańsk pożyczki kórnik pożyczki na umowa zlecenie pozyczki chwilowki pod weksel w jaworznie kredyty chwilówki kołłątaja wrocław kredyty chwilówki nowa huta kredyt bank autodealing kredyt bez big krakow dobre pożyczki opinie pozyczka pod zastaw kielce forum pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank zoliborz preferencyjny kredyt studencki w bz wbk bocian pożyczki nysa pożyczki na dowód zielona góra bocian pozyczki grojec pożyczki pozabankowe katowice pożyczki chwilówki nowy tomyśl oddziały kredyt banku białystok kredyty chwilówki turek pożyczki gdańsk błyskawiczne pożyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pko sa pro domo pożyczki toruń kredyt dla pracujących w czechach kredyt bank sa w lublinie pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty pożyczki na weksel toruń pożyczki finan umowa pożyczki opłata skarbowa pożyczki społecznościowe ranking szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu kredyt bez bik kwidzyn pcc od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt bank warszawska 14 białystok pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód warszawa kredyt bank w siedlcach godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny czy się opłaca kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kraków kredyt bank cennik kredyt bank chełmno godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe irlandia kredyt bez biku na dowód kredyt bank monit kredyt bank piotrków trybunalski godziny otwarcia bank pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt samochodowy dla firmy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa wzory dokumentów pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta lublin wyłudzenie pożyczki kredyt chwilówka windykator sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki kredyt bank w swieciu pożyczki pod weksel poznań santander kupił kredyt bank 2012 szybki kredyt online bez bik kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu za granicą kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy bph kredyty konsolidacyjne oblicz rate pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyty chwilówki wodzisław śląski kredyt bank ciechanów telefon lombard pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki bez erif, kredyt bank oplata za prowadzenie konta pozyczki dla kazdego 48 kredyty pozabankowe cieszyn kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym forum pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego kredyt bankowy pasywa umowa przedwstępna pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki polska wschodnia symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bez weryfikacji w bik pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp forum pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu kredyt w gospodarce banku ile zarabiaja w kredyt banku pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji lublin ekspres kasa spłata pożyczki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kraków kredyty pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki do 10tys kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator provident ubezpieczenie pożyczki pożyczki przez internet na 60 dni kronos pozyczki piotrkow czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank czynny warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa kredyt online bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt samochodowy w getin bank opinie konsolidacja kredytu bz wbk kredyt bez bik dla firm kredyt chwilówka dla studenta pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyty sms bez bik kredyty chwilówki w pile pożyczki goleniów kredyty chwilowki krakow kalwaryjska pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt betgang pożyczki pożyczki bez bik pomorskie pozyczki od 19 lat dla zadluzonych online kredyty w getin bank opinie umowa pożyczki nie spłaca kredyt w ing bank śląski forum kredyt bank radom traugutta kredyt bank lipowa 4 kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kredyty mieszkaniowe money pożyczki online darmowe umowa pożyczki raty wzór abis szybkie pozyczki kredyt odnawialny w pekao sa pcc od pożyczki a koszty banknot pozyczki warszawa fines pożyczki pożyczki dla rolników kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła skarabeusz pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie pożyczki od ręki bez biku szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe poznań mikropożyczki ekonomia społeczna lukas bank kredyt online skok kujawiak pożyczki pożyczka na dowód w pro domo nowe miasto lubawskie bank pekao sa kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska pożyczki peer to peer kredyt bank elbląg godziny otwarcia niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us kredyt bank investor relations pożyczki chwilówki online bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank wolczanska kredyt bank szczecin matejki telefon pożyczki chwilówki polkowice kredyt bez bik 5 tys kredyt bank w sieradzu banknot pożyczki łódź pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego pozyczki bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt bank warszawa ul giełdowa 7 9 kredyty bez umowy bank pko pozyczka na dowod pożyczki od osób prywatnych opole umowa pożyczki realna czy konsensualna pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 pożyczki na dowód bez biku kredyt bank belchatow kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym kredyt bank augustów kontakt kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator getin bank kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus kredyty konsolidacyjne z zajęciem komorniczym warunki dostania pożyczki kredyt bank piła kredyt w banku oprocentowanie bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator ckg pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad