kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bph kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki bez bik i krd głogów kredyt bank warszawa śliska umowa pożyczki warunki umowa pożyczki stawka podatku pozyczka z dojazdem do domu ostrołęka chwiluwka kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę kredyt bank kielce pożyczki roczne kredyt w banku lukas eu2 pożyczki umowa pożyczki jaki podatek kredyt bank 3 oddział warszawa kredyt bank fundusze nieruchomości kredyty chwilówki ligota pożyczki gotówkowe z obsługą w domu banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie oferty prywatne pożyczki kościan mam długi potrzebuje pozyczki opole lubelskie szybki kredyt online bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko umowa zwrot pożyczki kredyty bez umowy szybkie pożyczki bytom kredyt bank depozyt przeniesienie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki przemyśl kredyt bank godziny otwarcia gdańsk pożyczki pod zastaw pruszków kredyt bank historia powstania tubielewicz pożyczki pro domo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie pozyczki w domu klienta poznan kredyt bank w zakopanem udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 wiarygodne pożyczki prywatne kredyt w fiat bank pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra gros pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki tczew kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt bank sa białystok ul warszawska umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej byłemu pracownikowi kredyt bank węgrów pożyczki gotówkowe vivus kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem przeterminowane pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online ewidencja kredytów w banku komercyjnym kredyt bank lokaty inwestycyjne kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca kredyty bez bik wejherowo kredyt bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki społecznościowe szczecin umowa pożyczki odnawialnej kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej pożyczki pod zastaw dla zadłużonych kredyt bez zus us pozyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych bez baz pożyczki gotówkowe w bankach kredyt samochodowy dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt bank otwarcie konta pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik do 10000 kredyt w getin noble bank pożyczki prywatne holandia pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 umowa pożyczki pracowniczej agerta holding pożyczki kredyt bank w swarzędzu w jakim banku wziąć kredyt optima pożyczki olsztyn kredyt getin bank kalkulator pożyczki myszków kredyty getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank czy wbk kredyt bank obsługa klienta pożyczki bez bik szamotuły kredyty bez bik wloclawek getin bank warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu umowa pożyczki z bankiem a pcc pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik big krd i erif kredyt bank wołomin godziny otwarcia pożyczki od osób prywatnych belchatow pod jaki numer bierze się kredyt w orange kredyty dla bezrobotnych na raty online udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki spółce umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a podatek pożyczki atut pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd kredyt bez bik i krd z komornikiem asper pożyczki kredyt bankowy w rachunkowości pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank księgowość elektroniczna kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego pożyczki prywatne podatek kredyt mieszkaniowy pierwsze mieszkanie pożyczki bez podatku podatek kredyt bank w szczytnie kredyty chwilówki kwidzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim do kiedy kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw ubezpieczenie kredytu w fm banku kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych bank pko sa kredyty opinie kredyty pozabankowe śląskie takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz pożyczki przemysl kredyt bez bik raty umowa pożyczki in blanco kredyt gotówkowy banku bph pozyczki posrednictwo warszawa bez dochodu kredyty chwilowki wloclawek kredyt w bilansie banku stanisław świder pożyczki nowy kredyt w domu kredyt bank piłsudskiego kredyt bank polna warszawa kredyt bank b stok szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez bik przez sms udzielone pożyczki aktywa jak otrzymac kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki bolesławiec kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach kredyt bez bik radomsko pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik pożyczki bez bik big pożyczki bez bik i krd wałbrzych potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pracownika umowa pożyczki wg kodeksu cywilnego mikropożyczki kraków kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc kredyt bank rachunki oszczędnościowe szybkie pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz kredyt bank piłsudskiego koszalin pożyczki pod zastaw złota szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych mbank pożyczki dla firm profi credit pożyczki przez internet cesja pożyczki pcc pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet pożyczki na dowód kalkulator tanie pożyczki częstochowa druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki pozabankowe kontakt telefoniczny kredyt w bos bank kredyt bank w kolobrzegu bocian pożyczki centrala kredyt bank pl powstańców warszawy kredyty mieszkaniowe warszawa przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe kołobrzeg otwock pozyczki chwilowki pożyczki do domu bydgoszcz chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice finan pożyczki wrocław pożyczki społecznościowe wrocław kredyt bank krs księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki w jst polska pozyczka dla bedacych w uk umowa pożyczki podatek 2013 gk kredyt banku sa pożyczki na dowód turek kredyt bank patriotów 150 bocian pożyczki bez bik pozyczki w domu klienta oprocentowanie pożyczki odnawialnej ing w którym banku najtańszy kredyt umowa pożyczki jaki podatek jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik kredyt bank sa iii oddział w warszawie umowa pożyczki ustna kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska kredyty bez biku toruń zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank pożyczki w domu klienta łódź pożyczki bez bik opole kredyty bankowe ksiazki walkiria pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski bip pożyczki formularz kredyt bank pożyczka kredyt bank bankomaty kraków pożyczki bez bik przez internet w 15 minut kredyt bank włocławek telefon pożyczki na dowód kredyty bez bik włocławek podanie o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pszczółka pożyczki opinie pozyczka prywatna chrzanow kredyt według prawa bankowego kredyt konsolidacyjny zasady kredyty konsolidacyjne warszawa kredyt bankowy korzyści wzór wniosku o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt chwilówka chojnice pozyczki od zaraz bez big i krd przez internet Łodz pozyczka w domu klienta kredyt bank kasprzaka telefon eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie nowe lokaty w kredyt banku kredyty pozabankowe bez bik siedlce adresy i nr tel oddziały kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt bank warszawa nowy świat pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin pożyczki pozabankowe duze kwoty kredyt bank tarnów kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem kredyt bank euronet kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie umowa o kredyt wypełniony wzór pozyczka na telefon wrzesnia okolice kredyt bank zadłużenie przeterminowane szybkie pożyczki tarnów kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank krosno dyrektor pożyczki chwilówki opinie kredyt bez bik częstochowa pożyczki pod zastaw swarzędz getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy szybki kredyt bez bik lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank placowki katowice kredyt bank 3 maja rzeszów pożyczki pod zastaw lombard tarnów pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów pod weksel kredyt w deutsche bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2013 bocian pożyczki kalkulator rat pożyczki citibank kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw kredyty chwilówki pomysł na biznes opinie o pszczułce kredyty kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow pożyczki bez bik bez sms kredyt w idea bank opinie kredyt studencki na preferencyjnych warunkach kredyt w banku eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opis umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyty mieszkaniowe białystok kredyty bez bik prywatne kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń warunki pożyczki rodzina na swoim pożyczki z pup rafał kania pożyczki wykop mariusz lipiński pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne w bs pożyczki pozabankowe jelenia góra pożyczki bez bik i krd do 10000 księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku kredyt bank oddziały w białymstoku szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pan stanisław wziął kredyt w banku pożyczki na święta bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy sprzedaż mieszkania pożyczki gostynin kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy ubezpieczenia optima pożyczki inowrocław toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie pożyczki 15 bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki w 24h pożyczki i kredyty kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki od firm prywatnych kredyty bez bik w olsztynie pro domo pożyczki szczecin kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym niespłacanie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt symulacja kredytu na kamienice kredyty chwilówki środa wlkp kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie banków pożyczki od udziałowca w bilansie pożyczki pod zastaw złota katowice kredyty chwilówki knurów kredyty w banku pocztowym forum kredyty bez bik zdunska wola cechy pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt na dowod olawa ulica pożyczki z anglii pożyczki gierka szukam pożyczki 2013 kredyt studencki pko pierwsza transza wydawnictwo zaciągnęło kredyt w banku na druk kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa partner pożyczki piła umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego umowa pożyczki wspólników kredyt bank w koninie udzielę pożyczki na procent kredyty w szkocji kredyt bank w polsce kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyt bank filie kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator 2014 kredyty w lukas bank kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granicą kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pozyczka jak provident bez big kredyt bank łódź ketlinga godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny do 200 tys pożyczki i darowizny w rodzinie pozyczki na dowód osobisty kredyt bank praca opinie kredyt bank w ząbkach kredyt bank numer rozliczeniowy kredyt bank kurs chf kredyt inwestycyjny w idea bank umowa pożyczki dla pracownika ze środków obrotowych oprocentowanie pożyczki w pko sa umowa pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt bank w toruniu godziny otwarcia pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator 2014 kredyt bank w koszalinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez pracy kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty kredyt bank forum pracowników kredyt studencki pko bp żyranci pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów kredyty bez bik oferty kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek pożyczki inwestycyjne kredyt bank lubin kontakt kredyt inwestycyjny w idea banku część pożyczki państwowej gdzie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt studencki pko legitymacja po terminie bocian pożyczki szczecin pożyczki chwilówki oława pożyczki chwilówki człuchów kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 pożyczki dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyt bank niedurnego tanie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz kredyt w banku śląskim opinie jak udzielić pożyczki rodzinie druk pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt bank oddział lubin kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki chwilówki warszawa jana pawła kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku opinie kredyt bez banku kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zatrudnieniu umorzenie pożyczki różnice kursowe szybkie pożyczki na dowód przez internet kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie kredyt bank lódź mikropożyczki 2014 umowa pożyczki forma pisemna pożyczki gumtree kredyty sms bez bik kredyt bank żagań pożyczki internet opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat dyskontowanie pożyczki duże pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa okęcie kredyt bank jana pawła wesoła kredyty bez biku kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy nadpłacanie kredyty samochodowe santander bank kredyt bank sa email kredyty bez bik gorzow wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking sezam pożyczki kępno pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej urząd skarbowy te pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej kredyt bank falenica jak wziąć kredyt w banku cel pożyczki jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki do 100 zł najszybsze pożyczki online pożyczki chwilówki dla zadłużonych pożyczki 1000 pozyczka wierzyciel kredyt konsolidacyjny przepisy kredyt bank w ostrołęce amortyzacja pożyczki excel pożyczki chwilówki bez bik łódź pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pko pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mazowieckie rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej kredyt bankowy millenium kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert banków kredyt bank oddział łódź kościuszki kredyt w banku brodnickim kredyty bez bik w banku umowa pożyczki spółki z o o kredyt bank karty visa kredyty lublin pożyczki prywatne zielona góra pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe warszawa pożyczki bez bik dlugoterminowe pożyczki pozabankowe tomaszów mazowiecki progresja pożyczki kredyt bank kontakt infolinia pożyczki dla zadłużonych radom darmowe pożyczki online pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów umowa pożyczki jakie pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank kredyt bez bik starachowice pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin bocian pożyczki nowa sól pożyczki pod zastaw chełm białystok pożyczki bez bik kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt bank myślenice kontakt pożyczki bez bik i krd zywiec zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw umowa pożyczki chwilówki skarabeusz pożyczki konin kredyt bank kraków kalwaryjska kredyt bank oddział kondratowicza kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja bocian pożyczki forum pracowników czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest oplacalny szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej pozyczka bez bik 5000 pożyczki bez bik trójmiasto kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm pożyczki prywatne forum o2 pożyczki prywatne biała podlaska pożyczki bez przelewu na konto pożyczki lublin umowa pożyczki druk darmowy optima pożyczki piła pożyczki prywatne kielce kredyty bankowe praca bezzwrotne pożyczki dla małych firm umowy pożyczki po angielsku kredyty chwilówki gredan pożyczki obligacyjne kredyt dla firm w getin banku pożyczki brzeg kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik pożyczki jeremie łódź prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku gryfice prywatne pozyczki nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko pożyczki prywatne na dowód kredyty mieszkaniowe banki kredyt bank praga północ pozyczka prywatna veksel dzierzoniow pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice pożyczki nowy sącz kredyt bank adres mailowy pożyczki bocian międzyrzecz kredyt bank ostrów wlkp szybkie pożyczki ostróda szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe poznań promocyjne pożyczki umowa pożyczki fiskus umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi a pcc w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie bank pekao sa departament kredytów trudnych umowa pożyczki druk darmowy getin bank wniosek o kredyt online pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad