kredyt bank bfg umowa pożyczki księgowanie pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd kredyt gotówkowy bank bph kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt samochodowy dla firm alior bank kredyt bank lublin windykacja adres pożyczki prywatne 2013 kredyt studencki anglia warunki deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt bank w legionowie kredyty do firm parabanki umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną pozyczka kredyt bez bik krd pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank koszt pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz pożyczki tuchola kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2013 ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki kartuzy pożyczki dla uczniów knf pożyczki kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyt pozyczka bez biku helios pożyczki kalkulator kredytu samochodowego alior bank kredyt samochodowy w ktorym banku pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt bank dlugie ogrody kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiej kwoty kredyty bez biku na oświadczenie i owód szczecin kredyt studencki banki pożyczki bez biku i z komornikiem asper pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki od obcokrajowca umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bez bik kielce przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zapasowy pozyczki w domu klienta pożyczki bez zaświadczeń jelenia góra pożyczki chwilówki tomaszów maz pożyczki księgowanie kredyt na oddłużenia szybkie kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt w pszczolce inowroclaw umowa pożyczki do 5000 pożyczki ebi wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt bez biku bielsko biala dobry kredyt kalisz pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy kredyt bank oswiecim pożyczki ogłoszenia kredyty chwilówki zwolnienia umowa pożyczki spółka cywilna pożyczki prywatne ciechanów kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec 3 maja kredyt bank bankomat euronet umowa pożyczki dla spółki osobowej umowa pożyczki strony kredyt bank sopot ul kościuszki pożyczki dla firm wrocław pożyczki gorzów wlkp 6 kredyt bez bik zywiec pożyczki udzielane przez osoby prywatne pożyczki chwilówki krosno odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki a przychód umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór kredyt bez biku grudziadz kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki emerytowi skarabeusz pożyczki podkarpacie przedmiot umowy pożyczki i kredytu kredyt chwilówka online kredyt bank wolska kredyt bank mt940 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kraków pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa pożyczki plan kont umowa pożyczki pod zastaw druk idea bank kredyt na start opinie potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe od ręki pożyczki chwilówki wonga pożyczki gotówkowe bgż kredyt w fiat bank umowa pożyczki pieniędzy do spółki kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego pozyczki krakow bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank lokaty 2012 kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kalkulator bocian pożyczki zduńska wola pozyczki na procent pila kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet pożyczki na lichwe szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 pożyczki dla zadłużonych w krd pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej umowa cesji pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki grójecka kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt bank zniżki kredyt bank w rawiczu kredyt bank głogów kredyt bez bik dla każdego jaki numer na kredyt w orange kredyt bank warszawa targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź kredyty konsolidacyjne bank pocztowy kredyt bank kb24 kredyt bankowy jako źródło kapitału obcego kredyt gotówkowy w santander kalkulator kredyt bank kredyt bez biku online pożyczki do 2000 zł kredyt bankowy a zamówienia publiczne kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca pozyczki gryfino pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bik pożyczki chwilówki wronki umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt pozabankowy 50000 eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny kontakt pożyczki wołów kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych udzielę pożyczki prywatnej poznań połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk kredyt bank opłata za kartę umowa pożyczki wzór word kredyty bankowe szyguła kredyty bez bik włocławek kredyt pozabankowy 3000 pożyczki gotówkowe poznań kredyty bez bik rybnik kredyt studencki bank spółdzielczy pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik rzeszów co to znaczy kredyt bez bik kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bgz pożyczki do domu szczecin kredyt chwilówka online kredyt bank lokaty dewizowe czy latwo dostac kredyt w credit agricole regulamin pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt bank iii oddział kraków szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza telefon pożyczki chwilówki gliwice pożyczki pozabankowe provident pożyczki chwilówki na dowód pożyczki bez biku wieluń kredyt w euro banki kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lubin kontakt alior bank kredyt na start pożyczki arimr kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie fałszywe pożyczki pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kredyt bank w krakowie kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyty bez biku wroclaw jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od wspólnika umowa pożyczki okres przedawnienia kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bank polski prywatne pożyczki inwestycyjne db kredyt deutsche bank pbc sa pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt chwilowki lubin kredyt bank w skierniewicach kredyt w banku pocztowym bez historii w bik przetarg kredyt bankowy bocian jakie wymagania kredytowe kredyt samochodowy dla firm mbank kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia kredyt na dowod w niemczech pożyczki milicz kredyt samochodowy bank tarnów umowa pożyczki gotówki druk ranking banków kredyty konsolidacyjne umowa pożyczki od osoby prywatnej wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe umorzenie pracownikowi pożyczki z zfśs kredyty chwilówki opinia pożyczki tarnów pożyczki z parabanków umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident umowa pożyczki 500 zł bocian pożyczki śrem praca kredyt pozabankowy inowrocław kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie kontakt kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego bank pocztowy kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt bank międzyzdroje pro bono pożyczki kupon 1 kredyt bank pożyczki podobne do żyrafy pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem warszawa 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny czas oczekiwania wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie pożyczki bez bik bochnia kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza umowa pożyczki odsetki kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa kredyt bank opole godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa poznań largo pożyczki szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna wzór kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego umorzenie pożyczki a podatek kredyt bank duplikat karty nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników kredyt samochodowy dla młodych lisiak przemysław pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd gorzów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank warszawa ken wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez bank pożyczki chwilówki rawicz szybkie pożyczki wągrowiec umorzenie pożyczki z zfśś koszty uzyskania przychodu odsetki od pożyczki pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki bez bik dla zadłuzonych przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt bank alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe oprocentowanie kredytu gotowkowego w santander bank kredyt bank bb kredyty chwilówki tczew podporządkowanie pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla instytucji kultury dobranie pożyczki w skok kredyt bank polna warszawa obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki dla 18 latków bocian pożyczki kielce umowa pożyczki bez weksla udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt w barclays przez internet kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek kredyt studencki pko bp wcześniejsza spłata najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 w jakim banku wziąć kredyt studencki kredyty bez sprawdzania bik pożyczka pod weksel poznań pożyczki pozabankowe w koninie kredyty bankowe rodzaje forma przekazania pożyczki pożyczki prywatne forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław pożyczki bez bik pułtusk kredyt w uk natwest slimak pozyczki kontakt kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych omnico pożyczki kredyt w idea bank opinie optima pożyczki wrocław pożyczka z komornikiem w mysłowicach pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych pożyczki społecznościowe w anglii marka pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bez bik 10 tys kredyt bank warszawa garibaldiego kredyty bez bik mińsk mazowiecki kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking kredyt bank skierniewice kontakt kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kredyt bank oddział leszno koszty zawarcia umowy pożyczki kredyt w millenium bank pożyczki pod zastaw olecko warunki otrzymania pożyczki w vivus idea bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie szybkie pożyczki na dowód wrocław umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym pożyczki pozabankowe na firme kredyty bez biku w poznaniu kredyt bank sprzedaż santander kredyty bez zaswiadczen swiebodzin alior bank kredyty kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior kredyt oddłużeniowy pozabankowy kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym idea bank forum kredyt bank ii oddział kraków kapelanka kredyt bank oddział w nowym sączu kredyt bank międzychód bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki w profi credit forum bocian pożyczki zachodniopomorskie pożyczki prywatne forum o2 pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp kredyty konsolidacyjne w bs kredyty konsolidacyjne kraków skarabeusz pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt studencki pko sa 2012 umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej kredyt bank pszów pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta w banku franchising pożyczki kredyt bank 4 kredyt pod zastaw ziemi bez bik kredyt bank iii oddział łódź wałbrzych pozyczki przy umowie kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najłatwiej dostać umowa pożyczki opłata notarialna pożyczki bez weryfikacji online optima pożyczki na konto kredyty pozabankowe na oświadczenie pożyczki na weksel pożyczki działdowo umowa pożyczki działalność gospodarcza kredyt bank kody jednorazowe kredyty bez bik piła umowa pożyczki bez pcc kredyt bank piła nowa siedziba kredyt bank lokaty kredyt bez krd kredyt bank placówki wrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne gumtree umorzenie pożyczki wzór pożyczki w rachunkowości umowa pożyczki w rodzinie wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank okopowa fakturowanie pożyczki kredyt bank oferta dla studentów kredyt bank wypowiada ubezpieczenie kredyt bank kto jest właścicielem kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe iława kredyt bank w markach zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole kredyt bank lubaczów kredyty bez bik lubin pozyczki prywatne kredyt w getin banku bez bik wynagrodzenie w kredyt banku cena pożyczki zabezpieczenie pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki bez bik staszów kredyt bank warszawa wilanów pożyczka od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyty pozabankowe 50000 kredyt bank garbary poznań godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota pożyczki bez biku dla zadłużonych pożyczki chwilówki stalowa wola kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2012 udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu pożyczki chwilówki puławy pożyczki społecznościowe umowa pożyczki wzór pdf optima pożyczki warszawa odsetki od pożyczki koszty finansowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w instytucjach pozabankowych umowa pożyczki pkzp kredyt na remont w getin banku kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa kredyt na mieszkanie w wbk pożyczki dla lekarzy szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyt w uk po polsku kredyt bank slupsk godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyty chwilówki tczew kredyt bank likwidacja kredyt bank godziny otwarcia bydgoszcz pożyczki płock na dowód kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wejherowo pożyczki bez bik łódź kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe na firme pożyczki na dowód działdowo kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 kredyt w jakim banku 2013 kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę kredyt bank wrocław plac solny pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości forum alior bank kredyt symulacja pożyczki udzielane w domu klienta warszawa umowa pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki prywatne w Żorach kredyt w eurobanku kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski kredyt bank gorlice godziny otwarcia pozyczki domowe szybkie pozyczki na dowod w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik rzeszow kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole opinie karr pożyczki renata pikuła pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki pkzp niespłacanie pożyczki w providencie wzór pokwitowania pożyczki pożyczki do domu białystok oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej w pko sa pożyczki ratunkowe pożyczki akcent bocian pożyczki wagrowiec kredyty mieszkaniowe dla ludzi pracujacych za granica pozyczki posrednictwo warszawa bez dochodu konto dewizowe w kredyt banku pożyczki krótkoterminowe pożyczki na dowód bez krd kredyt bank dział zakupów numer kredyt do orange umowa pożyczki stawka pcc pożyczki gotówkowe online bez bik getin bank online kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank rachunek kredyt bank leczna kredyty bez bik krd erif kredyt w banku millenium opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy ing bank kalkulator kredyt samochodowy get in bank kredyty bez bik jastrzebie zdroj szybkie pozyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem torun kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska wzór umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt bank zielona góra bankomat kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 forum umowa pożyczki cel wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt w ror bank pocztowy kredyt bank banki korespondenci kredyt na już bez bik bocian pożyczki mielec stanisław świder pożyczki pożyczki bez bik zawiercie umowa pożyczki gofin kredyt bank zarobki kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna pożyczki chwilówki bez bik warszawa pcc od pożyczki od firmy partner pozyczki naklo nad notecia kredyt bank wąwozowa 35 szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania na dowud pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bank gliniana pro domo pożyczki toruń pożyczki dla zadłużonych koszalin cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyt ing kredyt bank zakopane bankomat kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony kredyt dla firm w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki bez bik konin ale gratka pożyczki bocian pożyczki bełchatów umowa pożyczki na raty kswp końskie pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw sochaczew pożyczki pod zastaw rtv kredyty chwilówki w uk oświadczenie oddania pożyczki kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny w jakim banku wziąć kredyt konsumpcyjny konsolidacja kredytu w wbk kredyt w fiat bank kredyt bank lublin windykacja adres pożyczki z dostawą do domu poznań bocian pożyczki numer tel oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp kredyty chwilówki w katowicach pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec w jakim banku pozyczka bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad