pożyczki pod zastaw wieliczka kredyty chwilówki praca opinie kredyt w bank zachodni wbk opinie pozyczki na doeod bez biku na dowod telefon zary umowa pożyczki w i grupie podatkowej kredyt bank sa bielany wrocławskie pożyczki przez internet plus eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki bez bik nysa kredyt bank osiedle polan pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód online pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja w jakim banku wziasc kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych w bik kredyt bez bik niskie oprocentowanie pozyczka onlain lubuskie pozyczki chwilowki prywatne mielec kredyt bank warszawa kadry kredyt bank zmiana adresu pożyczki darmowe kredyt bank łuków praca pożyczki długoterminowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank kalkulator pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej getin bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki program opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pożyczki w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy bph pożyczki prywatne gdzie kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank panda pożyczka nysa wrocław pożyczki prywatne kredyt przez internet bez biku i krd pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacje umowa pożyczki matka córka kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji na rachunku kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza 50 kredyt ze złą historią kredyty trudne bez biku reklama pożyczki piosenka kredyt w orange pop kod zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki akt kredyt bankowy a konsumencki pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki forta wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank kredyt konsolidacyjny legnica bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele pożyczki partycypacyjne kredyty chwilówki pyskowice kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki poza bankowe turek pożyczki chwilówki porównanie pozyczka na wysoki procent na dowod nowy sacz kredyt bank leasing kredyt bank pułtusk kontakt kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki dg pozyczka bez umowy o prace na dowod szczecin kredyt bez bik ciechanów bocian pożyczki wejherowo udzielić pożyczki tłumaczenie umowa pożyczki świadek kredyt konsolidacyjny katowice pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo przeterminowane pożyczki pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki dla firm kielce optima sa pożyczki pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka kredyty bez bik we wrocławiu agnieszka wąchała pożyczki najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredyt bank połczyn zdrój kredyt pozabankowy do 20000 kredyt bank żywiec godziny otwarcia kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money długoterminowe kredyty pozabankowe kredyt bank obotrycka kredyt bez bik oleśnica pożyczki prywatne 24h kredyt konsolidacyjny alior opinie kredyt chwilowka w markach kredyt bank łódź ul ketlinga godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór kredyt bank międzyrzecz umowa pożyczki może być zawarta w dowolnej formie kredyty chwilówki myszków kredyt w banku kalkulator wzór pisma pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pkzp kredyt remontowy szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta z ok wrocławia kredyt bank poznan oddzialy szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej przelew w kredyt banku kod orange kredyt tani kredyt inowroclaw kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt alior bank kredyt gotówkowy dokumenty kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium pożyczki bocian online obligacja pożyczki dolarowej umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki od osób prywatnych rzeszów wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs kredyt bank w gryficach idea bank kredyt obrotowy forum kredyt bankowy bez bik przez internet el global rzeszów grunwaldzka kredyty opinie umowa pożyczki druk do pobrania optima pożyczki konin kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2013 kredyt bank noskowskiego 1 kredyt bank w pelplinie zwrot pożyczki wspólnikowi odsetki od pożyczki jako przychód pożyczki chwilówki żywiec kredyt bank kwidzyn godziny otwarcia kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko sa kredyt bank jana pawła wesoła kredyt bez banku kredyt konsolidacyjny pbs pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo kredyty chwilówki regulamin kredyt bez bik zachodniopomorskie mobbing w kredyt banku koszt pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank konta osobiste pożyczki prywatne chorzów prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański pożyczki prywatnej udzielę kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko sa kredyt bank pruszków kontakt pożyczki ze złą historią w biku pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob pracujacych w uk kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez bik erif krd kredyt na dowod kredyty chwilówki trójmiasto pożyczki ekspresowe warszawa kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat kredyty pożyczki bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny do 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt bank ii oddział wrocław kredyt studencki pko bp forum pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyty preferencyjne dla rolników banki kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek kredyt bank lubin jana pawła kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństwa pożyczki chwilówki wołomin kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz bank żubr gliwice pożyczka kredyt studencki pko sa 2013 kredyt bank zyrardow godziny otwarcia kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo kredyt bank wołomin udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny z zabezpieczeniem umowa pożyczki jak odzyskać pieniądze skarabeusz pożyczki kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki korporacyjne kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra wziecie pozyczki od mafi oddziały dobrej pożyczki kredyt bankowy chomikuj pozyczki do domu klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank opinie niespłacone pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt bank gdansk wrzeszcz łatwy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik duży kredyt pozabankowy kredyt samochodowy mbank kalkulator panda pożyczki opinie pożyczki na weksel gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank nowy swiat warszawa kredyt na alimety bez bik kozienice pożyczki w domu koszalin duet pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank ostroleka udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi pożyczki 5000zl bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach mlawa wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs po zabankowe pożyczki nowa ruda bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica pożyczki kościerzyna pożyczki chwilówki wady zakładowy fundusz świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki pozyczki chojnice kredyty konsolidacyjne kalisz kredyty chwilówki chełm kredyt bank radzymin udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi księgowanie kredyt bank poleasingowe skarabeusz pożyczki wieluń pożyczki abc kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie kredyt bank plac zbawiciela warszawa kredyt bank janki kredyt bank polna warszawa umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą kredyty niebankowe pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2013 kredyt ge money bank pożyczki gniezno pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum kredyty bez bik jaslo oświadczenie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank druki wierzyciel pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika fast pożyczki opinie kredyt bank lomianki skarabeusz pożyczki krosno wzór umowy zawarcia pożyczki windykacja kredyt ok pożyczki świdnica kredyty bez bik piotrków kredyt z komornikiem kamienna gora pożyczki chwilówki skok stefczyka kredyt w gorzowie bez sprawdzania bik depozyty w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt samochodowy bank pko konsolidacja kredytu mbank kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bank umowa pożyczki forma ustna kredyt bank ii oddział w warszawie kredyt bankowy pekao szybki kredyt pozabankowy oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm kredyt bank rumia godz otwarcia pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą mikropożyczki białystok umowa pożyczki doc pożyczka z żyrantem pożyczki lipno umowa pożyczki z firmą szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki nieopodatkowane pożyczki ratunkowe świdnica czy alior bank udziela pozyczek z zajeciem komorniczym kredyt bank warszawa ciołka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 chwilówki szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki typu vivus rejestracja kredytu w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym forum bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej optima s a kredyty pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny pko oprocentowanie pożyczki dla każdego 48 kredyty bankowe historia kredyt bank rondo onz godziny otwarcia wpłatomat kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki bez bik wejherowo kredyt bank galibardiego odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem bocian pożyczki lubin szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank legnica bankomaty udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyt za 5 zl w orange pożyczka pozabankowa do20tys fundacja kredyt banku razem możemy więcej pożyczki prywatne nowy targ kredyt bank czarne złoto umowa pożyczki dla kolegi kalkulator kredytu samochodowego idea bank ubezpieczenie pożyczki pko bp kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki panel logowania kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt bank nowy sącz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zagiel lodz pożyczki bez bik przez internet kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice wyłudzenie pożyczki w providencie optima pożyczki do domu forum kredyty chwilówki chorzów rynek asper pozyczki forum pożyczki chwilówki od ręki kwota pożyczki zwolniona z podatku pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt bank duo pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa opinie pożyczki chwilówki kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kontakt pożyczki prywatne prawo bardzo szybkie kredyty bez bik pożyczki online bez bik w jakim banku pozyczka bik umowa w sprawie pożyczki z zfśs ubezpieczenie kredytu gotówkowego alior bank pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt potrzebuję pożyczki prywatnej umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat mennica pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank kredyt bank s a kontakt kredyty pozabankowe długoterminowe kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w skarabeusz pożyczki kalisz kronos pożyczki opinie jak wziasc kredyt do domu klienta na dowód abis wniosek o kredyt kredyt pozabankowy 30000 pożyczki bez krd i big pozyczki w domu klienta bez bik kredyt na już bez bik kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych poznań gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pozabankowe bez przedpłat getin bank kredyt z bik kruk pozyczki bielsko b kredyty studenckie jakie banki udzielają podatek od umowy pożyczki pieniędzy 2012 pożyczki chwilówki chojnice kredyt bank gdansk zaspa kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea oprocentowanie kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 kredyty bez bik w gorzowie wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny skok pożyczki z funduszy unijnych jaki jest numer na kredyt orange kredyt bank włocławek lokaty pożyczki goleniów w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank nowy sącz telefon pożyczka na otwarcie działalności łódzkie pilne pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny euro kredyt bank radzymińska białystok pożyczki przez internet alior bank bes bik kredyt bank warszawa sadyba bocian pożyczki olsztyn telefon kredyt chwilówka wieliczka kredyt bank sa centrala pożyczki kórnik pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice kredyty chwilówki w domu klienta umowa pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki bez biku ciechanów bocian kredyt wloclawek kredyt bez bik i krd wroclaw kredyty pozabankowe gliwice pożyczka bez bik i krd 5000zl 15000 i więcej pożyczki konsumpcyjne pożyczki społecznościowe w domu kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz pożyczki społecznościowe gdzie kredyt bank książkowa 9b kredyt na już bez bik kredyty chwilówki otwock pożyczki bez bik włocławek umorzenie pożyczki przychód podatkowy kredyt bank kupiony kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najłatwiej pożyczki wojciech górski kredyt w wbk kalkulator kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw kredyt bez bik zawiercie kredyt bank koszt przelewu kredyt bank sa windykacja umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy pozyczki na wysoki procent od ludzi prywatnych kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp umowa pożyczki charakter kredyt samochodowy boś bank symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyt chwilówka warszawa grochowska pozabankowe pożyczki dla firm doradca klienta kredyty chwilówki zarobki kredyt studencki pko rezygnacja kredyt bank brzeg kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank oddział w białymstoku wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki kredyt chwilówka 15 minut kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki w małżeństwie pożyczki na dowód opinie kredyty bez bik łódzkie oferia pożyczki adam lorek pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w poznaniu skok wybrzeże pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki pko bp kredyt bank tczew kontakt pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny pożyczki ala provident kredyty dla firm bez bik i krd umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank dąbrowskiego poznań umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony pożyczki pod zastaw dębica kredyt bank wirtualna karta kredytowa kredyt bank zielona góra telefon pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard nr telefonu eurolan pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank sa lokaty kredyt bank w pruszkowie kredyt bez bik 7 panda pożyczka nysa złe kredyty w działalności banków pożyczki bez bik w skok kredyt bank godziny otwarcia marki pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław ul dworcowa kredyt w banku gbs szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach forum czy kredyt konsolidacyjny sie opłaca kredyt dla małej firmy bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe definicja bank bgż kredyty konsolidacyjne najleprzy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartosci pożyczki biłgoraj kredyt studencki w banku pko bp tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 12 pożyczki bocian gryfice bocian pożyczki ostróda kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2011 kredyt bank conrada godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty białystok pożyczki bez bik na dowód umowa pożyczki środków pieniężnych kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki kredyt studencki w wbk kredyt bank warszawa puławska 303 kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit kredyt bank 24 kontakt kredyt bank nowe konto oszczędnościowe kredyt dla nowej firmy bez bik kredyt bank aktywa pożyczki carecash kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki chwilówki tczew umowa pożyczki pieniężnej na raty szukam szybkiej pożyczki niskie pożyczki kredyt bank busko godziny otwarcia pożyczki domowe gdynia kredyt bez bik banki forum kredyt studencki wbk warunki ptp pożyczki kredyt bank w ciechocinku adresy kredyt banku w poznaniu pożyczki dla posłów

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad