współpraca pożyczki bez bik pozyczki jredyty zakopane kredyt bez bik glogow kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią kredytową kredyty bez bik i krd tychy pozyczki na pit kamienna gora kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bankowy klasyfikacja w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód kredyt bocian najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta w którym banku kredyt rodzina na swoim kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki alwernia opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika kredyt chwilówka pko kredyt bank centrala warszawa kredyt bank warszawa politechnika kredyty chwilówki wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw lombard tarnów kredyt porównanie banków kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska kredyt bez bik tychy kredyt bank ilość placówek kredyt bank opłata za sms pożyczki umowy pożyczki bez bik wawa eden pożyczki opinie pozyczki bez bik chelmno pożyczki arsen pożyczka na procent kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko bp kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole kalkulator kredyty chwilówki pińczów pożyczki finan częstochowa umowa pożyczki bez weksla kredyt bankowy po rozwodzie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki przyznania kredyt samochodowy getin kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią w bik umowa pożyczki bez terminu spłaty pożyczki jak provident kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c kredyt do 15000 bez bik pozyczki bez biku gorzow ubezpieczenie pożyczki w provident pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa pozyczki bocian leszno kredyt bankowy w rachunkowości kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku umowa spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bank opłaty za konto lokata z premią kredyt bank opinie pan stanisław wziął kredyt w banku umowa pożyczki od wspólnika wzór pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek kredyty chwilówki lublin kredyt w deutsche bank kalkulator akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt bank piotrkowska regulamin zfśs pożyczki mieszkaniowe pozyczki bez bik erif krd kredyt bank białostoczek kredyt bank w stargardzie szczecińskim oblicz kredyt w alior banku bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki online bez bik big krd kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca pożyczki na dłuższy okres zwrot pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe pozyczki prodomo wejherowo umowa pożyczki rodzina wzór szybkie kredyty przez internet umowa pożyczki dla dziecka jak odmówić komuś pożyczki bocian pozyczki wniosek raty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredytową kredyt bank abrahama pożyczki eden konsekwencje kredyt bank konto kredyty bez biku zielona gora kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie pożyczki plan kont szybkie pożyczki bytom pożyczki online bez bik forum kredyty chwilówki w płocku kredyty chwilówki kozienice pożyczki pod weksel łódź pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów kredyt bank 3d secure kredyt bank inowrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica kredyty konsolidacyjne leszno pozyczki w uk po polsku zopa kredyt konsolidacyjny skok piast ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie żyrafa pożyczki podobne alior bank kredyty online bankowe pozyczki bez bik historia pożyczki bocian pozyczka w jeden dzien kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium kredyt bank kody jednorazowe pozyczka na dowodd bez zaświadczeń kamien umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z podatku umorzenie pożyczki zmarłemu pracownikowi dramatyczne zwolnienia w kredyt banku jaki kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing kredyt w eurobanku pożyczka bez banku nowe pożyczki internetowe kredyt bank zaspa kredyt bez bik strzelin pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp kredyty chwilowki pl bez bik pożyczki w bankach kredyty chwilowki windykatorzy opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim pożyczki wyszków pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs marka pożyczki białystok kredyt bank żary telefon kredyty bez bik do 80000 kredyty bez bik piotrków trybunalski lubin pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 3000 netto pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz kredyt bankowy długoterminowy w bilansie reklama pożyczki przez internet skarabeusz pozyczki zamość pozyczki calodobowe lodz kredyt bez bik bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki szczecin pozyczki żary bez zaswiadczenia pozyczka chwilowka od reki pozyczki bez biku bocian pozyczki glogow wzór umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt bank gold metal pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe września gdzie kredyty bez biku wroclaw z komornikiem kredyt bank mickiewicza kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie kredyt bank 24 pozyczki bez bik kredyt w fortis bank import usług pożyczki umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy kalkulator pcc od pożyczki termin kredyt bank gwarancja kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki bez bik świebodzin kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe przepisy pożyczki współpraca pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz kredyt bank w krośnie pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych kredyty dlugoterminowe bez bik i zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki wzór bezpłatny kredyt orange 5 zl kredyt bank ken 98 pożyczki chwilówki chełmno pożyczki dla zadłużonych forum szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń tanie pożyczki pozabankowe czy w geting bank można wziasc na sam dowód kredyt kredyty pożyczki wadowice waloryzacja pozyczki kredyt bankowy jest stosunkiem ekonomicznym pożyczki ewidencja księgowa kredyt studencki wbk 2012 konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 warunki otrzymania kredytu w getin banku podatek od pożyczki ustawa kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony pożyczki chwilówki kasomat pozyczka bez bik kielce kredyt bankowy jest zawsze oprocentowany kredyt konsolidacyjny 15000 kredyty chwilówki turek termin przedawnienia z umowy pożyczki advice financial pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 private banking w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki wągrowiec pożyczki provident przez internet wysoki kredyt a wiek pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 pożyczki jeremie łódzkie kredyt bank konstancin umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód kredyt bez bik i krd bydgoszcz nowe pozyczki bez bik pożyczki prywatne lubliniec kredyt bank warszawa wesoła kredyt w banku pocztowym online raty pożyczki przedawnienie kredyty bez biku tychy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet forum kredyt bank lokaty oszczędnościowe pożyczki chwilówki bez prowizji gdzie najłatwiej uzyskać kredyt mieszkaniowy bgk pożyczki dla absolwentów wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna pożyczki chwilówki w białymstoku kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności tanie pożyczki bankowe getin noble bank kredyt na start średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz kredyty bankowe w bilansie umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki online ranking udział kredytów w aktywach banku kredyt bez bik dąbrowa górnicza kredyt orange na jaki nr bank pko bp kredyt studencki pożyczki pozabankowe firmy kredyt bez bik do 20 tys bez biku kredyty oddłużeniowe konsolidacja prywatne pożyczki inwestycyjne pożyczki bez bik na raty bankomaty kredyt banku koszalin pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko bp pożyczki od ręki gdynia w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin kredyt w banku skok kredyty gotówkowe na oświadczenie 2014 kredyt bank trójmiasto pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik i zabezpieczeń pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik pożyczki na start firmy bez bik kredyt bankowy dziedziczenie kredyt bez bik 15000 zabezpieczenie pożyczki nieruchomością pożyczki rolnicze kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt w getin noble bank pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko pożyczki pod zastaw tarnobrzeg konto pożyczki otrzymane kredyt bez bik gliwice kredyt bank otwock andriollego kredyt bank zmiana limitu dlugoterminowe pozyczki pod zastaw pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz pożyczki bez zaświadczeń płock kredyty konsolidacyjne oddłużanie wygodne pożyczki pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz kredyt inwestycyjny banku bgż kredyt pozabankowy na weksel pożyczki dla policjantów kredyt bank nr telefonu kredyt bez bik ogłoszenia pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw opole najniżej oprocentowane pożyczki kredyty pożyczki rzeszów kredyt raz dwa w banku pocztowym all money pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej mariusz dudziński pożyczki pożyczki w firmie bocian pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem pożyczki prywatne w płocku kredyt bank centrala tel przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank rumia kontakt kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia pozyczka do domu bez bik kredyty chwilówki praca leszno kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór kredyt z idea bank opinie ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki pożyczki chwilowki grojecka godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe gros kapitał pozyczki prywatne ostrow wlkp niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki pod nieruchomość kredyt odnawialny w ing bank śląski kredyt bank w bochni pożyczki na dowód bez bik online pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza pożyczki bez bik brzeg patryk raczkowski pożyczki pożyczki lombardowe oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe oferty pożyczki z dostawą do domu wrocław kredyt w banku kalkulator kredyt bez bik dla nowych firm santander consumer bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt bez bik w skok kredyt bank kołobrzeska pożyczka bez bik na dowód pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta kredyty chwilowki krs kredyt bank aukcje pożyczki pod zastaw bełchatów kredyt bank oszukuje pożyczki na rente kredyt w bos bank kredyt w orange pop kod kredyty mieszkaniowe dopłaty rybnik kredyty bez bik z komornikiem oprocentowanie kredytu w banku millennium kredyt bank 3 maja słupsk wartość nominalna pożyczki kredyty bez weryfikacji w bik pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik online kredyty chwilówki dział kadr kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt pozabankowy z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa opinie kredyt bank centrala lublin kredyt bank leszno kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik kredyt chwilówka oleśnica czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat pożyczki zagraniczne państwa bankomaty kredyt banku ciechanów marcin pytel pożyczki pożyczki prywatne augustów nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kredyt chwilówka gdansk pożyczki na dowód lubin kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla pożyczki na konto na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange pożyczki na dowód w bankach pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy jak zawiesić kredyt w getin banku kredyt bez bik umowa zlecenie kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt bank w częstochowie kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka pożyczki na procent jelenia góra pożyczki skok piast kredyt bank wypłata bez prowizji pożyczki płock na dowód pożyczki chwilówki bez bik białystok kod orange kredyt alior bank kredyt gotówkowy ubezpieczenie oprocentowanie kredytu w nordea bank podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013 umowa pożyczki od udziałowca wzór pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck kredyt w alior bank opinie db kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm umowa pożyczki udziałowca dla spółki wzór wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczki bez rejestru dłużników kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs kielce kredyt bez biku tychy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw zgorzelec prywatne pożyczki września karty kredytowe dla osob z komornikiem tczew pożyczka z bankomatu w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bocian pożyczki malbork kredyt w pko opinie kredyt dla firm bez bik na oświadczenie wzór umowy pożyczki weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej wzór kredyt idea bank forum duo pożyczki chwilówki kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św pożyczki pozabankowe piotrków tryb czy trudno dostać kredyt w getin banku kredyty chwilówki windykator opinie szybkie pożyczki przez internet dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wyciągi bankowe bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bez bik płock kredyt bank raszyn telefon lokaty w kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki w domu klienta legnica kredyt bank kapelanka godziny otwarcia nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników umorzenie pożyczki a przychód pożyczki ok kredyty chwilówki bez bik wrocław pożyczki bez bik chwilówki kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche banku kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 wartości pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań pożyczki studenckie uk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino bocian pożyczki rzeszów kontakt podstawa opodatkowania pożyczki profinet pożyczki opinie gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki centrala tychy kredyt gotówkowy ranking banków szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe umowa pożyczki z podmiotem zagranicznym kredyty chwilówki skok kredyt bank jędrzejów pożyczki wśród najbliższych pożyczki bez bik oferty pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat warunki uzyskania kredytu w getin banku jak udzielać pożyczki zabezpieczenie pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt przez internet bez biku optima pożyczki do domu forum pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt chwilówka mbank kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy starego portfela kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa telefon fikcyjna umowa pożyczki lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa kredyt bank katowice ul szafranka kredyty pozabankowe dla bezrobotnych umowa pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi wzór pożyczki provident opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bytom kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon pożyczki lider pf kredyty chwilówki pożyczki bez bik tczew kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko sa forum kredyt bank pszczyna telefon pożyczki społecznościowe opinie kredyt bank kolegialna płock kredyt z komornikiem ruda slaska kredyt mieszkaniowy plus remont pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyt mieszkaniowy w chf kalkulator jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki plus prowidus pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp opinie kredyty w jakim banku kredyty chwilówki jaworzno kredyt bank lokata negocjowana kredyt studencki 2012 pko sa kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole pożyczki z budżetu państwa kredyt w get in bank opinie kredyt bank w ełku kredyty bez bik z komornikiem kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć pożyczki społecznościowe prawo preferencyjne pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank powstancow slaskich pożyczki kaktus do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn w prodomo pożyczki kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki opracowanie kredyt bank polbank kredyt na start firmy bez bik kredyt w banku barclays pożyczki rapida mam kredyt w getin banku przedłużenie umowy pożyczki a pcc pożyczki profi credit kredyt bank chf pożyczki pieniężne kredyt w banku eurobank szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad