pożyczki firmowe pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp kredyty chwilówki partner logowanie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez dochodów przez internet kredyty chwilówki bez dochodu kredyt z dofinansowaniem unijnym idea bank opinie pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty potrzebne hortus pożyczki siedlce pożyczki wojenne kredyt bank ukraina cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy odsetki od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństwa pożyczki prywatne pabianice marża banku kredyt w euro alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo pożyczki bez bik otwock pożyczki olecko kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie prywatne kredyty hipoteczne lodz umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc kredyt gotówkowy w millenium bank kredyt konsolidacyjny provident kredyty pozabankowe świętochłowice kredyt studencki eurobank pożyczki bez bik od 10000 pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent zgierz roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt bank oszczędzanie kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz przedłużenie pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór umowy kredyt bank numery telefonów hortus pożyczki kredyt bank miechów pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański pozyczki gniezno od zaraz do reki kredyt bank kartolinia pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kredyt bank w konstancinie kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony kredyt bank w kołobrzegu pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki kalwaryjska kraków kredyty chwilówki praca forum kredyt bank bialystok warszawska ubezpieczenie pożyczki mbank pożyczki pozabankowe w lublinie kredyty chwilówki w opolu getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie opinie kredyt bank zmiana hasła pożyczki rydułtowy pożyczki kc kredyt bez bik ostrów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny eurobank opinie bocian pożyczki praca kierownik skarabeusz pozyczki wielkopolska kredyt studencki pko miesiące kredyt bank bankomaty gdańsk kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego pożyczki z pup pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska kredyt bank rodzina na swoim dokumenty kredyty chwilówki zielona góra wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń bik kredyt bez bik zus us wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie kredyt bank hasła sms kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kontakt kredyt bez bik i zaświadczenia o zarobkach pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic wniosek kredyt bank sa oddział lublin kredyty bez bik piotrków trybunalski pozyczka od reki bez biku pożyczki pszczołka oława pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie pożyczki chwilówki elbląg czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace szybkie pozyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem torun ekstra pożyczki pożyczki legnica lukas bank kredyt online kredyty chwilówki chrzanów praca jaki kredyt bez bik w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt samochodowy premium pozyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe w płocku pożyczki bez bik praca wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem kredyt konsolidacyjny invest bank kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 kredyt bank w debicy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank w tychach pożyczki jeremie wrocław kredyt bankowy wiem pożyczki bez zbędnych formalności kredyt bank sokółka kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny z żyrantem quick cash pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe kluczbork kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa relacje inwestorskie pożyczki accord pożyczki chwilówki sopot pozyczki dla zadluzonych bez dochodu kredyty bez bik piotrków umowy pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki w skoku opinie kruk kredyty w puławach kredyt w uk na rok kredyt studencki wbk 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny problemy kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie kredyt na dowod w jakim banku kredyty bankowe definicja pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt bank żagiel nr tel kredyt przez internet bez biku prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie kredyt bank regon odsetki od pożyczki udziałowiec kredyt mieszkaniowy zły bik niskooprocentowane pożyczki z funduszy unijnych pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe spółdzielcze kredyt mieszkaniowy nordea habitat pożyczki chwilówki bez bik bydgoszcz dekretacja pożyczki kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu kalkulator pożyczki alior kredyt bank wikipedia skarabeusz pożyczki praca pożyczki bez bik od 18 lat sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki kredyt bank pelplin godz otwarcia kredyt samochodowy dla nowo powstałych firm konwersja pożyczki na kapitał pcc kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny łatwy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik jaki bank wybrac umowa pożyczki bez podatku kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku najlepiej Łodz pozyczka w domu klienta opodatkowanie pożyczek typu kokos forum kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyty bez bik jarocin obliczanie pożyczki ing kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy umowa pożyczki jest paulina dabrowska pozyczki alior bank kredyt opinie pożyczki tempo finanse pożyczki prywatne weksel pożyczki pewne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań kredyt w uk na benefity kredyt bank pochodzenie pozyczki pod zastaw w uk pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych pożyczki gotówkowe do 5000 kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja kredyt bank warszawa zoliborz kredyt bank warszawa ochota umowa pożyczki wzór aktywny kredyt bez biku i poreczycieli kredyt bez bik dla firmy ewidencja pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyty chwilówki kościerzyna kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank kredyt bank medicover pożyczki bez bik bytom pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska opinie pożyczki provident kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik łódź pożyczki pod zastaw polisy na życie oddluzanie kredytow w tychach kredyt w euro które banki kredyt samochodowy eurobank kredyty mieszkaniowe w alior banku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior pozyczki elblag bez zaswiadczen nowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek bocian pożyczki zgierz pożyczki gotówkowe do ręki bocian pożyczki czarnków kasomat pożyczki opinie kredyt z idea banku opinie kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs teleklient pożyczki kredyty chwilówki raty umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór kredyt bank oddział w sieradzu kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie krótkie pożyczki pożyczki bez podatku podatek żyrafa pożyczki windykacja pożyczki pod zastaw krosno pożyczki do domu opole kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk umowa pożyczki od jakiej kwoty podatek prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków kredyty dla zadluzonych w biku poznan umowa pożyczki wzór osoby fizyczne pożyczki na 60 dni kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna pożyczki w ostrołęce kredyt studencki pko niedostarczenie zaświadczenia kwota pożyczki netto pożyczki aasa pożyczki na dowód rybnik szybkie pożyczki gdańsk pożyczki bez bik gdańsk czy trudno dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet pożyczki bankowe włocławek oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyt chwilówka telefon umorzenie pożyczki u pożyczkodawcy kredyt bank w belchatowie pożyczka bez krd forum kredyt bank nisko kredyty chwilówki wzór umowy umowa pożyczki na zakup samochodu mbank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank wilanowska kredyt w banku pekao sa ing bank kredyt dla noeo otwartych furm odmowa udzielenia pożyczki odnowienie pożyczki w koncie szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kto płaci podatek od pożyczki prywatnej kredyty bez bik mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska activa 500 pożyczki od ręki pożyczki chwilówki vivus banki kredyty dla firm kredyt samochodowy idea bank opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź pożyczki lichwiarskie warszawa kredyt na dowód przez internet bez biku wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia kredyt bank debet kredyt bank śliska telefon kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku optima pożyczki kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik kredyt w jenach banki kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredyt chwilówka staszów pożyczki movum szczecin kredyty pozabankowe łódź kredyt bank dalekowschodni kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska kredyt konsolidacyjny na co uważać chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki gąbin bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla kredyty bez biku ikrd pożyczki gliwice szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków kredyt bank piaseczno godziny kredyt w jakim banku 2013 kredyt bez bik glogow kredyt bank mickiewicza 50 pożyczki bez bik na pit wzór umowy pożyczki zfron pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyt bank podstawowe informacje provident zwrot pożyczki pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredyt bank nowy sącz godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne w płocku pożyczki na dowód do ręki pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy pożyczki chwilówki sms kredyt studencki bzwbk pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników pożyczki nowy sącz pozyczki bez umowy o prace w człuchowie kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kalkulator pożyczki bankowej wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców kredyt bank w kłodzku kredyt bez bik i big kredyt bank oddział w nowym sączu prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia szybkie pożyczki bez bik big i krd umowa pożyczki lichwa pożyczki na dowód bez bik online pozyczka w bankomacie tczew zajęcie komornicze pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki kredytum kredyt bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki chwilówki śrem kredyt chwilówka na telefon tani kredyt konsolidacyjny forum najtańsze pożyczki w bankach pożyczki społecznościowe łódź santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator domowa pożyczka bocian kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw łomża kredyt bank biała podlaska tel kredyty gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki ostróda preferencyjne pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko forum eurobank pozyczka przez internet bik pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik big krd i erif umowa pożyczki pracownikowi umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór kokos pożyczki kredyty chwilówki ile procent pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk umowa pożyczki przedmiot umowy provident warunki pożyczki pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki asper przyznawalnosc pozyczek kredyt bank marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik w szczecinie kredyty chwilówki centrala kredyt bank w zakopanem alior bank kredyt symulacja pożyczki w domu myszkow pożyczki na dowód bielsko biała żyrant pożyczki kredyt bank opłata za monit pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych kredyt bank sa akcje kredyt w idea bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa pożyczki pozabankowe na telefon kupiec pożyczki druk pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie fundusz pożyczki kredyt na dowód bank spółdzielczy kredyt bez bik pozabankowy pożyczki pko sa udowodnienie pożyczki pożyczki olesnica kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim w pko sa eurocash pożyczki lublin pożyczki 20000 zł pozyczki przez internet szybki kredyt dla firm bez bik alior bank kredyty online kredyt studencki anglia warunki pożyczki dla zadłużonych kielce kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów bez prowizji meritum bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bankowy literatura wzór na obliczenie raty pożyczki udzielę pożyczki prywatnej łódź kredyty bez bik żywiec pożyczki do 10 000 kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank karmelicka kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny encyklopedia kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzaje kredyt bank zakopane godziny otwarcia urząd skarbowy zgłoszenie pożyczki kredyt na dowod bez konta w banku szybkie pożyczki na dowód warszawa pożyczki ostrów wielkopolski zmiana nazwiska a kredyt w banku optima pozyczki ciechanów podatek od umowa pożyczki ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 pożyczka bez bik abis kredyty gotówkowe bez bik piła kredyty pozabankowe z bik pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw pożyczki 1000 pożyczki żyrafa śrem bartek pożyczki pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt bank piaskowa góra wałbrzych kredyt bank ruczaj kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd pożyczki dla młodych przedsiębiorców pożyczki do 15000 pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opinie umowa pożyczki rejestracja w us pożyczki bocian gryfice udzielać pożyczki english kredyt bank krynica kontakt najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt na dowód pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości oferia pożyczki oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach epef pożyczki kredyt bank ostrobramska warszawa oddziały kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt bank dluga kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie leasing czy kredyt samochodowy forum umorzenie pożyczki zfron pożyczki bez bik pomorskie kod do kredytu orange okres przedawnienia umowy pożyczki kredyt samochodowy dla marynarzy kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys gros pożyczki opinie pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej pożyczki na dowód grodzisk wlkp pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów śląsk rejestracja kredytu w urzędzie skarbowym pilny kredyt nowy targ kredyt w barclays przez internet ubezpieczenie pożyczki alior bank kredyt bank chojnice kontakt kredyt bank kościan telefon kredyty chwilówki gdynia pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka umowa udzielenia pożyczki pieniężnej dorota król pożyczki kredyt bankowy podsumowanie pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo szybkie pożyczki kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki wonga pożyczki pl kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki kredyty bez bik starachowice kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator umowa pożyczki żyrant pożyczki niskie oprocentowanie bocian pożyczki zabrze kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział ksawer pożyczki kredyt bank jakie dokumenty kredyt bank wibor 3m kredyt bankowy jego funkcje pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lublin w jakim banku brac kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka pozyczki na procent plock kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski kredyt bez bik podkarpacie kredyt gotówkowy w pekao sa opinie kredyt na mieszkanie w banku millenium kredyt bank wawozowa pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie kredyty bankowe wzory kredyty chwilówki w łodzi pożyczki chwilówki radom kody do orange na kredyt kredyt bank wydział windykacji odsetki od pożyczki koszt podatkowy pożyczki jarosław w jakim banku 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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad