kredyt bez bik 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych singli kredyty pożyczki cała polska pożyczki na 24 miesiące panda kredyty kedzierzyn kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska kredyt unijny idea bank opinie kredyt bank w oławie umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona kredyt na dowód bez bik przez internet lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie pożyczki społecznościowe kokos umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór umowa pożyczki przewłaszczenie na zabezpieczenie wcześniejsza spłata kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp gdzie dostac kredyt bez biku skarabeusz pożyczki czestochowa pożyczki podobne do bocian kredyt bank z kim się połączył pożyczki prywatne września przelew w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne lubliniec kredyt rodzina na swoim getin bank kalkulator kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa symulacja kredytu w banku wbk pożyczki chwilówki promocje kredyt bank witomino godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki ang bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 pożyczki umowa pozyczka przez internet pod zastaw sam pożyczki gotówkowe gdynia pozyczka dla bezrobotnego ze splata tygodniowa teleklient pożyczki w którym banku najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki dokumenty reklama pożyczki przez internet kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż kredyty bez biku i krd pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe piła bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie kredyt na wyciąg z konta bez bik konin pożyczki dla każdego 48 pożyczki w domu klienta polkowice kredyt bez bik 2013 pożyczki na oświadczenie kraków kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej i bik umowa pożyczki u notariusza pożyczki społecznościowe 2012 gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt samochodowy czy gotówkowy forum kredyty bez bik i krd slask kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator ing pożyczki gotówkowe współpraca slupsk czy latwo dostac auto na kredyt z komisu kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec kredyty mieszkaniowe o co pytać kredyt bank zagan kredyt bankowy na zakup mieszkania kredyt bez bik żary kredyt bez bik chorzów kredyt bank ożarów pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania kredyt konsolidacyjny co to jest kredyt w banku credit agricole kredyt bez bik 3000 kredyt bank sa oddzial lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredytowa pożyczki umk kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki od rodziny wzór kredyty bankowe praca licencjacka kredyt bank oddział częstochowa pożyczki pozabankowe nowy targ pożyczki pod zastaw dla zadłużonych kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa umowa pożyczki wzot kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkladem wlasnym kalkulator kredyt bank piła plac konstytucji pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek kredyt bank zalozenie konta kredyt bez bik pozabankowy pożyczki na dowód lubuskie ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank polan poznań optima pożyczki szczecinek reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu pożyczki chwilówki provident kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę dukat wawa pożyczki kredyty studenckie jakie banki kredyty chwilówki z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki w domu klienta radom pożyczki w domu poznań kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomosci ii fiz banki w uk udzielające pożyczki emigrantom cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bank lokata jesienna pożyczki panorama firm umowa pożyczki od wspólnika pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 opinie kredyty chwilowki jelenia gora nie oddanie pożyczki kredyty z komornikiem kredyt bank główny ekonomista kredyt orange yes kredyt bank witkiewicza szczecin kredyty bankowe w bilansie kredyty pozabankowe plock kredyt w wbk na klik kredyt bank prowizja opłat kredyt w banku alior kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 12 umowa pożyczki realna kredyt studencki pekao sa dokumenty jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zł pożyczki zielona góra kredyt bank lwowska pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław w którym banku wziąć kredyt na budowę domu kredyt bank toruń telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny chomikuj prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bank raty bielsko kredyty nie bankowe kredyt bank oplaty i prowizje umowa pożyczki z bankiem kod do orange na kredyt skarbiec pożyczki oszustwo getin bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki tychy budowlanych kredyty bez bik do 5000 kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat kredyt bank wypowiedział umowę kredyty przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt gotówkowy w banku bph jaki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank zielonka kolejowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe grójec kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia finan pożyczki kredyt studencki pekao żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe atiz pożyczka pozyczki na dowod dzierzoniow pożyczki proszowice pożyczki ślimak poznań kredyty konsolidacyjne wbk pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym pozyczka bialystok bez bik kredyt bank rachunek bankowy pozyczka bez sprawdzania baz szczecin oferta kredyt bank departamenty kredyt bank 24h pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa kredyt bankowy z premią termomodernizacyjną kredyt bank częstochowa lokaty kredyt z idea bank opinie kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w biku jak dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki chwilówki na sam dowód promesa pożyczki kredyt bez bik w pko kredyt bez bik nowa sól kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska kredyty bez bik jastrzebie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko bp pożyczki bez badania zdolności łukta pożyczki pożyczki chwiłowki pożyczki bez bik siedlce odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe czy ustna umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa kredyty chwilówki zarabianie reklama pożyczki piosenka kredyt bank konto ekstra oszczędnościowe pożyczki oferty kredyty santander consumer bank gdzie pozyczke bez grosza szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik plock umowa pożyczki w euro kredyty chwilówki włoszczowa pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka pozyczki typu skarabeusz czestochowa pożyczki bezpłatne kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych katowice skarbiec pożyczki oszustwo umowa pożyczki art kredyty prywatne zielona gora umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa kredyt bank 1 oddział wrocław pozyczki calodobowe lodz czy latwo dostac kredyt w getin banku wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty chwilówki opinie trudne pozyczki warszawa ei global kredyty opinie getin bank pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce jak odmówić pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe siedlce kredyt w jenach banki kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia kredyt bank marketing pożyczki poznań gumtree banki kredyt mieszkanie dla młodych kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku kredyty chwilowki dabrowa gornicza kredyt bank oddział lublin kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank katowice ul szafranka kredyty banku sgb pożyczki prywatne mielec kredyt bez bik zabrze kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt chwilówka dla studenta umowa pożyczki dla pozoru pożyczki bez bik internet wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych umowa pożyczki z dzieckiem alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres spłaty kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego pożyczki na 90 dni kredyt bank w leborku udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez przedpłat bezzwrotne pożyczki z up pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyt bez biku gdynia pożyczki ltro kredyt bank kosciuszki sopot getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie preferencyjny kredyt studencki banki kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank piła pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny pożyczki w niedziele kredyt bank łódź oddziały szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec kredyt bank trzebinia uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez biku słupsk kredyt bank w ostrowie wielkopolskim kredyt bank program concerto pożyczki kapitał ludzki kredyty chwilówki warszawa kredyty w pko opinie prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki kredyt bank w plocku kredyt bank rawa maz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik 20000 zł udziele pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki 1200 kredyt pozabankowy pod weksel getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najtaniej umowa pożyczki termin spłaty praca w kredyt banku 2012 radom pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank leszno godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kielce kredyt w postbanku optima pożyczki do domu forum kredyty chwilówki swiebodzin pożyczki środa wlkp pożyczki dla hitlera bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek provident zwrot pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt gotówkowy bez wizyty w banku szybkie pożyczki 24h kredyt bank sokołów podlaski kontakt kredyt bank dekabrystów pozyczki na dowód bez dochodów kredyt bank wniosek kredytowy umowa pożyczki oszustwo pożyczki starogard gdański zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko szybkie pożyczki elbląg kredyt bank warszawa czynne w sobote pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy 110 procent umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór kredyt pozabankowy na oświadczenie kredyt bank wbk połączenie pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel pożyczki pozabankowe gorzów wlkp czy bocian pożyczki sprawdza bik kredyty hipoteczne lodz pod zastaw domu kredyt pozabankowy naczym polega mg finance pożyczki pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów wierzyciel pożyczki opinie oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyt bank biała pożyczki z ue dla firm pożyczki katowice ul moniuszki 7 pozyczki bocian gniezno kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy na rynku pożyczki na dowód braniewo pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia pożyczki 500 zł szybki kredyt bez bik online pożyczki dla taksówkarzy kredyt bank niepodległości świdnik uzasadnienie pożyczki kredyt w orange na jaki nr pożyczki bez komornika i biku na dowód w szczecinie daiglob pożyczki kredyt bank limit dzienny pożyczki ze środków obrotowych kredyt bank leżajsk targowa pożyczki w domu łódzkie asper pożyczki forum długoterminowe kredyty pozabankowe kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora prosty kredyt konsolidacyjny przewalutowanie pożyczki różnice kursowe pożyczki portal umorzenie pożyczki byłemu pracownikowi kredyt konsolidacyjny 50000 kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor kredyt bank w zawierciu kredyt bank matejki gorzów kredyty chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój śląska oblicz ratę kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bank fundusze pożyczki gotówkowe bgż pożyczki pod zastaw radom przedłużenie pożyczki ok money kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa krzysztof pawiński pożyczki kredyt studencki wbk 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt studencki pko umowa kredyt bez bik na samochód umowa pożyczki matka córka szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła kredyt w ge money bank opinie kredyt w banku dla bezrobotnych kredyty bez bik września kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowe od reki pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie kredyty bez bik mysłowice bocian pożyczki gdynia szukam pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2013 pożyczki głogowska warszawa cm kredyt bank jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one kredyt bank raty infolinia kredyt przez internet bez zadnych zaswiadczen oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku pożyczki online bez prowizji jak uzyskac kredyt bez biku kredyt samochodowy ranking 2011 bocian pożyczki katowice umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki kredyty mieszkaniowe pułapki kredyt odnawialny w pekao sa kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe dobre pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt online bez bik i krd pko kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej forum banki udzielajace kredyty bez bik kredyt bank zary preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki konsolidacyjne bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bez biku koszalin atrakcyjne pożyczki kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt studencki pko bp terminy pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pewny kredyt bez biku pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik umowa pożyczki maksymalne oprocentowanie kredyt bank banco santander udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank niepodległości poznań pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w inowroclawiu umowa pożyczki wzory szybkie pożyczki leszno ankieta pożyczki kredyt bank zagiel pożyczki dla zadłużonych z bik w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki bez bik przez sms bocian pożyczki wymagane dokumenty kredyty niebankowe pożyczki na dowód skok stefczyka cechy pożyczki odróżniające ją od kredytu kredyt bank w elblągu sesje przelewów w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki formularz pożyczki wzór epef pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik opinie kredyty chwilowki strzegomska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarzy pożyczki gotówkowe ełk pożyczki bank bgż nowe pożyczki chwilówki kredyty trudne bez biku pozyczki na konto kredyt bank sa address kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański kredyt samochodowy dla lekarza pożyczki bez bik ślimak pozyczka banknot siedlce umowa pożyczki pieniężnej doc kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank rzeszów 3 maja kredyt samochodowy w lukas banku kredyt w alior banku oprocentowanie skarabeusz pożyczki tarnów kredyt bank wpłatomat oblicz rate kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyt bank pko kalkulator umowa pożyczki wspólnika ze spółką profit pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik porównanie kredytu lublin broker kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wałbrzych udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk kalkulator kredyt w danske bank kredyt bank chuck norris bank pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bank pekao sa kredyt opinie umowa pożyczki z poddaniem się egzekucji niebezpieczne pożyczki kredyt przez internet bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank w śremie pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych kto płaci podatek od pożyczki prywatnej w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt forum ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty bez bik w czestochowie wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw pożyczki pod zastaw szczytno pożyczki payu optima s a kredyty pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa mokotów kredyt bank warszawa chmielna kredyty zamość bez bik umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki online bez bik i krd pożyczki prywatne przez internet pożyczki gotówkowe comperia pożyczki chwilówki grójecka kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe czy bilansowe kredyt banki mikołów prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw 24h szczecin kredyty pozabankowe numer telefonu kredyty bez bik na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki prywatne 30000 siódemka pożyczki pożyczki podobne do takto praktyki w kredyt banku opinie kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu umowa pożyczki referat wycena pożyczki w bilansie kredyt 3000 bez bik kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyty bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank biała

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad