pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach online kredyt w banku pocztowym opinie wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami pozyczka do domu bez bik getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy opinie pożyczki prywatne wyszków pożyczki gotówkowe dla rencistów kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank numer kontaktowy wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki wewnętrzne państwa kredyt pozabankowy skarbiec pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych warunkowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez bik radom pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik poznań żyrafa pożyczki logowanie pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim pcc od pożyczki płaci pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2013 banki które daja kredyt bez bik pożyczki ubezpieczone pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa praca pozyczki bez biknowa sol pożyczki chwilówki garwolin umowa pożyczki pienięznej meritum pozyczka na wyciag z konta pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście lublin kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie 2012 umowa pożyczki gotówki podatek kredyt bank w opolu pożyczki na procent radom provident pożyczki praca kredyt odnawialny eurobank pozycki bez zaswiadczeń bez bik 50000 kredyt konsolidacyjny ubezpieczenie pożyczka całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank w brodnicy kredyt bank wbk kredyt bank radlin tel santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln pożyczki chwilówki provident pożyczki pozabankowe na działalność gospodarczą kredyty bez bik września dokumentowanie pożyczki pozyczki pozaabankowe bez pracy zaciągnięcie kredytu bankowego jest operacją umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki pożyczki internetowe w 15 minut kredyt bank śledziewski naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt kredyt bank departament marketingu kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska interpretacje podatkowe pożyczki konwersja umowy pożyczki obligacyjnej kredyt studencki bz wbk kredyt bez bik czy warto pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet oprocentowanie pożyczki krótkoterminowej firma udzielająca pożyczki pożyczki bez bik do 25000 bocian pożyczki przedstawiciel kredyt refinansowy eurobank kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wrocław w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt samochodowy alior bank kredyt bank kraków kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulatory kredyt dla firm bez bik krd kalkulator zdolnosci kredytowej santander bank kredyt bank nowy sacz kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy urząd skarbowy eurocash pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń pożyczki wejherowo kapitalizacja pożyczki tax care pożyczki dla firm kariera w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bank śląski pfron pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych pożyczki bez biku ełk regulamin pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie zarobki pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyt bank opłaty kredyt gotowkowy w ktorym banku pożyczki konkret pko kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyty bez bik zdunska wola umowa pożyczki dla pracownika ze środków obrotowych kredyt bank cennik pożyczki prywatne szczecin kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta wzór umowy pożyczki z poręczeniem rachunek oszczędnościowy w kredyt bank jak zgłosić umowę pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego getin bank kredyty samochodowe forum kredyt restrukturyzacyjny eurobank kredyty bez bik krosno pozyczki z dowozem do domu bez zaswiadczen warszawa kredyt bank dane do przelewu kredyt bankowy prawo bankowe kredyty gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz umowa pożyczki pienieżnej kredyt bank grupa kbc bocian pożyczki wodzisław śląski szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów alior bank sa kredyt kredyt bank dyrektor hr kredyt studencki pko warunki kredyt bank w częstochowie godziny otwarcia pozyczki w domu tarnowskie góry kredyt bank karta kredytowa multima kredyt bank powstanie pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie kredyt bank poznań krauthofera kredyt bank zyrardow godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2012 kredyt w bank pko bp pożyczki bez biku legnica kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe kredyt w get in bank forum pożyczki łódź bez bik pozyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik online pismo z prośbą o umorzenie pożyczki z fśs kredyt gotówkowy w nordea bank kredyt studencki pko aneks kredyt konsolidacyjny w bph opinie kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin niespłacanie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny co potrzebne kredyt bez biku piła pożyczki tuchola pożyczki dla doktorantów kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu w fm banku kredyt bank ostrów wielkopolski nefis pożyczki pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca pożyczki namysłów pożyczki optima praca pożyczki na procent bydgoszcz pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyty pozabankowe malbork pożyczki bez zaświadczeń włocławek kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę provident dobranie pożyczki pożyczki bez biku sieradz pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup samochodu kredyt chwilówka ulotki mikropożyczki gazeta prawna pozyczka na konto bez przelewania grosza pożyczki pod zastaw śląsk bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt konsolidacyjny dla działalności gospodarczej pożyczki decyzja online pożyczki bez biku ełk pozyczka z obsluga w domu warszaw przyrzeczenie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 kredyt w santander consumer bank szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet warunki kredytu w getin banku pożyczki gierka best partner pożyczki wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dla firm słupia pożyczki dla firm pożyczki ranking banków jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt balonowy santander bank 50 50 szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 gdańsk kredyt bank szczecin matejki godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku potrzebuję pożyczki łódź pożyczki zfśs w bilansie kredyt bankowy konto wzór dokumentu pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spoldzielczym kredyt bank bławatna gdynia umowa pożyczki dla firm pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk podwale oświęcimiak pożyczki pożyczki prywatne wałcz bocian pozyczki goleniow pozyczki bez meldunku warszawa kredyt bank pożyczka kalkulator kredyt bez bik tarnów kredyt bez bik oleśnica kredyty bank wbk pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big i krd warunki pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank akademia lidera pożyczki wierzyciel forum kredyt bank toruń kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator 2014 dobranie pożyczki ing kredyt bank w kaliszu pozyczki pozabankowe kasa do reki kredyty bez bik i krd sosnowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej kredyt ratalny bez biku pożyczki novum finance kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu pożyczki prywatne weksel kredyt bank godziny pracy kredyt online bez biku kredyt bank zadłużenie przeterminowane wszystkie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki gotówkowe leszno pożyczki bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora kredyty pozabankowe bez biku białystoj kredyt bank pionki kredyt gotówkowy getin bank forum udzielenie pożyczki a faktura vat umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu kredyt bank lokaty marzec 2012 pozyczki bez umowy o prace w człuchowie pożyczki gotówkowe 50000 kredyt bank 24 demo kredyt bez bik 70000 pożyczki mława poprawna umowa pożyczki kredyt bank szczecin dąbie godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez bik i krd przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zamość umowa pożyczki od spółki dla wspólnika jak zrobić przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp pożyczki dla porozumienia centrum kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka szybkie pożyczki legionowo kredyt bank plac zbawiciela telefon idea bank kredyt oprocentowanie kredyty chwilowki krs kredyt bank gdańsk noskowskiego godziny otwarcia alior bank kraków pozyczki na pit kredyt bank w ostrołęce pożyczki na dowód choszczno pożyczki na dowód bez bik online obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pcc kredyt jako podstawowy produkt banku komercyjnego kredyt bank wrocław telefon pożyczki w domu bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik wolny rynek pożyczki chwilówki porównanie szybkie pożyczki pleszew oszukańcze pożyczki kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa szybkie pożyczki wrocław szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod kredyt bank konto internetowe logowanie umowa pożyczki między bratem a siostrą kredyty chwilówki ile się zarabia pożyczki bez bik w koszalinie pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 kredyt bank brzesko pożyczki bez bik do 10 000 prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe białystok ducato pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw gdynia pożyczki udzielone i należności własne pożyczki bankowe dla emerytów wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki społecznościowe prawo kredyt bank polska adres pożyczki papierów wartościowych kredyt bez biku siedlce pożyczki do domu klienta auto kredyt bez bik forum alior sync kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki wolska pożyczki lichwa pożyczki chwilówki na święta fides pożyczki kredyty bez bik bielsko biala kredyt bank w krasnymstawie pożyczki program pożyczki prywatne rybnik dobre pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyt bank fuzja z bz wbk umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami a pcc pożyczki unijne dla małych firm podkarpacie firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 pożyczki żary retencja pożyczki kredyt bez bik w banku kredyt bank duplikat karty kredyty chwilówki łódź narutowicza kredyty bez bik zgierz kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia kredyt w raiffeisen bank forum kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia kwota pożyczki bez podatku kredyt w pekao sa kalkulator niespłacone pożyczki w uk kredyt bank w dąbrowie tarnowskiej bank wbk kredyt bez komornika wroclaw gumtree pożyczki 10000 zł szybki kredyt bez biku przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy a komornik kredyt bank wolbrom alior bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki preferencyjne śląsk pożyczki do 12 miesięcy kędzierzyn koźle pozyczki bez biku i krd umorzenie pożyczki w spółce komandytowej pożyczki na start działalności pożyczki chwilówki w lublinie kredyty chwilówki bez bik warszawa czy łatwo dostać kredyt w getin banku kredyty mieszkaniowe pozabankowe pożyczki starogard gdański toruń pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty chwilówki katowice giszowiec wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank królewska kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank otwock kontakt umowa pożyczki nieważność pozyczki leszno kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko kredyt studencki spłata forum dyskusyjne kredyt mieszkaniowy pko forum kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne konsolidacja kredytu wbk kredyt bank logowa pożyczki pozabankowa pożyczki za gierka skarabeusz pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt bank bankomaty darmowe pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bank foksal godziny kredyty bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki wymagania pożyczki gryfino kredyt konsolidacyjny w polbank pożyczki bez bik sms dobra pożyczki pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyt bank kasprzaka 22 godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki kredyt w fiat bank szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki kredyt chwilówka andrychów wymagania kredytowe barclays kredyt bank popularna telefon kredyt na alimety bez bik kozienice umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski kredyt bez bik kutno kredyt bank warszawa komisji edukacji narodowej kredyt na alimety bez big pożyczki chwilówki ranking kredyt bank węgorzewo kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulacja katalog firm pożyczki niebankowe bocian pożyczki żywiec pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki kredyty chwilówki w jastrzębiu zdroju pożyczki do domu kredyty bez bik slask szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync umorzenie pożyczki z zfron jak zaksięgować kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny reklama umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyty bankowe porównanie ofert eurocent pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki pozabankowe finan pożyczki 20 000 pożyczki chwilówki sieradz kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja kredyty bez bik gliwice kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa kredyty chwilówki bochnia pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork pożyczki pozabankowe kluczbork alina wacławek pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie ofert santander bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt ekspres kasa przedłużenie pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne na umowe zlecenie pożyczki na gumtree kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kalkulator pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej konsolidacja kredytów jak to działa kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa pożyczki bocian online kredyt konsumpcyjny bank pocztowy pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń pożyczki dla nowych przedsiębiorców kredyt bank w kwidzynie jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt orange pop kredyt bank w łukowie pozyczka typu provident euro cen bocian kielce pożyczki pozabankowe profesjonalna umowa pożyczki tragedia w kredyt banku eurocash pożyczki lublin umowa pożyczki zwrot w ratach kredyt chwilowki poznań kredyt gotówkowy eurobank opinie kredyty bank pko bp kredyt bankowy wikipedia pożyczki niezabezpieczone kredyty chwilówki polska pożyczki pod zastaw tychy oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka umowa pożyczki historia pożyczka od osoby fizycznej turek pożyczki typu provident pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta pozyczki z komornikiem w mielcu kredyty bez bik wejherowo kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank w oławie niski kredyt w banku kredyt bank lokata 6 5 procent kredyt w fm banku opinie kredyty bez biku bytom pożyczki od osób prywatnych na weksel najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń ubezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt pozabankowy na raty kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie o bankach bocian pożyczki puławy pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin ubezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty bez bik od 4000 kredyt prowizja banku pożyczka tax care dla osob prywatnych najszybszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank swidnica karta kredytowa splata kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji mikrofinanse pożyczki umowa pożyczki od udziałowców kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 kredyt bank cena akcji kredyty chwilówki myslenice kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pocztowym kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowod banki udzielające pożyczki wniosek o kredyt w credit agricole umowa pożyczki dla wspólnika kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń wzór umowy pożyczki pracowniczej wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki w domu klienta gliwice umowa pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu w jakim banku najtaniej wziac kredyt pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw poznań kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad