pożyczki gotówkowe głogów kredyt bank racibórz kredyty bankowe na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt gotówkowy w pko sa kalkulator jaki kredyt bez bik kredyt samochodowy ranking wrzesień 2013 umowa pożyczki w euro kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie zarobki kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku forum pożyczka na dowód bogatynia kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód oświęcim kredyt bank lokaty luty 2013 pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy dokumenty kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pekao sa kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim ranking pożyczki dla firm bez bik kredyty chwilówki ulotki opinie koszty pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank nowa europa pożyczki internetowe kredyt bez bik lodz ubezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowej patryk raczkowski pożyczki pożyczki bocian w kaliszu jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik pożyczki dla rolników czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega vat kod do orange kredyt potrzebuję pilnej komentarz kredytu klient maj 2014 kredyt firmowy bez bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radlin kredyt na oddłużenie kredyt w banku millennium pożyczki kraków rynek podgórski udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel kredyt bez biku lublin pożyczki konsolidacyjnej czy łatwo jest dostać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank franczyza pożyczki umowa co lubuskie kredyt bank pko sa kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mazowieckie kredyt na samochód w getin banku kredyt bank puławska 303 kredyt bez bik konsolidacyjny pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki podobne jak provident pożyczki gotówkowe na poczcie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyty bez bik pomorskie pozyczki bez bik boleslawiec jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bez biku i zdolności kredytowej kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent kredyt bank doładowanie telefonu kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem umowa pożyczki między rodziną pożyczki jędrzejów pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt studencki bank zachodni wbk kredyt bankowy plan pracy pozyczki mikrokasa opinie beta pożyczki pożyczki na dowód dzierżoniów bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum pf kredyty chwilówki pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik łódź kredyt bank czynny w sobote warszawa kredyty chwilówki ostrzeżenie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyty bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt na dowód bank pocztowy kredyt bank w lodzi kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pdf bank pko sa kredyt studencki pf kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank żagań kredyt bank włochy potrącanie pożyczki z zasiłku pożyczki ala provident pożyczki społecznościowe w uk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku kredyt bank kraków królewska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wroclaw legnicka pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik u pozyczka uk w 15 min kredyt na kupno samochodu bez bik alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator wkład własny kredyt konsolidacyjny znaczenie pozyczki w lodzim z dojazdem do klienta kredyty mieszkaniowe współpraca pożyczki w warszawie kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej pożyczki pozabankowe lista firm kredyt bez bik zory pożyczki pod zastaw nidzica czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie kredyty bez bik tablica pożyczki w domu zawiercie kredyt bank sa investor relations pożyczki bez bik na święta pożyczka 15000 bez bik online łatwy kredyt w banku pożyczki bocian lublin pożyczki prodomo kredyt studencki pko forum pożyczki na weksel lublin umowa pożyczki właścicielskiej kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie 2011 kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt bank w rawiczu pożyczki prywatne kłodzko kredyt bez bik i krd dla firm kredyt bez bik łódź mirosław czyżykowski pożyczki getin bank kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne gdynia kredyt bank lublin jutrzenki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa oddział w lublinie chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki spłacana w ratach kredyty bez biku malbork pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych gdzie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy warszawa pożyczki z pfron pożyczki dla małych firm bez bik kredyt bank uk getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl umowa poręczenia pożyczki pożyczki na założenie firmy pożyczki nakło nad notecią mikropożyczki dla polski wschodniej kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 kredyt chwilówka warszawa grochowska pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk kredyt bank w kaliszu umorzenie pożyczki ze środków obrotowych kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny jak uzyskac pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi przedawnienie pożyczki w skok umowa pożyczki ang kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kontakt kredyt bank żwirki i wigury opole kredyt chwilówka bochnia kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit umowa pożyczki dla członka zarządu kredyt bank radom traugutta godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w nowym targu pożyczki bez bik bez meldunku w dowodzie kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt kredyt bank sanok chopina pożyczki chwilówki wejherowo szybkie pożyczki śląsk kredyty chwilówki łódź kredyt w pko kredyt bank olecko kredyt bank praga południe kredyty chwilówki centrala tychy przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał renegocjacja pożyczki pożyczki gryfino kredyty bankowe forum kredyt bez bik konsolidacyjny pożyczki i należności własne kredyt bank włocławek kontakt pożyczki na niski dochód umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki brodnica pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotowkowy pożyczki ze złą historią w biku w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2012 kredyt bez bik gorzow pożyczki balonowe kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa pożyczki do 5000 bez bik oblicz ratę pożyczki pko bp pożyczki kórnik pożyczki domowe grudziądz santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pozyczki do domu warszawa ankieta pożyczki pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bik kredyt samochodowy a umowa na czas określony pożyczki krecik pozyczki inne niz prowident pożyczka na oświadczenie przez internet pożyczki pod weksel wrocław pożyczki dla polaków w uk kredyt bank czestochowa al nmp kredyt bank z kim się połączył kredyt bank białą podlaska wonga pożyczka od reki bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu pożyczki do domu optima kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w biku pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu kredyt bank oprocentowanie lokat 2013 kredyt bez bik mielec pożyczki konsolidacyjnej baltic money pożyczki kredyt chwilówka wieliczka bankomaty kredyt bank suwałki kalkulator rat pożyczki pko kredyty bez bik mysłowice kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm bez bik kredyty bez bik do 10000 wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe prywatne pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyt marza banku kredyt w mbanku forum pożyczki bankowe dla emerytów pożyczki w uk kredyt bank wielun kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najtaniej pozyczki w mielcu bocian kredyt bank mokotowska 49 warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż opinie dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki dotacje unijne pożyczki partner pożyczki piła pozyczki pozabankowe kartuzy kredyt dla młodych rolników w banku spółdzielczym konto pożyczki udzielone optima kredyty lubin 4you pozyczki w uk kredyt bank rybnik tel pożyczki gotówkowe w anglii pożyczki chwilówki za darmo pożyczki na dowód podobne do bociana czy kredyty chwilówki działają na prawie bankowym kredyty bankowe praktyczny poradnik klienta oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć kredyt bank zmienia właściciela kredyt chwilówka 4000 kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kraków oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt konsolidacyjny przy najniższej krajowej umowa pożyczki między bratem a siostrą kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie depozyty w kredyt banku kredyty konsolidacyjne warunki pożyczki prywatne zdunska wolą pożyczki w domu myszkow kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele kredyty bez bik krosno pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta pożyczka bez banku pożyczki internetowe w 15 minut szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd centrala kredyt bank warszawa kredyt bank gostynin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń koszalin udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego szybka pozyczka duza kwota podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt chwilówka pyskowice pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki osobowej kredyt bank gostyń tel kredyt bank warszawa oddział kredyty w meritum bank pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kraków getin noble bank przewalutowanie kredytu kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń optima pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kontakt wzór umowy pożyczki między firmami połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk kredyt bank długie ogrody kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec orla pożyczki udzielane przez gminę szybkie pożyczki bez bik ostrów wlkp czy kredyt bank ma problemy kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik zawiercie konsolidacja kredytu mbank definicja pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie kredyt w nordea bank opinie udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego marr pożyczki dla firm pożyczki albert pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt studencki bank pekao sa pożyczki olesnica kredyt konsumencki banki credit agricole ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt na pit prosper pożyczki darmowe pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki prywatne sanok pozyczki bez bik pożyczki częstochowa kredyt studencki forum wizaz pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki wrocław alior bank kredyt odnawialny kredyty banki ranking pożyczki bez bik konin kredyty chwilówki kraków librowszczyzna 1 pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej cash machine pożyczki kredyt bank wykupiony kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys poręczenie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank gostyń wlkp kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz rate kredyt chwilówka jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowe zadłużonych kredyt bank konstancińska 2 pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki chwilówki toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot odsetek umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo umowa pożyczki w firmie kredyty chwilówki kielce kredyt studencki wbk 2011 wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór kredyt bank piotrków pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec kredyt bank bez bik alior bank kredyt na auto kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum kredyt bank w zgierzu pożyczki bez bik chełm szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyty forum dyskusyjne kredyt pod zastaw domu bez bik kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl kredyt bez bik do 50 tys poznań wzór na obliczenie raty pożyczki rodzaje kredytów w banku pekao sa bank pekao sa kredyt studencki kredyt bank sprzedaż walut kredyt konsolidacyjny raiffeisen pożyczki 30000 alior bank kredyt warunki opty pożyczki koszalin szukam pożyczki gotówkowej kalkulator zdolności kredytowej 2012 kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki optima kredyt w koncie w banku pocztowym alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego szybkie prywatne pożyczki do ręki w olsztynie kredyty bez bik włocławek kredyt bank kody jednorazowe kredyt w millenium bank umowa pożyczki przelewem prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz pożyczka z komornikiem śląsk bank brodnicki kredyt forum udzielenie pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki w walucie kredyt bez bik tarnowskie góry pożyczki balonowe pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowod umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej kredyt bank żyrardów godziny otwarcia getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator jak zaksięgować zaciągnięty kredyt bankowy kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik pozyczka bez bik kielce oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kalkulator wzór umowy pożyczki cywilnej pozyczki na wysoki procent od ludzi prywatnych pożyczki bez bik legionowo kredyty i pożyczki ściąga kredyt bank błonie placówki kredyt banku wrocław kalkulator procentowy pożyczki kod na kredyt w orange mix kredyt bank polna 11 kredyt bankowy pojęcie pożyczki społecznościowe kraków pożyczki bankowe włocławek pozyczka podobna do okam uk niespłacone pożyczki lokata jesienna w kredyt banku pożyczki dla firm śląsk kredyt bank leba mbank kredyt samochodowy online oprocentowanie pożyczki jeremie forum kredyt bank lokata 10 kredyty chwilówki zduńska wola kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank kredyt bank dyrektor finansowy kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt kredyt bank śląski kalkulator kredyt bank adresy warszawa kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu pozyczka pod weksel czestochowa kredyty bez bik kwidzyn kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radlin kredyt bez bik tarnobrzeg kredyt bez bik szybki gdzie dają pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki kredyt bank pelna nazwa kredyt samochodowy getinbank kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe 2010 pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli pożyczki na dowód szczecinek czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu legnica kredyt bank przetargi pożyczki prywatne zielona góra oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyty bez umowy przedawnienie pożyczki w skoku pożyczki prywatne koszalin kredyt bank warta ubezpieczenia kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror pożyczki bez krd pożyczki dla emerytów kredyt bank lokata jesienna kredyt bez bik tychy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osob zadluzonych pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego rafał konarski pożyczki oblicz oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 kswp końskie pożyczki pożyczki unijne dla małych firm podkarpacie kredyt bank sa wikipedia kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 uzasadnienie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bank ełk godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi lublin kredyty banki spółdzielcze kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki maksymalne koszty pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki wołomin dekretacja pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt bez bik racibórz kredyt bank wyniki 2012 cetelem bank kredyt przez internet pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza kredyt bank warszawa ul powstańców śląskich kredyt bank centrala lublin kontakt pożyczki inwestycyjne pożyczki gotówkowe provident kredyt bankowy długoterminowy podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice obligacje narodowej pożyczki rozwoju sił polski kredyt bank w warszawa kredyt bank gazele biznesu pożyczki z tygodniową spłatą szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online pożyczki chwilówki dla emerytów pozyczki na dowod osobisty warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt samochodowy w getin banku forum pożyczki dla uczniów pożyczki lombardowe warszawa parametry pożyczki umowa przedwstępna pożyczki wpływ pożyczki na rachunek walutowy kredyt bank sa w białymstoku

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad