pożyczki na dowód osobisty bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank santander bank kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny rzeszów alior bank kredyt technologiczny brak zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank w grodzisku mazowieckim banki które udzielają kredytów bez biku kredyty chwilówki głubczyce pożyczki bez bik gumtree kredyt gotówkowy w lukas banku activa 500 pożyczki od ręki umowa pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa gwarant pozyczki piotrkow tryb potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy tytuł przelewu pożyczki spłata pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt chwilówka jaworzno kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy pożyczki uk kredyty chwilówki pit pożyczki w 24 godziny alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank w bolesławcu kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank piła kredyt gotówkowy bank bph szybkie pożyczki gdańsk kredyt w skoku rafineria z komornikiem chwilówki kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez krd i bik dąbrowa górnicza kredyt w alior banku opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód kredyt chwilówka jakie oprocentowanie bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyty chwilówki płock opinie kredyty chwilowki konskie kredyt w banku aig bocian pożyczki czarnków kredyt bank olkusz kontakt kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kredyt konsolidacyjny pbs kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz umowa pożyczki z cudzoziemcem kredyt bank zabki kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator kredyt samochodowy dla firm bez bik kredyty bez bik gorzow pożyczki dla firm bez bik zaświadczeń kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia pożyczki od 18 roku życia pożyczki na energię odnawialną pożyczki dla widniejących w krd pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadczen elk brak zdolności kredytowej umowa o kredyt prosty wzór kredyt bank tbg mały kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne 2012 zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki kredyty chwilówki nowy targ kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarza umowa pożyczki od udziałowców umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bank adresy w warszawie pożyczki w żagiel pożyczki kasa fiskalna przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał kredyt konsulidacyjny gliwice odmowa pożyczki w vivus pożyczki marka kredyt bank jakie bankomaty za darmo kredyt bank sanok chopina pożyczki internetowe chwilówki pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt bank kętrzyn kredyt bez bik do 20000 kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków kredyt mieszkaniowy dochody z zagranicy kredyty bez weryfikacji w biku bank pekao sa kredyty dla firm kredyt bank sa o koszalin pożyczki łódź chwilówki kalkulator pożyczki w pko bp kredyt bank gdynia bławatna 11 referat kredyty kredyt bank kapitał udzielę pożyczki na procent 2013 pożyczka na dowód choszczno kredyt cetelem bank szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2014 kredyt getin banku pożyczki lublin kredyty kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice kredyt bank dębica godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing kredyt bank lubin godziny otwarcia pożyczki od 18 roku życia kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyty chwilówki pszczyna pożyczki na dowód zamość szybkie pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock oprocentowanie pożyczki bankowej wanluks pożyczki kredyt bank kapelanka zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem kredyt samochodowy bank tarnów anulowanie umowy pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe do 5000 podobne pozyczki do vivuss cesja z umowy pożyczki kredyt bank w ostrołęce pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyty chwilówki pracownicy kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium pożyczki bydgoszcz na dowód umowa pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bank lista placówek pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat kredyty chwilówki skok stefczyka pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom pożyczka meritum stargard kredyt jako produkt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 pożyczki z poczty udzielam uczciwych prywatnych pozyczek feniks pożyczki opinie oddziały kredyt banku kredyt bank pakiet medyczny pożyczki jeremie wrocław kredyt bank sa łódź oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kalkulator getin noble bank kredyt na samochod pożyczki euroloan konsolidacja kredytów w mbanku banki dające wszystkim kredyt samochodowy prywatne pożyczki pod weksel łódź male kredyty anglia pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emerytów kredyt konsolidacyjny gliwice kredyt konsolidacyjny lublin cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy istota pożyczki pożyczki na pół roku mikro pożyczki zamiast dotacji nowa pożyczka bez bik nowy kredyt w domu kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm lukas bank kredyt online capital pożyczki kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny pożyczki od osób prywatnych poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny co znaczy kredyt pozabankowy bez bik krd umowa pożyczki a pcc pożyczki prywatne olkusz kredyt bank sa chorzów kredyty bez biku wałbrzych kredyt w orange na jaki numer pożyczki na dowód turek activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu pozyczki prywatne wejherowo umorzenie pożyczki w walucie kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie alex pożyczki wrocław kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w sopocie kredyty chwilowki konskie umowa spłaty pożyczki kredyt dla policjantow kredyt w banku czeskim kredyty chwilówki łódź piotrkowska pożyczki publiczne kredyt bank jastarnia pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyt bank obecna nazwa pożyczki online na dowód bez bik nowe kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki na weksel łódź pożyczki chwilówki ostróda kredyt bank toruń umowa pożyczki pod zabezpieczenie pożyczki z unii dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy mój dom odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit warunki udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank świdwin bocian pożyczki tomaszów maz kredyt bank rzeszów 3 maja wycena pożyczki wg zamortyzowanego kosztu pożyczki gotówkowe dla lekarzy pożyczki bez bik sanok kredyt bank sa kontakt kredyty bez biku szczecin getin noble bank kredyty ratalne pożyczki z komornikiem śląsk pożyczki preferencyjne śląsk optima direct pożyczki kredyty chwilówki pruszków praca opinie usługi finansowe pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw świdnik pozyczki żary na dowod bocian pożyczki forum kredyt bank kursy walut chf kredyt bank poznań morawskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska pożyczki na nową firmę kruk pożyczki kontakt kredyty chwilówki tychy tel tytuł przelewu pożyczki pożyczki nowość prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk kredyt bank kobierzyńska kredyt bez bik żory umowa pożyczki zakładowej wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem kredyt bank rejtana rzeszów pożyczki bez bik słubice lubuskie pożyczki arimr kalkulator kredytowy kredyt gotówkowy pko bp kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kościuszki bocian pożyczki kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emerytów kredyt bank nowa dęba kredyt bank w swarzędzu lukas bank kredyt bez biku kredyt bank limit kredytowy pożyczki bez komornika i biku na dowód w szczecinie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie pożyczki bez bik porównanie kredyt pocztowy na dowód kredyt bankowy proz kredyt inwestycyjny banku bgż najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta kredyt w banku gbs kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństw kredyt bank pbs kredyt bez biku na dowód kredyt studencki banki pożyczki pozabankowe na umowe cywilno prawna udziele pożyczki prywatnie udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik nysa umowa do pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu bocian pożyczki lubuskie umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek kredyt bank konskie w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki bez bik łuków bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie odsetki od pożyczki cypr pożyczki chwilówki zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank b24 kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza kredyt bank janów lubelski kontakt umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek mikropożyczki dla polski wschodniej kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy konsolidacja kredytu w wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny z bikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny bez nieruchomości pożyczka bez bik na samochód co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam pożyczki w bankach ranking pozyczki atiz w miescie krotoszyn kontakt alior bank kredyt bez bik kredyt samochodowy pożyczki pozabankowe kętrzyn kredyt bank olkusz godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik w legnicy pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli pożyczki państwowe kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki bez bik małopolska pożyczki od osób prywatnych wrocław kredyt samochodowy ranking sierpien 2013 pożyczki z niską ratą umowy pożyczki gotówki szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica pożyczki bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 rok pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie banków pożyczki firmowe kredyt w idea bank kredyty chwilówki świdnik potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia kredyt bank złodzieje pożyczki chwilówki przez internet uk pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom pożyczki dla firm ranking pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice regulamin kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych wrocław kredyt samochodowy fortis bank opinie szybkie pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyt bank warszawa wolska kredyt bank białystok ul mickiewicza santander kupuje kredyt bank 2012 matematyka finansowa pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice pożyczki z unii europejskiej kredyty gotówkowe bph kalkulator kredyt bank śliska kredyty chwilówki na oświadczenie umowa użyczenia pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki finansowej kredyt kielce prosty kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne mielec kredyt bez bik w słupsku umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór santander consumer bank kredyty samochodowe oświadczenie o otrzymaniu pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty pożyczki na zasadach de minimis pożyczka na procent pod mieszkanie wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej szybkie pożyczki śląsk bocian pożyczki lębork optima pożyczki konin kredyt bank gliwice telefon kredyt bank łuków telefon kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy legitymacja umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk konsolidacja kredytu mbank kredyt bank żagiel wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe pko sa zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem kredyty chwilówki skawina kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki bocian chodzież pożyczki nau pożyczki pieniężne w rodzinie kredyt bank jana pawła kredyt bank marketing kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe na spłatę zadłużenia kredyt bank warszawa ul kondratowicza pożyczki studenckie uk pożyczki chwilówki jędrzejów eurolan pożyczki pożyczki na dowód oprocentowanie pożyczki bez bik krd big kredyt bank kosciuszki sopot pożyczki kaktus pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt bank gdansk targ drzewny kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w bik pozyczka bez big w domu klienta idea bank kredyt online opinie kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 22 w jakim banku mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod kredyty chwilówki proszę o pomoc pożyczki bezpośrednie alior bank kredyt dla firm kronos pozyczki przyznawalnosc kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat pożyczki pozabankowe włocławek pożyczki prywatne tarnów pozyczki bialogard przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyty gotówkowe przez internet bez bik pożyczki na dowód ing alior bank kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank sa ii oddział w olsztynie pożyczki ślimak bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki feniks kredyty chwilówki na liście knf kredyt według prawa bankowego pożyczka bez procentu bank pko sa pożyczki bez erif, pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd big pożyczki wspólpraca pozyczki umowa na zlecenie krakow kredyt chwilówka ostrów mazowiecka poręczenie pożyczki krzyżówka pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód warszawa pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt bank gdańsk telefon obliczanie raty pożyczki ing kredyt bank grunwaldzka rzeszów kredyt bank poznań winogrady pożyczki pozabankowe do 40000 pożyczki dla dzieci pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki bank zachodni kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt na auto bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe pozabankowe kredyt bank maków maz godziny otwarcia wzory dokumentów pozew o zwrot pożyczki kredyty bez biku zielona góra pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki geronimo udzielić pożyczki kudoz kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander consumer bank kredyt idea bank ze wsparciem unijnym pożyczki dla górników kredyt konsolidacyjny a ulga odsetkowa bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania pozyczki prywatne przez telefon na terenie lublina pożyczki plan kont mikropożyczki wielkopolska kredyt studencki 2013 opinie pożyczki z funduszy unijnych wzór umowy pożyczki rodzinnej wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyt bank warszawa ciołka godziny otwarcia kod kredytowy w orange pożyczki chwilówki racibórz kredyty pozabankowe kraków skarabeusz pożyczki kalisz polecane pożyczki prywatne kredyt firmowy idea bank opinie pożyczki bez bik rawicz kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bgz kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku pozyczka na dowód w tesco kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie warunki pożyczki warp umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór bocian pożyczki opinie gowork kredyt bank sa żagiel lublin pronus pożyczki kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyty bez bik ruda slaska dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki ok pożyczki pozabankowe przepisy kredyt bank w piszu pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowod kredyt samochodowy bez bik i zaświadczeń mcredit pożyczki pożyczka online bez krd 24h pożyczki łomża preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie lublin pozyczka na dowod bez dochodu wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla nowych firm pożyczki nakło kredyty pozabankowe bez biku sosnowiec pożyczki pozabankowe vivus kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank łuków praca pożyczki unijne na rozpoczęcie działalności bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt bank warszawa patriotów pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat wycena pożyczki w euro umowa pożyczki do wypełnienia pożyczki bocian gorzow wlkp pozyczki na doeod bez biku na dowod telefon zary wyciągi w kredyt banku kredyt bank busko zdrój godziny otwarcia szukam pożyczki pod nieruchomość pożyczki i należności własne pożyczki pomiędzy firmami konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy a pcc optima pożyczki zarobki kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki niedozwolone klauzule pożyczka bez bik i krd abis pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin szybka pozyczka kwidzyn bank abis pożyczki dla każdego kredyt bank garbary 71 poznań wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad