pożyczki provident forum kredyt bank ipad kredyty chwilowki piekary sl bocian pożyczki lublin kredyt bank kalwaria zebrzydowska wcześniejsza spłata kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki online bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia pożyczki bez dochodów przez internet kredyty mieszkaniowe przelicznik pwr pożyczki kredyty chwilówki złotoryja umowa pożyczki w euro pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec pożyczki bocian ostrowiec kredyt w banku jaki procent pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt z orange 5 zł kredyt bank placówki kredyt bank os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla uczących się wzór umowy pożyczki z wekslem kredyt bank założenie konta kredyt bank fuzja forum kredyt dla firm bez bik us zus umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt inwestycyjny ranking banków pożyczki online z bikiem kredyt bank hajnówka pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator lukas bank kredyt w millenium bank kredyt bank w białymstoku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu pożyczki abc alior bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki bez daty zwrotu kredyt bank forum 2011 prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód pożyczki katowice 3 maja kredyty chwilówki pszczółka pożyczki opinie dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki kredyty bez biku poznań kredyty bez biku łódź pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2013 odsetki od pożyczki cit kredyty bez bik chojnice pożyczki bez bik dla prowadzących działalność kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto pożyczki prywatne zawiercie praktyki w kredyt banku opinie kredyty chwilówki oleśnica getin bank online kredyt samochodowy kredyt bez bik krotoszyn kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie kredyt samochodowy kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk umowa pożyczki w walucie kredyt bankowy a kupiecki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wniosek jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank chwaszczyńska gdynia pozyczki net zdunska wola kredyty chwilówki giszowiec kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec pozyczki krosos windykacja kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd pozyczki 18lat bialystok konsolidacja kredytu bz wbk umowa pożyczki między firmami a pcc kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku opole kredyt bank szczecin telefon kredyty duże na dowód wrocław pożyczki chwilówki rawicz kredyt bez bik w pile pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt bez bik banki umowa pożyczki z datą wsteczną księgowanie pożyczki z bgk jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczka przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki jasło szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez biku pożyczki chwilówki swarzędz pożyczki myszków kredyty chwilówki piekary kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik konwersja pożyczki na akcje pożyczki warszawa bez bik pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń dzierzoniow profi kredyt kontakt klodzko ekasa pożyczki kredyt bank plock wyszogrodzka kredyty chwilowki zary lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie kredyty bez bik sanok uczciwe pożyczki prywatne pożyczki z ue dla firm pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego getin bank chwilowki bez zdolnosci kredytoeej na dowod pożyczki chwilówki słupsk wojska polskiego kredyt dla banku nabywcy kredyt bank ciołka godziny otwarcia mennica pożyczki opinie kredyty w którym banku kredyt bank zgubiona karta kredyt bank żeromskiego 41 niskie pożyczki warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko polcredit pożyczki ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt bank ekstrabiznes kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna jak zawiesić kredyt w banku oświadczenie o umorzeniu pożyczki alior bank kredyt firmowy pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewania grosza pożyczka 5000 zl w bankuspółdzielczym kredyt bank poznań adres umowa pożyczki ratalnej db kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kredyt bank rejestracja bartek pozyczki pożyczki pozabankowe garwolin luban sl prywatna pozyczka carecash pożyczki kredyty bez biku rzeszow kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 pozyczka z funduszu bez baz częstochowa pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank częstochowa oddziały umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank numer swift pożyczki bez bik krd i zaświadczeń kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank pocztowy pożyczki nieoprocentowane pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki prywatne od prywatnych inwestorów kredyty chwilówki sucha beskidzka pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt bank lubań pfron pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt bank gdynia bławatna kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy kredyt bank lublin narutowicza telefon kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzaje pożyczki dla będących w bik kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe pożyczki dla firm bph kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt pozyczki od osob prywatnych poznan kredyty chwilówki myslenice kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt samochodowy sygma bank kredyt w banku z bik kredyt bez bik opole pożyczki za 1 grosz kredyty konsolidacyjne z komornikiem dobra pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat bankomat kredyt bank sieradz koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej proton kredyt częstochowa pożyczki w uk po polsku umowa pożyczki spółka kredyt bank logo parametry pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny przy zajęciu komorniczym kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz postea pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki najnowsze mbank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowe forum alior bank kredyt obrotowy kredyty mieszkaniowe statystyka kredyt konsolidacyjny na angielskie zarobki przedawnienie pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi godziny księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd praca w bocianie pożyczki udziele pozyczki w bydgoszczy ranking kredytów samochodowych lipiec 2013 kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin kredyt bank władze pożyczki bez bik krd online kredyty dla zadluzonych białogard pozyczki w uk po polsku kredyt bank kraków nowa huta ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku dukat wawa pożyczki podatek od umowy pożyczki 2012 kredyt orange 1zl zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki akt kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie kredyt bank śledziewski bocian pozyczki radom kredyt bank janów lubelski godziny otwarcia w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum kredyt bez bik do 10 tys nowe konto w kredyt banku kredyt bank sa centrala w warszawie kod do kredytu w orange kredyt bank nr telefonu kredyt bank piekary śl kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zdolności pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt bez bik pomorskie getin bank kredyt samochodowy wcześniejsza spłata gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank bialystok sklodowskiej pozyczka 3000 gdansk pożyczki w lombardach eurocent podobne pozyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód kredyty chwilówki internet kredyt z banku bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki prywatne wypelnij wniosek kredyt bez bik 3 tyś dobranie pożyczki w skok mikropożyczki pokl udzielić pożyczki proz kredyt bank biuro maklerskie pożyczki typu provident warszawa kredyt bank wloclawek kredyty bankowe online pożyczki dla małych firm na start umorzenie pożyczki pkzp szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet eures pożyczki kronos pożyczki warszawa kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt do reki warszawa pożyczki bez konta bankowego kredyt bank w glogowie pożyczki bez bik przasnysz pożyczki kaśka kredyty chwilówki gdańsk opinie wizja lokalna w kredyt banku tubielewicz pożyczki kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki bez bik ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki dla firm bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank sa tarnobrzeg szybki kredyt dla firm online pożyczki chwilówki online opinie kredyt bank w zgorzelcu pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych pożyczki dla nieletnich pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin kredyt samochodowy w millenium bank kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy millenium forum kredyt bank niepodległości poznań kredyt bank w świdnicy kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska kredyt mieszkaniowy oferty banków kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika kredyt bank na 120 miesiecy kredyt konsolidacyjny windykacja pożyczki z zfśs podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni umowa pożyczki podatek pcc oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki chwilówki lubuskie kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala oświadczenie udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty żyrafa pożyczki krs umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem kredyt bank leszno regon ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z banku kredyt w banku pko sa forum pożyczki żabka cała polska bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim pozyczka przez internet bez zaswiadczen o dochodach kredyt bank konsolidacyjny pozyczki publiczne zalety pożyczki dla firm ranking pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową konsolidacja kredytów w mbanku pożyczki ślimak poznań pożyczki bez bik w 15 min kredyty bez bik internetowe zwrot pożyczki proz kredyt bank zgorzelec kontakt kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki ebroker kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki do spełnienia pożyczki barczewo pożyczki przez internet pożyczki z inicjatywy jeremie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia sobota ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt samochodowy ranking kalkulator amortyzacja pożyczki umowa pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wejherowo kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator kredyt bank bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki rekrutacja w kredyt banku pożyczki udzielane przez gminy kredyt bank warszawa wawelska kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki gofin kredyt bank biuro powiernictwa jak obliczyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór pko bp kredyt studencki legitymacja pożyczki głubczyce alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu numer kontaktowy do mennicy pozyczki jelenia gora spłata pożyczki angielski kredyt w banku zachodnim forum pożyczki społecznościowe statystyki na jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange prawo cywilne pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki wkład własny kredyt konsolidacyjny marża opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce umorzenie pożyczki walutowej pozyczki w uk po polsku zopa ing bank śląski kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt studencki jaki bank wybrac pozyczki bez bik z obsluga w domu getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty mieszkaniowe wymagania odsetki od pożyczki wibor kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie pożyczki chwilówki piotrków trybunalski kredyt bank bielsko sixta pozyczki nasielsk warszawska na oswiadczenie alior bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny banki kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb pożyczki chwilówki lubań pożyczki gotówkowe do domu klienta bocian pożyczki ełk przelewy w kredyt banku pożyczki graniczna lublin kredyt bank wydruk potwierdzenia pożyczki bez kosztów pożyczki no dowód elblag bocian pożyczki nowogard pożyczki chwilówki w pile kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kredyt bank żołnierska optima szybkie pożyczki kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra pożyczki artykuł definicja pożyczki krótkoterminowej pro domo pożyczki kontakt nowe miasto lubawskie potrzebuje pożyczki mam komornika okres pożyczki pożyczki alternatywne pożyczki bez bik piotrkow kredyt konsolidacyjny porównywarka kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk potrzebny kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczka na dowod bex biku zary telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny a komornik podatek pcc od pożyczki udziałowca kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne kredyt bank nowy świat 2 pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeńpoznan zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy pożyczki bez bik zielona góra pozyczki poza bankowe typu provident mikropożyczki toruń kredyt bank krosno lewakowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt gotowkowy chwilowka tczew pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska pożyczki chwilówka kredyty chwilowki sprawdzają bik euroloan pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki rejestracja w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bank świecie telefon udzielenie pożyczki spółce cywilnej przez wspólnika kredyty konsolidacyjne z opóźnieniami pożyczki bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyty chwilówki grajewo udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi kredyt bank w krakowie ul kalwaryjska kredyt bank poleasingowe bocian pożyczki białystok kredyty chwilówki dębica pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik online pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki 10000 kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok jaworzno bocian pożyczki bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie pożyczki kartuzy udzielane w domu wrocław pożyczki prywatne pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork kredyt bank żniwna pożyczki od osób prywatnych radom kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś banku pożyczki mokotowska pekao sa kredyt wpis w big kredyty i pożyczki ściąga istota kredytu i pożyczki kredyty chwilówki rmf wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór kredyt samochodowy mbank symulacja pożyczki bocian reklama nieuczciwe pożyczki bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm prowident krakow pozyczk pozyczki jredyty zakopane które banki dają kredyt w euro pozyczka na dowod inowroclaw pożyczki bez bik zabrze pożyczki dla start up pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych pożyczki niskie oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki proz prestige pozyczki czestochowa kredyt bank karta visa kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank kredyty chwilówki firma kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji kredyt bank lubartów telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż opinie kredyt bank busko zdrój kontakt kredyt bez bik eurobank jak obliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty numer kontaktowy do mennicy pozyczki jelenia gora kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej szybkie pożyczki grudziądz pożyczki kredyty bez historii kielce pożyczki pozabankowe pozyczka bocian bytom pozyczki abrewo kredyty bez bik w kaliszu kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opłaty bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych zielona góra kredyt bank polska adres kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank bz wbk połączenie szybki kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt bank ii oddział szczecin kredyt bank koszt przelewu pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent skarabeusz pożyczki olkusz kredyt bez biku i zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki od pracodawcy visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki pozabankowe ełk zabezpieczenie pożyczki nieruchomością gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik pożyczki bez bik giżycko bank pko kredyt 20000zł kredyt w bank of ireland forum kredyty chwilówki łódź rzgowska umowa pożyczki a zabezpieczenie umowa pożyczki pisemna kredyt bank zagiel kontakt kredyt tarnobrzeg

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad