kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny 60000 bocian pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bank bric pt wygodne pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sa praca kredyt bank wrocłąw w jakim banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt kredyt bank w lesznie pożyczki gotówkowe łomża kredyt bank lease kredyt bank w rumi pożyczki bez dochodów kielce kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt konsolidacyjny dla każdego bank pekao kredyt online bez zaświadczeń pożyczki świebodzin kredyty chwilówki białystok umowa pożyczki spółce umowa pożyczki realna czy konsensualna wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki agh kredyt bank sa warszawa pożyczki kalkulator lukas bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku czy podatek pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym kredyt bank prudnik kredyt bank rawicz kontakt jaki jest numer do finan pozyczki kredyt w m bank bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt pożyczki ozorków praca w bocianie pożyczki kredyty bankowe pasywa kredyt konsolidacyjny na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny boś umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank poznań oddziały kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace umowa pożyczki charakterystyka bocian pozyczki wniosek kredyty chwilówki wieluń praca kredyt bankowy długoterminowy pożyczki chwilówki legionowo kredyt bank zambrów pożyczki chwilówki skok bip pożyczki warszawa gdzie pozyczke bez grosza kredyt bank w nidzicy pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać wzory umów pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki gotówkowe uk kredyty chwilowki glogow pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie kredyty bez biku wroclaw pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyt chwilówka oleśnica umowa o kredyt prosty wzór kredyt bank knurów pożyczki takie jak w providencie kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa śliska kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki indywidualne szybkie pozyczki w domu kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka pożyczki pozabankowe dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki pcc pożyczki od ręki gdynia kredyt bez bik i poreczycieli kredyt bank rachunki bankowe pożyczki chwilówki ostrowiec kredyt bank przedłużona gwarancja kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank kredyt bank rezygnacja z konta umowa pożyczki na firmę kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż kredyt bez bik na firme micro finance pożyczki kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd pożyczki kościan pożyczki kokos forum kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego kredyt studencki w bz wbk miś pożyczki konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy podatek kredyt bank pruszcz gdański kredyt w banku warunki kredyt bank karpacz kredyty chwilówki nr konta kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 kredyty santander pożyczki jako źródło finansowania umowa pożyczki wzory umów ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank osiedle polan poznań pożyczki na dowód od 18lat z bik pożyczki bez bik wieluń getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki prywatne a prawo kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online umowa poręczenia pożyczki kredyt bank marszałkowska kredyty chwilówki panel logowania wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód kredyty chwilówki partner logowanie umowa pożyczki z członkiem zarządu kredyt bank infolinia z komórki pożyczki prabuty tubielewicz pożyczki wong pożyczki express finance pożyczki kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kraków kredyty online bez bik pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat anglia omnico pożyczki getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyt bank 3 oddział warszawa pożyczki na dowód kutno kredyt bank pocztowy opinie kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt samochodowy w getin banku opinie pożyczki chwilówki żnin udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi błyskawiczne pożyczki online pozyczki bez bik wegrow umowa pożyczki wzór darmowy kredyt bank chełmska kredyt bank fuzja pożyczki żyrafa opinie kredyt bez biku poznan kredyt dla policjantow kredyt getin bank opinie pożyczki chwilówki olkusz kredyt bank ken 19 kredyty bez bik dla emerytów odmowa pożyczki vivus pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica kredyty chwilówki kępno kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki tylko na dowód przez internet kredyt samochodowy w banku pko bp kredyt studencki pko wakacje kredyt bank kamienna góra godziny otwarcia kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik millennium pożyczki kredyty bez bik mazowieckie kredyt bank dom maklerski pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki bezzwrotne dla młodych rolników kredyt bank w gorzowie pożyczki nakło nad notecią pożyczki chwilówki rrso jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać kredyt bank lokaty 2011 kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska pożyczki na dowód olsztynek pożyczki kredyty dla rolników kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew kredyt bank w starogardzie gdańskim poszukuję pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki na dowód kłodzko kredyt w uk dla każdego kredyt bez biku jaki bank kredyty bez biku i krd na sam dowów w kielcach pożyczki pod zastaw jelenia góra kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli forum pożyczki morąg kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny karta kredytowa w jakim banku wziasc kredyt mieszkaniowy szybko i bez umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik i poreczycieli pożyczki gotówkowe szybko auto kredyt bez biku marcin adler pożyczki kredyt bank założyciele bocian pożyczki wniosek kredyt bank zagiel kontakt kredyty chwilówki opole książąt opolskich kredyty chwilowki slupsk kredyt bank wrocław telefon pozyczka online 24h bez przelewu 1 grosza kredyt bank sa tel kredyt bank wola warszawa w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód gros pożyczki kwidzyn pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt bank dane kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 idea bank kredyt na start forum prawo bankowe kredyt gotówkowy kredyty w jakim banku kredyt prywatny świdnica umowa pożyczki kpc pożyczki preferencyjne dla przedsiębiorców kredyt bank radom traugutta umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulatory kredyt bank grupa kbc mlc pożyczki aktywna umowa pożyczki kredyt bez bik na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank fax kredyt bank gdańśk kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki tczew pożyczki wąbrzeźno pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości zielona góra pożyczki bez dochodów przez internet kredyt bank aleksandrów kujawski kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator pozyczki prodomo wejherowo bocian pożyczki bez bik pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz optima pożyczki godziny pracy kredyty chwilówki windykacja opinie pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz pozyczki pozabankowe 7 ledziny pożyczki międzychód pożyczki dla fundacji kredyt bank książkowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu kredyt w banku pko kalkulator kredyty bez bik radom kredyt bank bogatynia telefon podatek pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki do 15000 wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki chwilówki bez bik przez internet kredyt bank profile umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat kredyt bank legnica kredyty chwilówki jarocin preferencyjny kredyt studencki banki kredyty gotówkowe bez bik łódź nowa pożyczka bez bik kredyt studencki pko dyplom pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej kredyt bank bonifacego eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank rekrutacja pożyczki dla emerytów bez ograniczeń wiekowych kredyt bank braniewo konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie kredyt gotówkowy alior bank forum oprocentowanie pożyczki bankowej ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 nowe pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet anulowanie umowy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód złotoryja szybkie pożyczki online forum kredyt bank spółka akcyjna kredyty bez bik i krd dla firm pożyczki pod weksel warszawa zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt chwilówka wodzisław umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką wspólnikiem kredyty pozabankowe konsolidacyjne kredyt bank kanały dystrybucji umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank grójecka 186 godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pracujac za granica oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyt bank notowania akcji pożyczki bez bik elbląg kredyt chwilowki poznań kredyty bez bik lębork kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska umowa pożyczki odsetki za zwłokę kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych w uk kredyt on line bez biku provident pożyczki dla firm kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych pożyczki prywatne głogów umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus pożyczki chwilówki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank pomoc kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika id/gdzie-szybki-kredyt-bez-bik/'>gdzie szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski euro pożyczki opinie pożyczki pozabankowe konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank aktualne oprocentowanie lokat kredyty chwilówki radom praca kredyt bank w bialej podlaskiej kredyty bez bik kraków pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku kredyt bank wojska polskiego kredyt bank należy do regulamin pożyczki skok kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyty bez bik mińsk mazowiecki kredyty bez biku i zaświadczeń pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt bez bik grojec pożyczki chwilówki 24h kredyt w alior banku forum pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt chwilówka co to jest pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów kredyt bank ustka kredyt bank radom tel pozyczka bez bik pod zabezpieczenie boleslawiec kredyty chwilówki kraków bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank warszawa lokaty kredyt bank aktywacja karty kredyt bank warszawa centrum godziny otwarcia pożyczki jst kredyt konsolidacyjny do 15 lat wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyt bez bik dolnośląskie kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński pozyczki bez bik pozabankowe kredyt gotówkowy bez bik poznan bocian pożyczki białogard elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego pożyczki dla nieletnich kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych wrocław bocian pożyczki świnoujście regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bankowy bez bik placówka warszawa kredyt do reki warszawa kredyt studencki 2013 banki pożyczki chwilówki kielce pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kto daje gdzie najszybciej kredyt online na koncie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyty chwilówki tychy niepodległości wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa pozyczki domowe pozyczki dla zadluzonych od lat 19 przez internet z banku wzięto kredyt w wysokości 2000 zł pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyt bank wroclaw kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów kredyt bank warszawa nowy świat kredyty chwilówki cieszyn kredyt bank altus katowice kredyt bank w lublinie ul narutowicza pożyczki gotówkowe zielona góra pożyczki kredyty chwilówki kredyt bez bik 3000 pozyczka na dowod osobisty numer tel chełm podatek od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik unicredit pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe działalność gospodarcza kalkulator zdolnosci kredytowej santander bank pozorna umowa pożyczki pożyczki dla małych firm bez bik kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty umowa pożyczki podatek dochodowy spłata pożyczki po niemiecku pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyt bank warszawa al wilanowska kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział koszty pożyczki provident kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank w pile pożyczki bez biku wrocław umowa pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej kredyt bank lwowska pożyczki na dowód głogów pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz kredyt bank tuchola pożyczki 24h kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pelplin godz otwarcia pożyczki od internautów kredyt bank łódz kredyty bez bik i krd łódź pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm umowa pożyczki od spółki dla wspólnika kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino kredyt bank piaskowa góra wałbrzych pożyczki finanse kredyty bez bik w kaliszu żyrafa pożyczki odmowa pożyczki papierów wartościowych eurocash pożyczki lublin udzielenie pożyczki przez gminę dobra umowa pożyczki bocian pożyczki łódź praca oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank kredyty chwilówki wrocław praca kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy kredyt bankowy prawo bankowe kredyt bank sa częstochowa pożyczki chwilówki polkowice prywatne pożyczki pod weksel kraków potwierdzenie spłacenia pożyczki najtańsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum meritum pożyczki bez bik bankomaty kredyt banku ciechanów kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kosiarzy pożyczki bez krd i bik kredyt bank rakowicka kraków pożyczki za 0 zł pozyczki bez bik chelmno pożyczki nasielsk kredyt bank świecie pożyczki bez historii kredytowej kredyt bez bik kalkulator pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów nieruchomości kredyt na samochód używany bez bik jak uzyskac kredyt bez biku kwota pożyczki angielski odsetki od pożyczki kiedy podatek bgż pożyczki dla rolników kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum kredyt bank w suszu kredyt bank zapomniałem pin pożyczki okey potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy pożyczki na dowód rybnik kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki bocian pożyczki infolinia kredyt studencki pko miesiące pożyczki prywatne oprocentowanie kredyty w uk bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki chwilówki w olsztynie limit pożyczki kredyt w noble bank kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa krs pożyczka bez baz 2014 pożyczki na procent jelenia góra pozyczki opole odsetki od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium oprocentowanie pożyczki bez bik do 20 tys wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez bank prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace pożyczki włodawa pożyczka w domu poznań umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi bank pekao sa kredyt studencki wniosek kredyty bankowe rachunkowość pozyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej ostroda pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy kredyty w getin banku pożyczki pozabankowe w częstochowie vivus spłata pożyczki pożyczki z unii kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków pozyczki pozabankowe kasa do reki pożyczki przez internet dla firmy pożyczki a urząd skarbowy pożyczki chwilówki na raty pożyczki dla firm transportowych kredyt bank nostro kredyt gotówkowy santander kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy ranking banków kredyt bank infolinia czynna kredyt bank lokata opinie cash express pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia pożyczki z pfron 2013 Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

Quebec French Sayings -2

Quebec French Sayings -3

Quebec French Sayings - 5

Quebec French Sayings & Words - 6

 

For readers interested in French, there is a great deal of material on my website about Quebec French. Just click below to begin.

 

 

         Acadian Word Pages on This Website

A New Origin of Place Name Acadia

More Acadian French Food Words

Boucane: Cajun Word for "smoke"

Chiard: Acadian Food

Jaser: Acadian 'to blab, to talk a lot'

Acadian Poutine

Chenail/Snye: Acadian Word

More Acadian Words Explained in English

 

 

 

Bibliography of my works published in book form

 

 

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad