wypowiedzenie kredytu credit agricole kredyt bank finanse z zasadami bocian pozyczki warunki udzielenia pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka pożyczki chwilówki w częstochowie spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki mielec kredyt chwilówka debica pozyczki bez biku poznan kredyt bank wojska polskiego pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin umowa pożyczki między znajomymi pożyczki dla firm wrocław zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank kredyt bank wieluń kredyt online kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński kredyty bez bik poznań kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 bocian pożyczki odstąpienie od umowy kredyt chwilówka kłodzko pcc od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami kredyt w eurobanku forum kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyty kredyty chwilowki wodzislaw sl pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs w bilansie pozyczka miedzylllll pożyczki bez bik pruszków pożyczki pod weksel śląsk marka puławy pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank konsolidacja udzielenie pożyczki akcjonariuszowi pożyczki polaków opinie o pszczułce kredyty kredyt bank w goleniowie bocian pozyczki tomaszów maz pożyczki bez banku kredyt bank w zamościu kredyt studencki pko forum pożyczki prywatne 30000 kredyt bank warszawa okęcie kredyty chwilówki w lesznie kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia rachunek depozytowy w kredyt banku pożyczki bez biku na oświadczenie konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty do kapitału udzielę pożyczki na procent kredyt bank sa katowice kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia kredyt w santander consumer bank niebezpieczne pożyczki eurobank kredyt w 15 minut kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium pożyczki w domu klienta gorzów wlkp atiz przykłady pożyczki pożyczki w bankach bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin kredyty bez bik gniezno kredyty chwilówki historia kredyt uk forum alior bank kredyt konsolidacja spłata pożyczki angielski pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała kredyt bank sprzedaż 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw śląskie kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego pożyczki prywatne chwilówki pożyczki na procent płock kredyty bez biku poznań kredyt bank jasło kontakt ranking banków na kredyt kredyt bankowy konto pożyczka chwilówka konin cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium bank kredyt bank w legionowie odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank kod kredyt bank w debicy kredyt bank program systematycznego oszczędzania sms kredyt bez biku kredyty bez bik we wrocławiu umowa pożyczki od wspólnika wzór pożyczki chwilówki nowe firmy umowa pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt mieszkaniowy firma kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs dla emeryta kredyt orange pop 5 zł kredyt pracowniczy pieniążek pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa pożyczki dorfin pożyczki bez bik wodzisław śląski pożyczki bez bik w słupsku kredyt w uk bez historii kredytowej przedawnienie odsetek od pożyczki kredyty chwilówki inwestor kredyty bez bik wierzyciel kredyt konsolidacyjny z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyty chwilówki jelenia góra pożyczki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowej umowa pożyczki za granicą kredyt mieszkaniowy najtańszy forum prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rejestracja pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez zabezpieczeń kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 kredyty bez bik i zdolności kredyt bank lokaty kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt pozabankowe online bocian pożyczki bełchatów kredyt bank csv kredyt bank poznań winogrady kredyt bank knf pożyczki chwilówki żnin pożyczki bez bik pożyczki w bydgoszczy kredyty bez bik kutno kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi umowa pożyczki jeremie kredyt na otwarcie firmy bez bik pożyczki na dowód oświęcim alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu pożyczki w inowrocławiu kredyty bez biku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki dla studentów umowa pożyczki nakaz zapłaty pożyczki internetowe pożyczki społecznościowe kokos forum pożyczki chwilówki goleniów jak zwiększyć kredyt odnawialny pekao kredyt bank lokaty marzec 2012 kredyt bank łódź wólczańska 178 kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyty mieszkaniowe warszawa pożyczki społecznościowe kraków pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko pożyczki cała polska profi credit umowa pożyczki kredyt przez internet w credit agricole pozyczka dla zadluzonych w getin banku bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki społecznościowe portale skarabeusz pożyczki w domu pożyczki eden finance kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa o pracę na czas określony kredyt bank w słubicach czy latwo dostac kredyt w credit agricole kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwiłowki epef pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2013 kredyt bank warszawa al wilanowska wzór umowy pożyczki od siostry nazwa pozyczki udzielonej przez bank przectawiciel bocian pozyczki goleniow kredyt bez bik online 25000 udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu pożyczki bez bik zus us pożyczki dla mających komornika umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka kredyty na auto bez bik kredyty chwilówki łaziska górne kredyt bez bik bank warszawa wzór umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank złotów kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie kredyt bank gwarancja kredyt w banku warunki umowa pożyczki pcc 2012 pożyczki bezzwrotne ckg pożyczki opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec pozyczki bepozyczki bez bik naklo nad notecia kredyt studencki warunki umorzenia kredyt bank godziny otwarcia warszawa kredyt bez biku w skoku kredyt samochodowy w getin banku opinie umowa pożyczki wzór pcc kredyty dla firm bez bik kredyt bank garibaldiego księgowanie przelewów w kredyt banku decyzja pozyczkowa na telefon lub online szybkie pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut kredyt bez sprawdzania biku oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank zwrot pożyczki przychód kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt bank warszawa iv oddział kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank pożyczki chwilówki promocje eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator miś pożyczki umowa pożyczki notariusz cena pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka godziny otwarcia pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach pożyczki pozabankowe płock pożyczki bez bik od ręki pożyczki do 15000 bez bik gdzie dostac kredyt bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów śląsk pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet druk umowy pożyczki pieniędzy getin bank wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz umowa pożyczki a użyczenia cashflow pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny 40000 raty pożyczki z zfśs warunki kredytu w getin banku kredyt bank warszawa grochowska kredyt bank ostrow wlkp pożyczki w domu klienta radom ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki pozyczki pocztowe bocian pożyczki adres banknot pozyczki warszawa pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego kredyt bez bik do 50 tys kredyt bank sokółka godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk zaświadczenie o dochodach pko bp kredyt studencki pożyczki bez bik i krd w domu pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2014 kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż kredyty banku bph kronos pożyczki opinie pożyczki od prywatnych pożyczki chwilówki bez bik ranking wyłudzenia kredytów tarnowskie góry pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska pożyczki ranking 2012 scarabeusz pozyczki piotrkow kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe 50000 kredyt bank warszawa zytnia pożyczki pozabankowe śląskie kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy emerytalnej pozyczki na dowod wloclawek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank godziny otwarcia leszno reklama pożyczki ing żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie bank pko kredyt 20000zł wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki pożyczki chwilówki nysa data wymagalności pożyczki łódź pożyczki prywatne pożyczki chwilówki lubuskie kredyt w getin noble banku opinie provident koszt pożyczki pożyczki kc kredyt bank chełmża pożyczka kielce online pożyczki chwilówki bez bik łódź szybkie pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki odmowa przyznania pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez biku wroclaw kredyt bank marketing kontakt odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek pożyczki prywatne piaseczno bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości nieruchomości oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku udzielenie pożyczki przez udziałowca przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe pomorskie kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki wągrowiec udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez spółkę pożyczki niskooprocentowane kredyt chwilówka ile procent pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyt bank pl kursy walut kredyt bank w mikołowie umowa pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki pozabankowe oświęcim pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych kredyty bez krd do domu kredyt bez biku świdnica pożyczki bocian chodzież pożyczki w bankach bez bik kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank w lezajsku sesje przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt studencki pko żyranci dobry kredyt bez bik pożyczki w 24 godziny pożyczki bocian praca opinie kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska pożyczki myszków umowa pożyczki kara umowna pożyczki bankowe przez internet umowa pożyczki przedawnienie umowa pożyczki jaki podatek pcc pożyczki gotówkowe szybka gotówka od ręki alior bank kredyt na pit wycena pożyczki kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia gliniana kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kredyt bank podstawowe informacje udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie księgowanie pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów pożyczki tax care opinie kredyt w uk jak dostac kredyt samochodowy meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt bank kredyt w uk na rok pożyczki bez bik w domu pożyczki finan umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt bez biku kalisz pożyczki pod zastaw świdnica pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności kredytowej kredyty bez bik w lesznie kredyty chwilówki kadry kredyt mieszkaniowy 350 tys kredyt bank centrum restrukturyzacji i windykacji pożyczki od wspólnika już bez podatku kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2014 r pożyczki wfośigw kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum forum pożyczki prywatne pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy kredyty bez biku pozyczka bialystok bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie w alior bank kredyt chwilówka oleśnica w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt dla emeryta w banku pocztowym pożyczki online z bikiem pozyczki dla rencistow bez bik torun pożyczki 0 kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki bez biku dla zadłużonych kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie pożyczki w domu klienta szczecin jak obliczyć kredyt w banku pożyczki pod weksel gdańsk kredyt studencki pko transze getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt konsolidacyjny czy się opłaca kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel pożyczki do domu opole kredyt bank gostyń godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe na 30 lat pożyczki chwilówki świebodzin kredyt studencki gospodarczy bank wielkopolski abis pożyczki infolinia kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku kredyty chwilówki windykacja odsetki karne od pożyczki najdluzsze kredyty konsolidacyjne udzielić pożyczki po niemiecku prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe katowice kredyty chwilówki na czym polegają kredyt bank w bielanach wrocławskich pożyczki chwilówki bez big pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe lubań kredyt obrotowy w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kraków nowe pożyczki online kredyt bank kubusia puchatka kredyt bank krynica morska kredyty chwilówki libiąż odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej kredyt bank przez internet pożyczki chwilówki człuchów szybkie pożyczki bez poręczycieli prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank korporacje kredyt bank s a centrala kontakt pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyt bez bik swidnica kredyt bank banco santander czy idea bank daje kredyt pod zastaw jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu partner pożyczki piła kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe kredyt chwilówka jaworzno obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych kredyt bez biku 20000 szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław kredyt bank w nowym targu kredyt bank ikze wzor umowy o kredyt wbk extra kasa pożyczki kredyty chwilowki opole cesja pożyczki kredyty bez bik 20000 pozyczka gratka opinie umowa pożyczki pieniężnej podatek pożyczki bez meldunku chwilówka stargard czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie kredyty chwilówki system partner panel logowania spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki gotówkowe lukas bank pożyczki całodobowe bezzwrotne pożyczki dla bezrobotnych uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej praca pleszew biuro kredytowe kredyt bank turek kredyt bank włodawa godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt gotówkowy na dowód kredyt bank archiwalne kursy walut pożyczki od amber gold kredyt w niemieckim banku dla polaka kredyt w banku przedawnienie pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu wcześniejsza spłata kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp prestige pozyczki czestochowa pożyczki w pko bank polski kredyt bank poznan oddzialy szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk wyłudzenie pożyczki provident pożyczki pod zastaw słubice kredyt bank starogard gdański kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie kredyt 2000 zł bez zaświadczeń jelenia gora kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie forum szybkie pożyczki do 2000 najtanszy kredyt w banku pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg kredyt bank gora kalwaria pożyczki od rodziny pcc udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt bank leżajsk targowa kredyt bank w gnieźnie kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym kredyt dla młodych rolników w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki bartuś umowa pożyczki między osobami prawnymi kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kontakt kredyt odnawialny pko bp bik kredyty bez bik w rzeszowie pożyczki gotówkowe z bik pożyczki chwilówki szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm 2013 pożyczki ekspresowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe szybki kredyt bez bik forum opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pożyczki partnerskie kredyt bank opinie kredyt chwilówka co to jest kredyt konsolidacyjny pko opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin bank gdzie szukac pożyczki pozabankowej w starachowice kredyty bez bik swietochlowice pozyczki pieniezne z dojazdem umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej pożyczki bez bik ratalne przyrzeczenie udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki bez bik we wroclawiu zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki firma pożyczki eurobank kredyt w 15 minut dobre pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny a komornik gold cash pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad