kredyty bankowe książka chomikuj kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie kredyt w banku millenium pożyczka z żyrantem pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatami kredyty w pko opinie jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać pożyczki providus kredyt bank metro wierzbno kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace kredyt bank lubaczów pożyczka pozabankowa pożyczki typu bocian pożyczki pozabankowe kraków forum provident pożyczki dla firm konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty pozyczki lubin kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie kredyt orange pod numer pożyczki z ebi umowa pożyczki spółki ze wspólnikiem calkowita splata pozyczki wzor kredyt bank investor relations kredyty chwilówki chorzów batory kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaswiadczen pozyczki bocian kontakt sroda wlkp pożyczki z komornikiem współpraca pożyczki szczecin na umowę niemiecką umowa pożyczki do druku kredyt bank księgowanie wpłat kredyty chwilówki przyznawalność kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik ogłoszenia kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2012 wysokie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez bik 3 tyś umowa pożyczki żyrant warszawa cm kredyt bank burzyńska pożyczki kredyt samochodowy volkswagen bank polska kredyt bank w kamiennej górze pożyczki bez bik program partnerski kredyty santander consumer bank pożyczki pod zastaw nidzica pcc od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami kredyt bez bik cieszyn pożyczki gotówkowe włocławek kredyt bank sulechów godziny otwarcia jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki zfśs w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank iii oddział gdańsk kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny pracy mikropożyczki starachowice kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2012 roku kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking banków bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm pożyczki na dowód chwilówka pożyczki na dowód chojnów szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu kredyt w 15 minut na dowod w kb24 umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury pożyczki hofmana kredyt bank zabrze godziny otwarcia kredyty pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank zielona góra telefon getin bank kredyty bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny po rozwodzie pożyczki społecznościowe a podatek kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt samochodowy credit agricole opinie w ktorym banku wziac kredyt na dom wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia z kredytu optima pożyczki do domu szczecin pożyczki chwilówki stalowa wola kredyt bank liczba placówek kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki kredyt bez bik pruszków obliczanie rat pożyczki pko alior bank kredyt ratalny kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny pożyczki bez bik przez telefon wzór weksla pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe lodz kredyt bank sa w warszawie oddział w lublinie kredyt konsolidacyjny z niska rata odsetki od pożyczki faktura wewnętrzna kredyt bank starzyńskiego pożyczki abc kredyt bank zwycięstwa białystok przekwalifikowanie pożyczki na kapitał pożyczki 10000 kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja rat wzór umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik poznań pożyczki prodomo kredyty bez biku krd kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotowkowy kredyt bank rybnik kontakt kredyty bez bik nysa alior bank kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bez bik jaworzno bank pekao sa kredyty kalkulator kredyt bank świdnica godziny otwarcia bezzwrotne pożyczki dla małych firm pozyczki w domu żnin pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie kredyty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki niezabezpieczone kredyt bank departamenty kredyty chwilówki rozmowa kwalifikacyjna kredyt w banku spółdzielczym warunki kredyt bank w międzyrzecu podlaskim pozyczki w pko kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki otrzymania umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd jaki nr na kredyt w orange kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt kredyt bank w tarnobrzegu kredyt bank kraków kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki na procent w ndm pożyczki chwilówki w 15 minut profit pożyczki włocławek pożyczki cała polska kredyty bankowe podział przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być kredyty chwilówki koszty pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki bez bik skierniewice kredyt konsolidacyjny przy niskich zarobkach pożyczki na procent płock pożyczki przeterminowane abis pożyczki telefon kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt bank sa adres siedziby pwr pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzory kredyt bank conrada godziny otwarcia marża banku kredyt w euro lichwiarskie pożyczki gotówkowe czestochowa gros pożyczki włocławek kredyt bank kto go kupi pożyczki podobne do bociana kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw domu referat kredyty pożyczki chwilówki w krakowie ubezpieczenie pożyczki pko bp dobre kredyty bez biku kredyt bank jakie dokumenty mbank kredyt samochodowy online oprocentowanie umowa przyrzeczenia pożyczki kredyt bank w lublinie ul krakowskie przedmieście kredyty chwilówki internetowe w którym banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej swift adres kredyt bank koszalin pilsudskiego formularz do pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez odsetek kredyt bank włochy ul popularna umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego wzór umowy pożyczki dla spółki pozyczki chojnice kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej eurobank kredyty bez umowy kredyty samochodowe bez bik i krd pożyczki korona kredyt bankowy pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki uzyskania kredyt w getin banku 2012 kredyt bank żagiel lubin część pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na długi okres pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp umowa pożyczki provident kredyty mieszkaniowe z wkładem własnym kariera w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla bez wkładu przeterminowanie pożyczki gros pożyczki toruń pożyczki w domu klienta białystok kraków pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank żytnia pożyczki od prywatnego inwestora kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk kredyt bank bic kredyt bez bik w inowrocławiu niezwrócenie pożyczki kredyt bank 2012 szukam pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank focha bydgoszcz kredyt studencki pko bp przedłużenie pożyczki od rodziny znajomych pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet pożyczki bez bik bartoszyce kredyt mieszkaniowy na 120 wartości kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce kredyt bank lokata online kredyt bank w pruszkowie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy firma pożyczki dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny idea bank kredyt na start forum kredyt bank marszałkowska kredyty chwilówka knurów z komornikiem kredyt druk wezwanie do zwrotu pożyczki kredyty bez biku wroclaw kredyt chwilówka międzyrzecz kredyty chwilówki dla zadłużonych pożyczki bez sprawdzania zadłużenia termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór rodzina kapitalizacja odsetek pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bartoszyce kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kalkulator kredyt w banku najniższe oprocentowanie bank pko kredyt kalkulator kredyty bankowe w bilansie szybkie pozyczki luban pożyczki łobez kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki bank pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego oferty pożyczki gotówkowej udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2013 pożyczki przez internet żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki bielsk podlaski kredyt bank pl bankowosc elektroniczna kredyty bez biku zabrze umorzenie pożyczki gdzie po kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki prywatne chrzanów pożyczki społecznościowe co to jest pożyczki kredyt plus kredyt bank 24 pl pożyczki w domu nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank ekstrabiznes kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln kredyt bank oddziały kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pozyczki na procent plock umowa dot pożyczki kredyt w banku przelicznik kredyty mieszkaniowe credit agricole umowa na czas określony gdzie kredyt kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór pożyczki pod zastaw krosno umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny kredyt abis kredyt bank numer swift umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank lwowska optima pozyczki kredyty grudziadz czy łatwo dostać kredyt w credit agricole umowa cesji pożyczki korzystny kredyt w banku szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank kolobrzeska 12 gdansk kredyt w banku komercyjnym praca licencjacka kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bank capital club pożyczki kredyty bez bik w gorzowie wlkp prawo bankowe kredyt konsumencki pożyczki pod zastaw rumia pożyczki na 60 dni pożyczki od ręki bez bik adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie pewne pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt w uk dla każdego pożyczki pod zastaw diamentów kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 kredyt bank karty kredytowe infolinia prywatne pozyczki opole kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank koszt kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki na dowód podobne do bociana warunki otrzymania pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł feniks pożyczki białystok czy kredyt konsolidacyjny sie opłaca oprocentowanie w getin banku kredyt pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej czy mozna umorzyc kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki łowicz bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki na dowód od zaraz pożyczki katowice pożyczki społecznościowe z komornikiem warunki pożyczki w skoku górna wilda pożyczki kredyt bank lubartów telefon kredyt bank piła kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online kredyty bez bik swietochlowice gros pożyczki opinie kredyty bez biku bytom kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt pożyczki bez bik kozienice bocian pożyczki poczta wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt w banku na sam dowod pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik kredyty pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt dla nowej firmy bez bik kredyt bank łask pożyczki bez bik dla bezrobotnych kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander pożyczki prywatne szczecin pożyczki w domu klienta bez przelewu za groszbydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe kościan umorzenie pożyczki pkzp kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku umowa pożyczki dla rodziny koszt całkowity pożyczki kredyt studencki pko sa forum rybnik kredyty bez bik z komornikiem najtańsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum pożyczki advice kredyty w domu klijenta jarosław kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem odsetki od pożyczki kurs pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa kredyt bank powstańców śląskich wrocław pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok stefczyka pożyczki w getin banku opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe santander banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi kredyt bank nowy sącz telefon podatek od umowy pożyczki pieniędzy 2012 kredyt bank bilans kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2012 pożyczki z nfośigw koszt umowy pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki wibor pozyczki jredyty zakopane pożyczki z ue dla firm kredyt bank koszty kredyt bank wolbrom kruk pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik ktory bank da kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilowki wodzislaw slaski umowa pożyczki pieniędzy weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt bank ekstrakonto vip iii oddział kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt pozabankowy katowice pożyczki bez big kredyty pozabankowe oferty kredyty i pożyczki państwowego długu publicznego pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt bank adres kredyt bank 24 godziny otwarcia konto ror w kredyt banku kredyt bank janów lubelski godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki bank pko pozyczki u klienta bocian pożyczki gorzów umowa pożyczki pod zabezpieczenie umorzenie pożyczki przez gminę pozyczki torun tablica kredyt chwilówka grochowska jak księgować pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki olkusz kredyt bank przelewy zagraniczne kredyt samochodowy dla firm credit agricole prywatne pożyczki pod weksel 2013 eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem kredyt chwilówka roznoszenie ulotek szukam pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank bielany wr getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat jak wziasc kredyt bez bik kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange kredyt bank platforma wymiany walut kredyt studencki bank pocztowy kredyt bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik do 10000 pożyczki od ręki gdańsk pożyczki pewne pożyczki dla każdego kredyt bank warszawa filie kredyt bank w oleśnicy pozyczka bez bik na oswiadczenie dla zadluzonych kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenia darowizny pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza kredyt samochodowy oferty banków kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie bocian pożyczki krosno udzielenie pożyczki członkowi rady nadzorczej pożyczki gotówkowe bzwbk kredyty gotówkowe w deutsche banku kredyty bez bik rybnik pozyczki bez bik ciechanow szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski mikropożyczki czestochowa umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt bez bik lomza podatek od pożyczki dla firmy jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują kredyt bank oddział leszno bgż pożyczki dla rolników pożyczki chwilówki rrso fines pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki system partner opinie kredyt bank opoczno paulina gąska pożyczki kredyt bankowy rodzaje kredyt chwilówka dla studenta opodatkowanie odsetek pożyczki wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole kredyt w eurobanku szukam pożyczki katowice przedawnienie roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki bankowej kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie pożyczki na dowód przez internet kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk pożyczka z zakładu pracya bik kredyty chwilówki olkusz jaki jest nr na kredyt w orange kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik w wałbrzychu kredyt bank lubartów godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław pożyczki konsolidacyjnej pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód wrocław kredyty bez bik i komornika kredyty chwilówki oferta kredyt konsolidacyjny wyjaśnienie umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie czy umowa pożyczki podlega vat praca pozyczki bez biknowa sol kredyt bank nowa dęba pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodów pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa pozyczka podobna do bocianakielce pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt bank maestro kredyt bez bik pozabankowe kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd kredyt bank wyniki finansowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 szybkie pożyczki bez formalności pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa oświadczenie o zwrot pożyczki pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator kredyty poza bankowe bez big siedlce adresy i nr tel numer finan pozyczki kredyt gotówkowy bank bph opinie kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowa pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko wzory umów pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń forum eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank reklama adamczyk picasso pożyczki kredyt dla młodych małżeństw forum skarabeusz pożyczki opole kredyt w banku żubr dpg pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bph wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank łuków telefon pożyczki w parabankach kredyt konsolidacyjny pbs kredyt bank radlin godziny otwarcia

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad