kredyt chwilówka windykator kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowód garr pożyczki kredyt bank problem z logowaniem pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys kredyt bank rejestracja kredyt bank nowa europa pożyczki chwilówki kaska konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie pożyczki chwilówki od 20 lat czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank w leborku umowa pożyczki wymagania kredyt bank 24 swift kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent pozyczka na umowe 24 h kielce kredyty chwilówki w lesznie szybkie pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz przykładowa umowa pożyczki umowa zlecenie kredyt w banku kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa kredyt bank lokaty grudzień 2012 pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyty mieszkaniowe bankier kredyt bank ii oddział szczecin pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta w banku pożyczki dębica kredyt w lukas banku opinie pożyczki do domu legnica kredyt bank katowice godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 kredyt bank ror kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnej matki 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator euro pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kraków termin przedawnienia pożyczki kredyty bez biku lublin santander norwegia kredyty kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik i krd szybkie pożyczki online od 18 lat umowa pożyczki pcc wzór pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka kredyty chwilówki skok pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej pożyczki chwilówki gostyń pożyczki prywatne sanok kredyt studencki pko kalkulator pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bank sa numer swift kredyty chwilówki zabrze pożyczki na dowód lubuskie wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyt konsolidacyjny w ge money bank pożyczki na dowód ciechanów oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank pożyczki chwilówki zasady pożyczki mikołów lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa pożyczki płońsk pożyczki chwilówki krotoszyn kredyt bez bik mysłowice kredyty mieszkaniowe we frankach kalkulator idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym forum kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 kredyt bank w tarnobrzegu pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni bankomaty kredyt banku w białymstoku pożyczki ze spłatą tygodniową pożyczki przez internet oszustwa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu katowice kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie pożyczki alwernia kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik kredyt na firmę idea bank opinie prominent pożyczki szczecin kredyt bez wizyty w banku ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank udzielenie pożyczki a pcc pożyczki z pup pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław szybki kredyt w banku millennium pozyczki inowroclaw kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez zabezpieczeń kredyt w santander bank prodomo pożyczki starogard kredyt bank cennik opłat kredyt dla studenta mbank pożyczki cywilno prawne umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór kredyt bank w zielonce inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy kredyt bank w jastrowiu kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków prolongata pożyczki pekao sa pożyczki natychmiast szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów siódemka kredyty opinie pożyczki pomostowe pożyczki na dowód bez bik kalkulator pożyczka bez bik abis czy można zawiesić kredyt w banku istota pożyczki potrzebuję pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt bez biku i zdolności kredytowej kredyty dla firm bez bik i krd kredyt bank elbląg godziny otwarcia http pożyczki pozabankowe cba kredyt bank mann i materna kredyt bank w kaliszu zwrot pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego kredyt bank łódź ul ketlinga godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zarobki forum odpis aktualizujący pożyczki pożyczki bez bik chojnice skarabeusz pożyczki chełm wzór umowy pożyczki spłata w ratach kredyt bank regon kredyty banku sgb kredyt bez bik otwock umowa pożyczki na procent kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i krd jaki bank udziela kredytu bez biku kredyty bez bik i krd poznań mikropożyczki opinie pożyczki gotówkowe w pko pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin pożyczki bez bik słupsk pożyczki bocian lublin adres i nr tel kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem kredyty bez bik wierzyciel kredyt w banku slaskim szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet kredyt bank żywiec godziny pracy pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie udziele pożyczki prywatnie gdansk pożyczki prywatne racibórz kredyt bank włocławek telefon kredyty chwilówki windykacja opinie kredyt bank placowki katowice pożyczki bocian kamień pomorski pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big krd kredyt bank w czechach pozyczka na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie pożyczki prywatne w bogatyni kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum kredyt studencki pko pierwsza transza kredyt bez bik września kredyty bez bik lubuskie pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa cesja pożyczki księgowanie kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik konto pożyczki długoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem w starachowicach gdzie uzyskac kredyt bez bik pożyczki chwilówki żnin umowa pożyczki bankowej przedawnienie pożyczki zagraniczne państwa szybkie pożyczki do domu kredyt bank hrubieszów tel pożyczki bez umowy o prace łodz kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen feniks pożyczki olecko kredyt pozabankowy dla firm kredyt bank placówki niespłacone pożyczki w uk pożyczki rybka pożyczki bez zaświadczeń inowrocław pożyczki polska wschodnia w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód kredyt w banku a umowa na czas określony bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek pożyczki długoterminowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez odsetek pożyczki ranking 2013 prywatne pozyczki rzeszow kredyt bank w wyszkowie pożyczki najniższe oprocentowanie bocian pożyczki kwidzyn auto kredyt bez bik forum bocian pozyczki dla zadluzonych kredyt bank zielonka telefon kredyt bank oddział w bełchatowie jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank gliniana kredyt bank mońki skarabeusz pożyczki praca pożyczki gostynin pożyczki prywatne gostyń kredyt na dowód w getin banku kredyt bank oszczędnościowe pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie pozyczka online 24h bez przelewu 1 grosza obligacja tymczasowa pożyczki ogólnej narodowej kredyt bank łomża jaki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowod online kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego kredyt w banku sygma kredyt mieszkaniowy pod zastaw innego mieszkania pożyczki na wysoki procent kredyty samochodowe bez bik i krd udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyt bank 3 oddział gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki świecie kredyt bez biku z komornikiem pożyczki chwilówki poznań kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie kredyty bez bik w banku pozyczka na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski pożyczka chwilówka żyrafa pożyczki wonga kredyty chwilówki kraków bez zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki minimalne oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne jelenia góra kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 kredyt bank nr iban prometeusz pożyczki kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty bez biku płock karat pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw działki rolnej pożyczki od prywatnych firm kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaswiadczen rzeszów sobota kredyt bank w gdańsku kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko bp pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek przedłużenie pożyczki w sms kredyt pożyczki od osób prywatnych w uk kredyt bank oferta kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza telefon pożyczka bez bik na 30 lat szybkie pozyczki luban pożyczki bez biku grudziądz kredyt bank 24 zaloguj pożyczki na dowód lubin kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 kredyt bank lubicz pożyczki nieruchomości chwilówki kredyt 1000 kredyt bank bocian pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bank warszawa rondo onz pożyczki w domu klienta inowrocław pożyczka bez bik i krd abis pożyczki gotówkowe tarnów wzór umowy pożyczki prywatnej jacek pilka pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy 350 tys pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa kredyt bankowy a kupiecki kredyt samochodowy bank tarnów kredyt w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank praca warszawa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami bank żubr gliwice pożyczka kredyt bank żory oakham pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank goldenline pozyczki w niedziele pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg kredyt bank gdańśk pożyczki dla zadłużonych bytom pożyczki pozabankowe leszno kredyty kielce kredyt bank warszawa wola pilne pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki opracowanie umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pcc pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznan pożyczki bocian opinie pożyczki 15 minut praca kierownik pożyczki kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zatrudnieniu kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kalkulator pożyczki bez bik leszno pożyczki chwilówki poznań pożyczki bez bik nysa wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki umowa pożyczki z samym sobą kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał umowa pożyczki oszustwo pożyczki bocian gryfice umowa pożyczki pieniężnej urząd skarbowy kredyt bank minsk kredyt studencki pko bp wcześniejsza spłata kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie kredyt bez bik do domu kredyty chwilówki opinie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel rzeszów pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank zawiercie kontakt kredyty bez bik zus i us idea bank kredyt na start ze wsparciem unijnym opinie pożyczki raz dwa pożyczki online bez big kredyt bank 2012 kredyt bank warszawa wawelska kredyt bank zambrów telefon pożyczki dla firm pko bp kredyty pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe zwrot pożyczki english umowa pożyczki pieniężnej doc pożyczki społecznościowe uk umowa pożyczki jak księgować kredyt bank retkinia pożyczki jaworzno kredyty bez bik lub prywatne w nowym sączu wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank dusznicki kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie kredyt bank artykuł umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek kredyt w euro jakie banki w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt adresy kredyt banku warszawa wypowiedzenie pożyczki czy kredyt konsolidacyjny można skonsolidować oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp pożyczki dla bezrobotnych poznań kredyty poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel pozyczka bialystok bez bik kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w mińsku mazowieckim regulamin pomocnej pożyczki pożyczki dla pracowników a vat umowa pożyczki dla spółki cywilnej umowa pożyczki od udziałowców przedawnienie pożyczki w skok kredyt bank bez bik bankomaty kredyt banku w kielcach pożyczki bez poręczyciela prywatne pożyczki września kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja opinie kredyt lombardowy prawo bankowe pożyczka 25000 kokos pożyczki ustawa kredyt bank sa 20 601 lublin ul t zana 39a profit pożyczki zielona góra umorzenie pożyczki dla emeryta pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy stały kredyt refinansowy w alior banku santander consumer bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki tylko na dowód osobisty jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gdzie kredyt bez bik warszawa pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski szybkie kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki ratalnej wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik opinie dobrej pożyczki kredyt inwestycyjny eurobank najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik prodomo pozyczki piła helios pożyczki kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank żeromskiego 41 kredyt samochodowy bank millenium kredyty chwilówki bielsko kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik jak wziasc kredyt telefonicznie w wbk pożyczki bez historii kredytowej kredyt bank godziny przelewów przychodzących kredyt bank galaxy szczecin umowa pożyczki od pracodawcy kredyty konsolidacyjne w getin banku kredyt bez bik dla firm pożyczki prywatne bez bik forum kredyt bank w sosnowcu pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki oświęcim kredyty konsolidacyjne plock kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek pożyczki pozabankowe gorlice opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat umowa pożyczki od spółki dla wspólnika poręczenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt bank infolinia 24h w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki kredyt samochodowy ranking 2014 kredyt bank olsztyn telefon umowa pożyczki dla pracownika a pcc pożyczki za 1 grosz pożyczki w domu klienta bez przelewu za groszbydgoszcz kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód poznań pożyczki z funduszu jeremie kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego nowe pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt eurobank na dowód pożyczki w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw jarosław umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk kredyt bank toruń pożyczki chwilówki na dowód katowice ksawer pożyczki kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw kredyt bank os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pozyczka na dom uk bank pko pożyczki na dowód online wierzyciel pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej pożyczki przez internet na 60 dni kredyt bank adres do korespondencji umowa pożyczki pieniędzy druk pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pekao sa prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bez bik wolny rynek pożyczki prywatne września kredyt bank czeladź lokata junior w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik świebodzin kredyty samochodowe bez bik krd pożyczki w domu nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank ruczaj kredyty bez bik ostrow wlkp skarabeusz pożyczki praca jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt studencki pko legitymacja po terminie kredyt samochodowy santander oprocentowanie w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 pożyczki podobne do żyrafy kredyt bez bik do 50000 kredyt bank krotoszyn rynek kredyt bank warszawa śliska pożyczki bez bik bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnego rodzica pożyczki pozabankowe 50000 kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka nowe lokaty w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki udziałowca dla spółki wzór kredyt bank warszawa ul fieldorfa kredyt bank włodawa pcc od umowy pożyczki w spółce komandytowej kredyt chwilówka zaświadczenie banki udzielające kredytów bez bik pożyczki z funduszy mikro pko bp kredyt dla niepracujacych lukas bank kredyt przez internet jak zaksięgować udzielone pożyczki jak dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie bardzo szybkie kredyty bez bik pożyczki bez bik bogatynia kredyt bez biku w 15 minut kredyt bank s a kontakt kredyt bank lukow gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik mini pożyczki przez internet kredyty chwilówki łowicz umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki pożyczki aasa kredyt bank krynica kontakt kredyt bank jasło kontakt kredyty bez bik przez internet kredyt samochodowy credit agricole opinie tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki lipno kredyt 15tys bph kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank opinie kredyty bankowe stan początkowy kredyt w banku niemieckim pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń online duże pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bez biku przez internet kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa optima direct pożyczki kredyt bank x oddział warszawa pożyczki prywatne starogard gdański pożyczki oświęcim umowa pożyczki do spółki kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym kredyt bank plac legionów wrocław pożyczki chmielna kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska 1 kredyt pozabankowy szybki kredyt w banku pocztowy kredyt pozabankowy na oswiadczenie firmy kredyt bank sa w warszawie oddział w lublinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad