pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki bez krd bik pożyczki na dowód głogów kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe w toruniu credit agricole ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla nowych firm sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 pożyczki bez przelewu kruk pożyczki novum pożyczki ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb umowa pożyczki wezwanie do zapłaty kredyt bank w zgorzelcu szybkie pożyczki bez krd i bik kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków pozyczka czestochowa w 24h pożyczki ngo kredyt w banku bez pracy kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa amber mikropożyczki pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk mazowiecki kredyt bank płock pożyczki pod zastaw gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolników kredyty bez bik wałcz umorzenie pożyczki tłumaczenie pożyczki dla firm pozabankowe kredyt dla firm bez bik na start pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank piekary szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań banki kredyty bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław 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kredyt bank centrum obsługi klienta pożyczki chwilówki wieliczka umowa pożyczki to umowa pozyczki 7 kredyty chwilówki oferta kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank polecane pożyczki najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyty bez biku gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych szybkie pożyczki tarnów kredyt w ror bank pocztowy pożyczki chwilówki rawicz odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy abc polska pozyczka dla bedacych w uk umowa pożyczki przelewem kredyt konsolidacyjny czym jest przeterminowanie pożyczki kosztorys do pożyczki remontowej bocian pożyczki siedziba pożyczki do domu szczecin kredyt bank niedurnego pożyczki provident kalkulator kredyt bank bochnia godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik mińsk mazowiecki feninks pozyczki pozabankowe strona glowwna kredyt gotówkowy z bik kredyt bank nowy targ kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie rachunku meritum pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki dla fundacji kredyt bank żagiel szczecin kredyt samochodowy w ktorym banku kredyt bank katowice mielęckiego kredyt przez internet bez biku i krd kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa meritum pożyczki bez bik umorzenie pożyczki przez wspólnika kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie getin noble bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego w deutsche bank kredyt credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym private banking w kredyt banku bocian pożyczki zawiercie kredyt bank promocje kredyty konsolidacyjne poznań kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a pożyczki chwilówki provident kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys kredyty chwilówka bielsko kredyt z komornikiem maz duże pożyczki pozabankowe szukam pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny brak zdolności kredytowej odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt podatkowy optima sa pożyczki kredyt bank pakiet zdobywcy kredyt bez bik gdansk kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik pożyczki bez bik w krakowie kredyty chwilowki walbrzych kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata kredyt studencki warunki wiek epożyczki 24 pożyczki dla młodych ludzi wniesienie aportem pożyczki pożyczka w kredyt banku opinie pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel kredyty chwilówki bedzin najtanszy kredyt w ktorym banku kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności alior bank kredyt symulacja przewalutowanie pożyczki kredyt bank wagrowiec eden pożyczki warszawa pożyczki osób bezrobotnych dorota król pożyczki kredyty santander kredyt bank tychy kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw polisy na życie pożyczki bez biku kraków w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki chwilówki poznań pożyczki dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt bank warszawa dział windykacji kredyt bankowy a leasing kredyt w skoku rafineria z komornikiem czy vivus udziela pożyczek zadluzonym kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny niskie oprocentowanie dja pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej alior bank kredyt bez bik na dowod sosnowiec pozyczki do domu klienta kredyt bank millenium opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank toruń fosa pozyczki na dowód nysa pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy konsolidacyjny kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn pożyczki indywidualne kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator umowa pożyczki w najbliższej rodzinie odsetki od pożyczki przykład kredyt bez bik firma księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki myślenice kredyty bez bik gdańsk kredyt bank pożyczki konsolidacyjnej kredyty bez bik piotrków kredyt bank gdańsk zaspa godziny otwarcia okres pożyczki eurocent pozyczki bocian pożyczki lubin kredyt bankowy krótkoterminowy kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik pożyczki prywatne poznań pożyczki i kredyty kredyt bank w opolu kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie kredyt bank trójmiasto kredyt bank plewiska w jakim banku kredyt na otwarcie firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bank polski bkie pozyczki domowe kraków bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum przedłużenie pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt bez bik na 10 lat kredyty bez krd do domu kredyt w polskim banku praca za granica pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób pracujących za granicą szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji 2000 pozyczki bez dowodu od zaraz umowa pożyczki konsekwencje pożyczki eden finance kredyt bank zakopane bankomat pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian jak wziasc kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank w zakopanem kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja iban w kredyt banku szybki kredyt dla firmy bez bik poznań pożyczki prywatne umorzenie pożyczki różnice kursowe ikko pożyczki pożyczki dla dzieci kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko sa kredyty pozabankowe tczew umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt w jakim banku jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki pożyczki w domu zawiercie kredyt bez bik debica kredyty dla firm bez bik zus i us pożyczki bez bik lębork kredyt bank biuro windykacji lublin kredyt studencki pko legitymacja kredyty bez bik biała podlaska udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice kredyty chwilówki andrychów prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt bank piotrkowska kredyt bank rachunek dla firm szybkie pożyczki bez bik lublin kredyty w banku spółdzielczym forum optima pożyczki koszalin pożyczki gotówkowe bez biku kredyt bankowy millenium pożyczki uam getin bank pożyczki do kwoty 6000 złotych bank pożyczki na dowód atrakcyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyty bez bik jaslo umowa pożyczki a podatek czy dostane pozyczke w ei global bank bgż kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyt bank marketing manager kredyt orange pop pożyczki kasa stefczyka kredyt samochodowy dla firm mbank praca w kredyty chwilówki opinie na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy warszawa kredyt bank kody jednorazowe orange jaki numer na kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaswiadczen kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa kredyt bank w wadowicach kredyt bank godziny pracy najtańsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum pożyczki system argentyński umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi wzór 24 pożyczki proximus kredyt bank warszawa windykacja ubezpieczenie pożyczki pekao sa kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyt bez bik i krd poznan umowa pożyczki warunki kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław kredyt bank wejherowo kontakt kronos pozyczki przyznawalnosc kredyt bank koszalin kontakt nowakka pożyczki online marka kredyty opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe definicja pożyczki w lombardzie szybkie pożyczki na umowe zlecenie optima pożyczki na dowód pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz picasso pożyczki kredyt w pko bp kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa bartycka pożyczki chwilówki forum pożyczki prywatne nysa kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy max bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kraków pożyczki prywatne kredyt do orange na jaki numer kredyt samochodowy na firmę korzyści szybki kredyt bez biku kredyt bank w aleksandrowie kujawskim alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia kredyt pozabankowy 50000 kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo finansowe kredyt bankowy konto pożyczki międzyrzecz parabanki pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank w oławie podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2013 dorota król pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki braniewo kredyt chwilówka 20000 kredyt konsolidacyjny zasady kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy pożyczki gotówkowe kielce podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie kredyty chwilówki gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny na 8 lat pożyczki pod zastaw złota warszawa pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kredyt bank wrocław siedziba pożyczki mława tfad pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2012 pożyczki nobiles kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności godziny otwarcia zajęcie komornicze pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki kredyty i banki kredyty pod zastaw bez bik potrzebuję pożyczki 2012 provident pożyczki przelew kredyt bank sa zielona góra umowa pożyczki spółce umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką wspólnikiem umowa pożyczki pod zastaw druk kredyt bank wielkokacka kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja pożyczki gotówkowe bank pocztowy umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum niespłacenie pożyczki w providencie pozyczki milenium szamotuly kredyt bank filia w piasecznie kredyt 160 tyś bez biku getin bank warunki kredytu gotówkowego kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 umowa pożyczki z rodzicem pożyczki dla osób prowadzących działalność kredyt banki grudziądz kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyt na dowód w getin banku kredyt bez biku nowy sącz kredyt bank geneza kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie pożyczki na dowód sandomierz pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt bank bialystok ul warszawska kalkulator pożyczki kredytu pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach bank pko sa kredyt na samochód kredyt w paribas bank opinie kredyt bez bik w krakowie kredyt mieszkaniowy w kasie stefczyka pożyczki nowy sącz kredyt w banku pocztowym bez historii w bik bankomaty kredyt banku w pile udzielę pożyczki na procent szczecin wzór umowy pożyczki od brata kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla nowych firm pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt samochodowy getin bank opinie pożyczki długoterminowe pokwitowanie pożyczki pieniędzy pozyczki bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bank makler 1000 zl pożyczki lublin umorzenie pożyczki z pfron mikropożyczki nobel kredyty mieszkaniowe deutsche bank pilnie poszukuję pożyczki pożyczki w lombardach pcc pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny zarobki za granica kredyt rns getin bank opinie kredyt bez bik inowrocław capital pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe olsztyn umowa pożyczki gotówka kredyt bez biku z komornikiem pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie kredyt bez bik 100 000 vivus kredyty uk prodomo pożyczki nowe mia firma kronos pożyczki kontakt kredyty chwilówki sanok czy dostanę kredyt w profi z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt w credit agricole wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki umowa pożyczki wzór darmowy szybkie pożyczki warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa marża kredyt bank gotówkowy kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk kalkulator współpraca pożyczki bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową dla singli pożyczki akcent odzyskanie pożyczki bez umowy podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2013 pożyczki na biznes elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen pożyczki bez bik i krd gniezno kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik odsetki od pożyczki kiedy podatek kredyt bez bik rybnik umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu umorzenie pożyczki byłemu pracownikowi kredyt bank kalkulator kredyty bez bik w warszawie provident pożyczki dla firm umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych szybki kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt chwilówka 15 minut jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki w jakim banku macie kredyt kredyt w przeźmierowie wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank lokata 6 5 procent kredyty bez bik 10000 kredyt bank w białej podlaskiej pożyczki pruszcz gdański pożyczki bez wychodzenia z domu bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód częstochowa umowa pożyczki z siostrą kredyt dla firm bez zus radom kredyt pozabankowy bez bik kredyt bank karta concerto kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredytowy przedmiot umowy pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych kredyt bank w bialymstoku spłata pożyczki przychód pożyczki bez baz przez internet kredyty pozabankowe białystok kredyty bankowe definicja pożyczki chwilówki wrocław umowa pożyczki poręczyciel kredyt bank szczecin adres pożyczki pozabankowe pomorskie alior bank kredyt wymagania szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyt bank geneza kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyty chwilowki bytom pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym dla firm kredyt bank infolinia żagiel pożyczki na dowód płock pożyczki pozabankowe forum dyskusyjne kredyt w godzine uk pożyczki z funduszy europejskich kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa pożyczki graniczna lublin pożyczki bez bik lubin udziele pożyczki prywatnie łódź kredyt bank gwarancje pożyczki osób prywatnych umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej kredyt bankowy prezentacja pożyczki bez stałych dochodów kredyty i pożyczki trójmiasto kredyty chwilówki praca kredyty chwilówki mińsk mazowiecki niskooprocentowane pożyczki dla firm kody do orange kredyt bocian pożyczki siedziba opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 nr tel pożyczki bocian stargard 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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad