kredyty bez bik poznań umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt bank rachunek pożyczki bez bik pozabankowe kredyt bank kraków kredyt samochodowy ing pożyczki na dowód jaworzno kredyt bez bik krd przez internet kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bzwbk slupsk czy latwo dostac auto na kredyt z komisu pożyczki chwilówki bolesławiec jak wziąć kredyt w orange na 5 zł kredyt bank w bogatyni potrzebuję pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki chwilówki warszawa puławska kredyt w getin banku na pit udzielę pożyczki na procent 2013 umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pit prywatne pożyczki kościan pożyczki 4you praktyka w kredyt banku bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r pożyczki pozabankowe firmy umowa pożyczki dla spółki osobowej kredyty studenckie jakie banki udzielają oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph okam pożyczki kredyt bank olsztyn telefon korzystne pożyczki bankowe kredyt bank brzeg dolny bank bph da kredyt jak mam komornika pożyczki gotówkowe grudziądz pożyczki dla rencistów przez internet kredyt bank ike pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident udzielę pożyczki prywatnej śląsk ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki prywatne na weksel cała polska kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt na mieszkanie w banku bph kredyt bank bilans drugi kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt podatek od pożyczki pienieżnej umowa pożyczki vat kredyt bank warszawa żytnia pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice pożyczki bez bik skierniewice udzielę pożyczki pozabankowe banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie kredyt bez bik i krd alior bank kredyt refinansowy kredyt 1000 bez bik warszawa placówka najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 pożyczki bez biku wrocław kredyty chwilówki bez bik przez internet kredyty bez bik gorzow wlkp kredyt bank w sanoku pożyczki na dowód w lesznie kredyt chwilówki gliwice pożyczki pozabankowe gdynia pożyczki dla zadłużonych 2013 kredyty mieszkaniowe pułapki firma udzielająca pożyczki kredyt bank w legionowie kredyt bank busko zdrój godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki zawarta pod warunkiem getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy pożyczki prywatne jelenia góra kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty banków kredyt bank płace alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie pożyczki 20000 zł pozabankowe kredyty wnioski pożyczki na dowód od ręki gdynia kredyty konsolidacyjne leszno kredyty bez biku malbork pożyczki dla odrzuconych udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank wałbrzych ul słowackiego pożyczki na dowód oprocentowanie pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa pożyczki 24 na dobe szukam pożyczki bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki pod zastaw druk kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń wzór umowy pożyczki weksel kredyty chwilówki brzozów kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego pożyczki społecznościowe jak kredyt bank 24 kursy walut pożyczki do domu poznań kredyt bank sa oddział w pile pożyczki gotówkowe definicja pożyczki gotówkowe kraków formularz pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dla najbliższych kredyty chwilówki pracownik reklamy pożyczki eurocash kredyt konsolidacyjny plus gotowka pożyczki u kruka pozyczka na weksel zgorzelec podatek od darowizny pożyczki pożyczki partner pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin pożyczki gotówkowe gros udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez osobę fizyczną pożyczki gotówkowe pko sa kredyt bank pożyczka konsolidacyjna kredyt bankowy przedawnienie pożyczki na procent kielce kredyty bez bik jastrzebie zdroj kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn kredyt na oswiadczenie w getin banku kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn kredyty w szkocji kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum kredyty bez bik malbork kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie kredyt bank lokaty 2011 kredyty mieszkaniowe sgb pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska kredyt 3000 bez biku mariusz tierling pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie rat kredyt bank w wałczu kredyt bank plock 1 maja pożyczki od brata pożyczki ekspresowe na dowód kredyt bank lezajsk targowa pożyczki prywatne pruszków pożyczki od osób prywatnych belchatow chwilówki kredyt 1000 pożyczki współpraca kredyt w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie podobne pozyczki do vivuss kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez biku pożyczki bocian w słupsku wzór umowy pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt bank 3 maja rzeszów kredyt bank w starogardzie gdańskim pożyczki kredytowe kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel mikropożyczki dla absolwentów kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie kredyty pozabankowe bez bik forum kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank pocztowy bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki agar kredyt bez bik pod weksel pożyczki bez bik sopot kredyty mieszkaniowe dla emerytów kredyt na dowód w domu klijeta w łodzi kredyt bank kobierzyńska kredyt bank mońki czy umowa pożyczki jest umową wzajemną pożyczki online getin bank online kredyty kredyty pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki preferencyjne dla rolników kredyt bank ii oddział szczecin dobrej pożyczki kredyt na wyciag bankowy prywatne pożyczki w lublinie kredyt samochodowy vw bank opinie kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko kredyt bank bankomaty tarnów kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce pracujac za granica kredyty w getin bank opinie meritum bank kredyty online klasyfikacja pożyczki godziny pracy kredyt banku w warszawie czy łatwo o kredyt w banku pocztowym odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyt bez bik 20000 kredyt bez bik bialystok optima pożyczki forum kredyt dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bik numer finan pozyczki kredyty bez bik gdynia pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego umowa pożyczki z poddaniem się egzekucji rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska pożyczki pozabankowe kościerzyna kwituję odbiór pożyczki bank pko sa kredyt kalkulator kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt kredyt bank jakie bankomaty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska pożyczki u lichwiarzy umowa pożyczki na raty banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank pozyczka od zaraz plock pożyczki dla studentów pozyczka w domu klients czechowice umowa pożyczki rzeczy pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin kredyty bez bik 10000 umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór pdf pożyczki gotówkowe sosnowiec pożyczki online zyrafa opodatkowanie pożyczki od wspólnika profi credit pozyczka kłodzko kontakt rodzaje kredytów w banku komercyjnym pożyczki chwilówki bez bik warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza kredyt z orange numer pożyczki abis kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgz kredyt bank wrocław placówki pozyczki dla polakow w londynie bez bik i umowy o prace orange kod kredytu pożyczki janosik kredyt bank lokata constans bocian pozyczki wągrowiec pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo pożyczki obliczanie rat szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń forum kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg kredyt bank plac zbawiciela pożyczki na 90 dni pożyczki rzeszów bez bik kredyt bank sa email oświadczenie udzielenia pożyczki kredyt w banku z bikiem najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank umowa pożyczki miedzy osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego forum pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele umowa pożyczki od pracodawcy bocian pozyczki walbrzych kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów kredyt studencki pko sa forum kredyty chwilówki wadowice kredyt bank leszno regon kredyt bank bankomat prowizja pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności kredyt bez bik polkowice kredyt bank sa iii oddział w warszawie kod kredytowy do orange prowident krakow pozyczk pożyczki bocian numer telefonu numer telefonu kredyty chwilówki grodzisk wlkp wzór umowy pożyczki zabezpieczonej wekslem jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu jak zaksięgować pcc od umowy pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie pożyczki bez bik i krd zamość pożyczki dla zadłużonych z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki mieszkaniowe z funduszu socjalnego kredyty w banku pko bp kto bierze pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt gotówkowy bez biku pożyczki pozabankowe dębica pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp pożyczki chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank logo eps odsetki karne umowa pożyczki udzielić pożyczki ang kredyt bank toruń umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wzór kredyt bank sa warszawa centrala kredyt pocztowy na dowód najnowsze kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki forma ustna kokos pożyczki forum pożyczki pozabankowe w niemczech kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator najtanszy kredyt w ktorym banku odsetki od pożyczki obliczanie umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pit pożyczki sms owe kredyt bank nowe środki kredyt bank kraków wielicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki na rok kredyt konsolidacyjny chf kredyt bank zapomniałem hasła kredyty mieszkaniowe częstochowa kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa kredyt na dom pozabankowy kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska niski kredyt na dowód kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki pod zastaw złota poznań kredyt bez bik jaki bank orion pożyczki pożyczki na spłatę komornika kredyt bank bankomaty rzeszów raty pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt studencki bz wbk 2013 kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta kredyty chwilówki jak założyć szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zaświadczeń umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej udziałowcowi kredyty chwilówki łódź prywatna pozyczka na zakup mieszkania odsetki od pożyczki wyliczenie pożyczki pozabankowe kluczbork bocian pożyczki gryfino kredyt bank janów amber fish pożyczki kredyt bank mastercard world kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia kredyt termomodernizacyjny banki kredyty studenckie wbk kredyty banku pocztowego zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki kredyty gotówkowy bez biku oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska szybkie pożyczki w internecie kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki pożyczki w credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód warszawa kredyty w anglii forum kredyt bank wykupiony bip pożyczki zielona góra kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 faktura za odsetki od pożyczki wzór pozyczka chwilowka bez krdbikbig pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez prowizji pożyczki o kwocie 8700 wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank program systematycznego oszczędzania pożyczki bez sprawdzania w krd pożyczki bez bik tychy istota pożyczki kredyt bank w gorzowie wlkp kredyt bank polen kredyt chwilówki bez bik kredyt bank sprzedaż 2012 bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm kredyt bez bik skierniewice pożyczki podobne do provident pozyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik online jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange pozyczki pieniezne z dojazdem kredyt bank pocztowy bank credit agricole kredyt prostoliczony księgowanie odsetek od pożyczki udziałowca kredyty bankowe księgarnia santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyty chwilówki oświęcim pożyczki chwilówki co to jest kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew kredyt bank rozana kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim polsko europejskie pożyczki 24 kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki pozyczki pozabankowe w domu klijenta ostrow wlkp kredyt w getin banku opinie umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki wzór pożyczki pozabankowe na umowe cywilno prawna szybki kredyt pozabankowy ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku kredyt w uk na samochod kredyt bank kolobrzeska gdansk pożyczki pozabankowe psie pole wrocław pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych kredyt bank z bz wbk pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pozyczki na dowód kraków kredyty pozabankowe slask umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf kredyt bank powsińska godziny otwarcia tanie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki w kruku pożyczka na spłatę komornika pod weksel umowa pożyczki wzór zabezpieczenie kredyt bank skoczów telefon kredyty chwilówki roznoszenie ulotek kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 pożyczki na dowód bez bik i krd pożyczki preferencyjne dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki prywatne sandomierz pomocne pożyczki promocja pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy po angielsku szybki kredyt dla firm online podatek od umowy pożyczki w 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw radom kredyt bank wbk połączenie kredyt bank katowice mielęckiego pożyczki online od 19 lat kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej pożyczki prywatne stalowa wola kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank opinie kredyt bank konto bankowe pożyczki chwilówki za darmo kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku millenium opinie pożyczki chwilówki online forum pożyczki od osób prywatnych lods pożyczki prywatne oszuści marka pożyczki praca bocian pożyczki youtube kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim rozwód pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie elblag mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie kredyt gotówkowy lukas bank kalkulator iii optima pożyczki do domu kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny pozyczki n dowod elblag bez krd i bik otwock pozyczki chwilowki pożyczki prywatne podatki pożyczki bez bik kwidzyn pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet bocian łączny koszt pożyczki kredyt chwilówka telefon który bank udziela kredytów bez bik kredyt bank pko kalkulator kredyt bez bik rzeszów pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok pożyczki chwilówki opinie pożyczki bez bik cieszyn wyliczanie oprocentowania pożyczki fakturowanie pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych białystok kredyt w ing bank śląski forum pożyczki dla rodziny bank pko kredyt studencki wniosek pozyczki torun tablica kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka pożyczki unia europejska kredyt konsolidacyjny fm bank skok kredyty oddłużeniowe kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2012 kredyt studencki pko czy warto pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt bank żary kontakt kredyty chwilówki śląsk kredyt bank konto osobiste oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki wzajemna kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator ranking kredytów w bankach umowa pożyczki odstąpienie kredyty chwilówki nowy bytom kredyty chwilówki bez dochodu umowa pożyczki co to jest kredyt bank getin bank pożyczki brzesko bankomaty kredyt banku w lodzi szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyt bank limit kredytowy kredyt w banku na dowod kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl vivus przedłużenie pożyczki pożyczki bez rejestrów kalkulator pożyczki gofin kredyt bank wyniki 2011 kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy brak spłaty kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa warta gwarancja pozyczki bez zaswiadczen bielsk podlaski umowa pożyczki rodzina pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna umowa pożyczki od spółki dla wspólnika uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej pozyczka bez biku Środa wlkp kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe pożyczki oddziały warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw polisy kredyt bank warszawa centrala pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych alior bank kredyt konsumpcyjny getin bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki płock na dowód kredyt bank biznes kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min kredyt konsolidacyjny z zadłużeniem

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad