kredyt bank wałbrzych broniewskiego pożyczki gotówkowe łódź pożyczki novum pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon banki udzielające kredytów bez bik kredyt bank krynica kontakt pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa 2014 rok uzasadnienie pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp powtarzanie roku pożyczki z lombardu kredyt bez biku w rybniku pożyczki optima opinie pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum pożyczki nowa ruda szybkie kredyty przez internet umowa pożyczki świadek pożyczki kwota wolna kredyt w niemieckim banku numery bocian pożyczki krs kredyt studencki pko żyranci pożyczki gorzów pożyczki polskie kredyt w uk po polsku bezpłatne pożyczki chwilówki kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli 2013 kredyty online bez bik kredyty banku sgb kredyt bank iban bic kredyt bank sa inwestycyjny dom maklerski kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole opinie wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomego pożyczki chwilówki sosnowiec kredyty bez bik i z komornikiem szukam pożyczki śląsk rata kredytu pożyczki pozyczki krotko terminowe feniks pożyczki białystok pożyczki prywatne 10000 szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy kredyt pozabankowy dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zlecenie stałe kredyty chwilówki koszty szybkie pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo szybkie pożyczki bez krd i bik pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us kredyt bank placówki wrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie forum kredyt bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki pod zastaw kościan druki wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo pożyczki pozabankowe 50000 pożyczki forta kredyt bank aktywowanie karty kredyty bez biku dla zadluzonych kredyt bank legionowo kontakt nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników kredyty chwilówki reportaż w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki umowa pożyczki koszty notarialne umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyt bez biku rzeszow pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko kredyty pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń pozyczki bez bik i krd prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań pożyczki pozabankowe wniosek online kredyt bankowy przedawnienie roszczeń pożyczki bocian września bocian pożyczki opole kredyt studencki pko 2013 kredyty pozabankowe w lublinie pożyczki krecik kredyty pozabankowe do 10000 santander bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyty pozabankowe dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi admin pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank korporacje pożyczki i kredyty kredyty w pko bp sa kredyty bez bik i krd tychy pożyczki prywatne forum o2 pożyczki między najbliższymi pożyczki w banku bez bik kwituję odbiór pożyczki mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok oprocentowanie kredytu w fm banku kredyt bank obsługa lombard pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bez bik na działalność pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik pożyczki bez bik i krd legnica kredyt studencki anglia warunki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs byłemu pracownikowi kredyt bank w puławach kredyt bank myszków umorzenie pożyczki wzór pisma kredyt bank hajnówka warszawa kredyty chwilowki bank pko wniosek o kredyt studencki umowa pożyczki na firmę jakie jest oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko pożyczki udziałowców kredyty dla firm bez biku idea bank kredyt przez internet provident zasady pożyczki kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa raty pożyczki przedawnienie w którym banku wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości olsztyn kredyt studencki pko pierwsza transza kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny radom umowa pożyczki spółka zoo kredyty chwilowki bez bik kredyt bank tuchola kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin umowa pożyczki w rodzinie 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe 30000 oświadczenie o umorzeniu pożyczki kredyt studencki ranking banków kredyt bank private banking bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kredyt samochodowy bank millennium odsetki od pożyczki jako przychód pożyczki panda opole pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt bank kielce pożyczki dla małych firm z unii kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync kredyty chwilówki fordon duże pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk kredyt studencki pko kalkulator kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika kredyt bank obsługa kart kredyt w bos banku kredyt bank radzymin pożyczki pozabankowe rawicz kredyt eurobank pożyczki oława szybkie kredyty przez internet skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe dolnyslsask kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radlin bocian pozyczki kwidzyn idea bank kredyty online pozyczki bez bik przez internet umowa pożyczki sprawa cywilna jaki jest kod w orange na kredyt pożyczki pozabankowe w uk udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę pożyczki tak to pozyczki słupsk 24 do 5 tyś słupsk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt konsolidacyjny ubezpieczenie kredyt bank forum 2012 kredyt bank sa oddział w sopocie umowa pożyczki do wypełnienia kredyt bank sulechów godziny otwarcia pożyczki konsumpcyjne kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny w open finance opinie pożyczki w idea bank pożyczki na spłatę komornika umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia najkorzystniejszy kredyt w banku kredyty bez bik łódzkie oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank pożyczki chwilówki piotrków trybunalski kredyty bankowe pasywa kredyty chwilówki lędziny dąbrowa górnicza kredyty dla osob w bik kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyt bank bielany warszawa szybkie pożyczki białystok umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit pożyczki chwilówki zabrze pożyczki łódzkie kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez biku pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń kredyt studencki warunki bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne pożyczki na dowód online kredyt bank jastrowie kontakt kredyt bank gliwice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty historia umowy pożyczki kredyt bank blawatna kredyty chwilówki szczecinek pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt studencki w bz wbk kredyty dla osob z zajeciami komorniczymi tel orange kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko bp bocian pożyczki tczew kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie porównanie wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyty bez baz pożyczki prominent kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki pożyczki gotówkowe do ręki bocian pożyczki trzebiatów finan pożyczki wrocław kredyt studencki w banku pko kredyt gotówkowy bez bik umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczki na dowód wrocław kredyty chwilówki jelenia góra pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw warunkowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa kredyt na mieszkanie w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach udzielić komuś pożyczki pożyczki prywatne gdzie kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła siódemka kredyty bielsko biała opinie pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej wniosek o kredyt bez biku pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt na mieszkanie ranking banków kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie kredyt bank jumper prywatne pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyt studencki pko aneks kredyty mieszkaniowe belgia kredyt bank w brzegu pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wrocław pozyczki prywatne na procent olesnica kredyt bank w bzwbk pożyczki pod zastaw śrem kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik euro providus pożyczki kredyt bank busko kredyty mieszkaniowe rynek wtórny kredyt bank warunki w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank kontakt białystok pożyczki bocian online santander consumer kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdynia kredyt na rok kredyt w banku eurobank pożyczki w euroexpert przelew zagraniczny do kredyt banku kredyty na samochód bez bik kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2013 opinie o kokos pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki z pkzp umowa pożyczki fiskus amortyzacja pożyczki podporządkowanej pożyczki pozabankowe płock pożyczki euroloan umowa pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bankowy po śmierci pożyczki dla rolników bez bik pożyczki dobre miasto jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki wypowiedzenie kredytu getin bank kredyt bank koscierzyna kredyt bank sa warszawa kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyt bank wielicka godziny umowa pożyczki osobie fizycznej pożyczki biznesowe deutsche bank kredyt opinie 2013 pożyczki bez bik opole pożyczki gros kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie pożyczka bez biku lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny z małżonkiem umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna wzór promocja pożyczki kredyt bankowy pojęcie kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy kalkulator kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kontrakt pożyczki pożyczki udzielane przez jst pożyczki ing jaki jest kod do kredytu w orange pożyczki do 2000 zł kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń dyskontowanie pożyczki konto kredyt bankowy księgowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata kredyt bank katowice szafranka kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk pożyczki chwilówki żagań kredyt bank kobierzynska krakow wzór wniosku o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank oleśnica pożyczki bez bik rzeszów pilne kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości 2013 pożyczka w domu spis firm wałbrzych umowa pożyczki pomiędzy małżonkami kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski pożyczki krapkowice obligacje narodowej pożyczki rozwoju sił polski kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiego wieku kredyty chwilówki czy sprawdzają bik kredyty chwilówki na spłatę komornika pożyczki bez bik pruszków w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy prywatne pozyczki na dowod szczecinek pożyczki hitlera kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku spółdzielczym bank pko sa kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank praca warszawa kredyty w banku pocztowym opinie pożyczki przez internet bez big bez zaświadczeń karat pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu piła umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki żyrafa śrem kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik sosnowiec udzielę pożyczki na procent pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki kredyt w banku bgż opinie pożyczki gotówkowe tarnowskie góry szybkie pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet pożyczki krótkoterminowe bilans pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik warszawa getin bank kredyt samochodowy ubezpieczenie kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości kredyt bank mickiewicz białystok umowa pożyczki bez podatku pożyczki w walucie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kraków pożyczki 20000 zł kredyt bank targowa 49 kredyt bank 24 godziny otwarcia spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln pożyczki na rozwój działalności gospodarczej kredyt bank 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp 2013 kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach szybkie pożyczki do domu pożyczki chwilówki na dowód udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństwa pożyczki świdnica pozyczki krotkotermnowe jaworzno pozyczki do domu klienta pro domo pożyczki toruń umowa ramowa pożyczki meritum bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki chwilówki bez bik włocławek infolinia pożyczki pro domo mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie konsolidacja kredytu mbank kredyt bank gniezno kontakt kredyt studencki jakie oprocentowanie kredyt bank bps kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy czy łatwo jest dostać kredyt w getin banku pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica pożyczki gotówkowe pekao kredyt na dowód alior bank pożyczki społecznościowe opinie 2012 kredyty bankowe sciaga pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania łódź kredyt bank b stok kredyty bez bik od zaraz kredyt pozabankowy na start firmy kredyt w banku hsbc umowa pożyczki po angielsku lichwiarskie pożyczki gotówkowe czestochowa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd kredyty i pożyczki w uk kredyt bank warszawa centralna kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 eurocent pożyczki forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce pracujac za granica pozyczki na dowod wloclawek godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa kredyt bank ii oddział szczecin kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki jeremie forum konsolidacja kredytu w mbanku ekspres kasa spłata pożyczki niezgłoszona umowa pożyczki helios pożyczki czy dostane kredyt w getin banku kredyt w ing bank śląski forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w trakcie rozwodu umowa pożyczki pit pożyczki uk kredyt bank lokaty wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilówki bytom pożyczki gotówkowe dublin kredyt bank lubartów telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2012 pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki łęczyca santander bank kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki repo kredyt bank giełda umowa pożyczki lombardowej toyota bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska 25 pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie księgowanie pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyt w pekao sa forum pożyczki niski procent finan pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór kredyty chwilówki na firme umowa spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia pieniężnego kredyt bez bik erif kredyty bez bik tarnów kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank opinie kredyt bank garibaldiego pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt bank polna 11 pożyczki finansowe pożyczki na dowód świdnica kredyt bank sa pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem szczecin kredyty chwilówki za darmo w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank deutschland kredyt bank ilawa kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy dla firm credit agricole pożyczki od osób prywatnych opole kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd kapitał obcy pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy szybki umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód kredyty pożyczki uam kredyt bank mapa jak odmówić pożyczki kredyt bank morąg pożyczki z budżetu jst kredyt w orange pod jaki numer pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm skarabeusz pożyczki będzin kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu kruk pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór kredyt alior bank kredyt bank bankomaty zakopane pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank departament windykacji kontakt kredyt bank oferta kredytowa szybkie kredyty minimum formalnosci kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia regulamin zfśs pożyczki mieszkaniowe kredyt w banku millenium opinie banki udzielające kredytów bez bik oświadczenie pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń białystok kredyt ratalny a umowa na czas określony kredyt w banku spóldzielczym kredyt bank adres pożyczki nowy sącz kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą preferencyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt w banku bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki pozabankowe w niemczech umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek promocja pożyczki ranking pożyczki przez internet pożyczki przez internet getin bank oferty pożyczki prywatne kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad