mikropożyczki dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki prywatne w czestochowie kredyt bank złotów kredyt konsolidacyjny licznik pożyczki wojciech górski pożyczki dla każdego pożyczki limanowa kredyty chwilówki sms kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat forum pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 kredyty chwilówki za darmo pożyczki hitlera kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredyt bank kraków wielicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa pozyczki na nowa firme kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior bank szybkie pożyczki opinie oprocentowanie kredytu w banku millennium pożyczki bez dochodu kredyt bank placenie karta za granica wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany optima pożyczki opole idea bank opinie kredyt na start pozyczki bez konta pożyczki dla firm bez bik zus i us szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres kredytowania kredyty w banku pko bp kredyt samochodowy bank pekao sa bocian pożyczki bolesławiec prywatne pożyczki kraków mam długi potrzebuje pozyczki opole lubelskie pożyczki decyzja online kredyt bank ike pożyczki włodawa kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku kredyt bank tabela opłat i prowizji żagiel kredyt na oświadczenie szybkie pożyczki bytom kredyt w uk lloyds optima pożyczki zarobki kredyt bank foksal 16 warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw kredyt getin bank kalkulator pożyczki krd konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty universum pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe na telefon wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt bank parytet wymiany kredyt studencki pko bp terminy kredyt bank w suszu kredyt w santander consumer bank kredyty w idea bank pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet kredyt bank wypowiedział ubezpieczenie na życie pożyczki prywatne ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania w bik umowa pożyczki pcc bocian pożyczki białogard w którym banku łatwo dostać kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank biskupiec szybkie pożyczki gdansk kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty bez bik zary kredyt bank chwaszczyńska kredyt pozabankowy dla bezrobotnych okres przedawnienia pożyczki kredyty bez bik 2013 umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy kredyty bez bik szybkie kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia dobranie pożyczki ing pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank sa address w jakim banku kredyt na dowód szybkie pożyczki bocian pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent kredyt bank warszawska meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie w jakim banku kredyt przez internet kredyty bez bik zdunska wola pożyczki gotówkowe oprocentowanie szybka pozyczka kwidzyn bank kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji pożyczki bez bik oferty punkt pozyczek bocian w swiebodzinie kredyt bank sa nowy sącz kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kredyt bank kondycja kredyty pozabankowe białystok pozyczki bepozyczki bez bik naklo nad notecia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt w orange na jaki nr pożyczki bez podatku podatek pożyczki gotówkowe online kredyt bank arka kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki fundusz korona pożyczki kredyty dla malych firm na start 2014 kredyty santander consumer bank w jakim banku wziac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki dla firm łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki na dowolny cel kredyt konsolidacyjny w ing kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego optima pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank poland address jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs szybkie pożyczki bez bik kielce kredyt bank zaloguj kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator multibank kredyt samochodowy jaki kredyt bez bik pożyczki mosina umowa pożyczki wspólnik sp z o o kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa auto kredyt bez bik ciechanów kredyt bank sa w pile kredyty bez biku wadowice kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście w jakim banku dostanę pożyczkę przez internet pożyczki na weksel toruń pożyczki pozabankowe na umowe cywilno prawna kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób niepełnosprawnych pozyczki z obsluga w domu trudne pozyczki warszawa kredyt prywatny świdnica pożyczki polaków pożyczki gotówkowe z dostawą do domu kredyt bank żniwna poznań kredyty chwilówki pyskowice kredyty pozabankowe 10000 profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik kredyt bank kluczbork godziny otwarcia lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 kredyty chwilówki pruszków praca opinie pożyczki tarnowskie góry kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator heropolitańska kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór umowy dobrej pożyczki szukam pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank w końskich pozyczka bez bik opolskie kredyty pozabankowe krakow bez posrednikow kredyt bank placówki warszawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku pozabankowe kredyt orange na jaki nr czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt konsolidacyjny w ing kredyt samochodowy invest bank umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od siostry pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online żyrafa pożyczki pożyczki transfer bank pekao sa kredyt opinie szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice kredyt bank bonifraterska ogłoszenia pożyczki za darmo kredyty chwilówki wieluń praca lombard pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyty bez bik mikołów kredyt studencki ing bank śląski gdzie wziasc pozyczke vivus w galeri krakow pożyczka bez biku kielce kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz opinie pożyczki pozabankowe gorzów wlkp pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big pozyczka uk w 15 min pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta kredyty bez bik w płocku kredyty chwilówki chorzów optima pożyczki zarobki pozyczki bez umowy o prace w człuchowie pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia kredyt bank szczecin adres pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyt bank ostrzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko bp pożyczki prywatne umowa cywilno prawna pożyczki na 24 miesiące kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice pozyczki na oswiatczenie kalisz kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie bezzwrotne pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kosiński pożyczki w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego pożyczki chwilówki kontakt skarabeusz pożyczki wieluń pożyczki dla firm bez zus pożyczki referat bartuś pożyczki rumia pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód ewidencja pożyczki udzielonej odsetki od pożyczki gofin pozyczka na dowod bez biku zary pożyczki tax care opinie regulamin pożyczki provident kredyty i pożyczki dla jst kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy bank pocztowy forum jakie zarobki w kredyt banku pozabankowe kredyty kredyty chwilówki pruszcz gdański kredyt bez bik lomza kredyt bank pisz kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank różana kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń w jakim banku wziąć najlepiej kredyt getin bank konsolidacja kredytów pelikan pożyczki kredyt bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank sobota kasprzaka kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank bric kredyt bank w mikołowie pożyczki w domu kredyt bank tomaszów maz kredyt na dowod kredyty chwilówki jaworzno grunwaldzka kredyty chwilówki legionowo alior bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki gorzów kredyty chwilówki miechów udziele pożyczki prywatnie warszawa pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz bank pocztowy kredyt online kredyt bank wołomin kredyt bank giżycko kontakt pro domo pożyczki forum pożyczki na dowód milicz kredyt bank karta kredytowa opłata kredyt samochodowy w santanderze kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kredyt bank piotrków telefon alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 20000 kredyt bank w bochni kredyt bank przejęty umowa pożyczki wypowiedzenie kredyt bank aktywacja karty siódemka pożyczki oświęcim kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy kalkulator dobranie kredytu w credit agricole bankomat kredyt bank sieradz kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem umowa pożyczki a zabezpieczenie pożyczki biała podlaska kredyt bank starachowice kontakt pożyczki na dowód tychy pożyczki na procent kielce błyskawiczne pożyczki online pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyty bez bik legnica umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej wzór kredyty chwilówki 35 pożyczki kraśnik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw warunki umorzenie pożyczki pozew pożyczki społecznościowe z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki piekary szybkie pożyczki krotoszyn 18lat na dowod kredyty olsztyn pożyczki online od 18 lat pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry pożyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki ze stowarzyszeniem kredyt bez bik big kredyty konsolidacyjne porównywarka kredyt bank debica umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka kredyt bez bik dla zadluzonych kredyty chwilówki ulotki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2012 pożyczki pod kontrakt warunki kredytu w banku millenium pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie kredyt bank rachunki oszczędnościowe grupa inwestorska pożyczki społecznościowe kredyt bank centrum warszawa pożyczki kredyty dla nowych firm kredyt mieszkaniowy od państwa kredyt w banku pko bp opinie pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2013 meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank radość pożyczki do domu białystok pożyczki pozabankowe takto pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz kredyt bank karty kredytowe bankomaty kredyt banku ciechanów kredyt odnawialny bank pekao sa pożyczki od osób fizycznych kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik pozyczka na dowód w tesco kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych idea bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie gdzie w rzeszowie można dostać dobry kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki jaki podatek pcc kredyt bez bik w lublinie kredyt studencki pko na rok pieniadz kredyt bankowy cykle koniunkturalne pożyczki chwilówki kalkulator pożyczki bocian kamień pomorski kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź pożyczki w kasynach fałszywe pożyczki alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników warszawa pożyczki prometeusz białystok księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej czy trudno o kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp bsribas opinie czy trudno o kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp bsribas opinie kredyt refinansowy w jakim banku wierzyciel pożyczki kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe promocja pożyczki pozabankowe uk wycena bilansowa pożyczki bocian pożyczki reklama pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt bank aktywowanie karty kredyt bank warszawa światowida pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja kredyt bank w gorlicach druk umowy pożyczki siódemka pożyczki oświęcim pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z pup szybki kredyt pozabankowy provident symulacja pożyczki kredyt bank grójecka 45 kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium pożyczki prywatne od rodziny kalkulator pożyczki bankowej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko umowa pożyczki na czas nieoznaczony amigo pożyczki przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zapasowy kredyt prostoliczony opinie oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt bank liczba placówek pożyczki pod zastaw piastów oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko sa kredyty bez bik starogard gdański kredyt studencki w pko bp kredyt w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne aktualne oferty kredyt bankowy finansowanie kredyt bank 3 maja lublin kredyt bank żagiel oddziały kredyt z orange na jaki numer kredyty mieszkaniowe dopłaty kredyty chwilówki racibórz udzielę pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank departament windykacji kontakt pożyczki prywatne chwilówki kredyty chwilówki wolbrom najtańsze pożyczki ranking umowa pożyczki spółki powiązane kredyt bank rumia godz otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy do 50 tys pożyczki bezzwrotne w policji kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny z poręczycielem kredyt bank sa chorzów repudiacja pożyczki kredyty bez biku bydgoszcz pożyczki lubliniec pożyczki feniks kredyt bank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez bik optima kredyt bank felczaka szczecin kredyty bankowe bilans wzory umów pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync pożyczki kredyty na dowód gwarantowane pożyczki osobiste pożyczka od 18 lat bez bit umowa pożyczki osoby prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bocian pożyczka z komornikiem alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim koszty pożyczki kredyt w pko bank polski kredyt bank grajewo bocian pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel kredyt w banku zagranicznym kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bgz pożyczki prywatne na dowód kredyty poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel szybkie pożyczki przez internet uk kredyty bez bik jarocin w którym banku łatwo dostać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych pozyczki od reki turek pożyczki pomorskie kredyt chwilówka kłodzko pożyczki pozabankowe dla rolników pożyczki chwilówki chełmno kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank forum pozyczki bez bik i krd w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt pożyczki na pit 11 pożyczki do 100 zł kredyt studencki pko bp odroczenie spłaty kredyt mieszkaniowy ing bank kalkulator kredyt bank białystok radzymińska godziny otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki a przychód pożyczki na dowód gorzów kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin bank opinie kredyt bank łódż kredyt bez bik żary kredyt bank likwidacja podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki dictionary pożyczki do domu oława umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór pożyczki chwilówki nakło kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin pozyczki 18lat bialystok kredyt bank międzyzdroje godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz księgowanie pożyczki podporządkowanej umowa pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank bialoleka alior bank pożyczka dokumenty umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór umowa pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyt bank prezes pożyczki dla pracowników księgowanie kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia kredyt bank metro wierzbno szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik pozyczka na dowód w tesco kredyt bank nr rozliczeniowy pożyczki bez biku w koninie pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z bgk kredyt bank w ełku kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto rata pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki zachodniopomorskie pożyczki online bez bik forum zwrot pożyczki od rodziny wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole kredyt bank włocławek godziny otwarcia banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie oferty pożyczki getin bank pożyczki unijne 2014 kredyty bez bik opinie kredyt dla pracujących za granica forum pożyczki pozabankowe na 2 lata warunki umorzenia pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bank skawina kontakt pożyczki tylko na dowód przez internet pożyczki dla mundurowych warszawa arkadia kredyty pożyczki oleśnica kredyt bez bik 5000 online kredyt bank warszawa ostrobramska kredyty chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bez biku kluczbork pożyczki na dowód zamość pozyczki prywatne wrocław pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki dla służb mundurowych kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator kredyt bank grudziądz kontakt kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła kredyt bank długie ogrody godziny otwarcia pożyczki ratunkowe

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad