kredyt bank żyrardów pożyczki pozabankowe będzin kredyty konsolidacyjne przez internet pożyczki nielegalne pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin bip pożyczki warszawa ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2012 kredyty chwilówki świętojańska pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank lublin mafia pozyczki wzór na wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej szybkie pożyczki na dowód bez bik kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik pożyczki bez bik współpraca kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik umowa pożyczki pod przymusem kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 kredyt chwilówka ruda śląska kredyt odnawialny w banku pko bp umowa pożyczki provident pdf pożyczki bez bik w opolu kredyty chwilówki grójec kredyty bez bik big krd pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie pożyczki prywatne w toruniu pożyczki prywatne od inwestorów ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki auto kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt w uk tesco kredyt bank międzyrzec kredyt mieszkaniowy pekao sa forum pożyczki do 500 zł siódemka kredyty bielsko biała opinie proste pożyczki bez bik leasing czy kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki dzierżoniów kredyty bez bik gdańsk bocian pożyczki świdnica multibank kredyt samochodowy opinie forum kredyt konsolidacyjny z niska rata pożyczka pod weksel prywatna zwrot pożyczki pokwitowanie wzór szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet pozyczki bez biku online bocian kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia umowa pożyczki podatek od odsetek pożyczki prywatne tarnów kredyt bankowy po śmierci pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut getin bank oferta pożyczki kredyt bank jasło kontakt spłata pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank maków maz godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców kredyt bank oferta lokat pożyczki bez bik pruszków umowa pożyczki gotówka wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki w citibank ostatnia deska ratunku pożyczki opinie pożyczki 5 tys multika zywiec kredyty bez bik pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt samochodowy pozabankowy szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online szybkie pożyczki online uk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław kredyt chwilówka mbank pożyczki na konto pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn pożyczki pod zastaw podkarpacie pozyczki inowroclaw kredyt bank lomża pożyczki gotówkowe słupsk rodzaje kredytów w banku pko bp pożyczki movum szczecin pozyczki bez biku pożyczki bez stałych dochodów kredyt na orange jaki numer umowa pożyczki weksel wzór pożyczki dla firm jednoosobowych odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2011 pożyczki busko zdrój pożyczki prywatne bocian pozyczki wągrowiec świdwin kredyty wictoria forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych pożyczki kwota wolna umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej byłemu pracownikowi pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny minimum formalności kredyt bank łączy się z bocian pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt raz dwa w banku pocztowym pożyczki w internecie umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny bs pożyczki z zakładu pracy umowa pożyczki dokument kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia kredyt bez bik bgż pożyczki chwilówki siedlce kredyt bank makler nowe pożyczki online umowa pożyczki pisemna kredyt bez bik pko kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka obliczanie wysokości pożyczki poznań pożyczki chwilówki kredyty chwilówki pyskowice kredyt bank bankomaty warszawa spłata pożyczki przychód kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bgz pożyczki wewnątrzgrupowe pożyczki chwilówki kozienice pożyczki przez internet 24h alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem bocian pożyczki adres kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka kredyt bank mariusz kaczmarek kredyty chwilówki inwestor idea bank kredyt online opinie gdzie moge dostac kredyt bez biku pro invest pożyczki kredyt chwilówka 24 kredyt bank dąbrowa tarnowska godziny otwarcia mikropożyczki dolnośląskie kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt gotówkowy w santander kalkulator kredyty w anglii forum pożyczki namysłów kredyt bez bik racibórz kto udziela pozyczek bez bik ubezpieczenie pożyczki w razie śmierci szybkie pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem kredyt bank łódź oddziały pożyczki na rok przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości kswp końskie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie zarobki pożyczki chwilówki białystok lipowa umowa pożyczki wzór zabezpieczenie kredyt w orange pod jaki numer kredyt bankowy istota kredyt bank w lublinie pożyczki prywatne kłodzko kredyt bez biku forum kredyty chwilówki bielawa kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście 37 kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko forum pożyczki prywatne ciechocinek firma bocian pożyczki kontakt kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm z komornikiem wbk bank zachodni leszno kredyt porzyczka kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank białą podlaska kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank kalkulator oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm kredyty bez bik oferty kredyt bank sa biuro operacji i windykacji lublin bartuś pożyczki rumia kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki na rozwój działalności gospodarczej kredyt na firme bez biku kredyt bank bez prowizji bankomaty potwierdzenie przelewu jako dowód pożyczki oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach kredyt bank koło umorzenie pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyty bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy kredyty mieszkaniowe pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór jak wyglądają pożyczki w providencie kredyty mieszkaniowe czerwiec 2013 pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św pożyczki włodawa kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich kredyty chwilówki końskie kredyt na dowód w jakim banku bocian pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt konsolidacyjny działalność gospodarcza pożyczki tygodniowe kredyt bez bik ciechanów pożyczki bez bik jelenia góra bocian pozyczki windykator terenowy alior bank sa kredyt kredyt bank placówka gdańsk umowa pożyczki chomikuj umowa pożyczki maksymalne odsetki pożyczki bez bik zdunska wola banki udzielające kredytu bez bik pożyczki dla osób które ukończyły 18 lat pożyczki bocian chodzież kredyt gotówkowy bez umowy o pracę punkt pozyczek bocian w swiebodzinie kredyt mieszkaniowy pekao sa forum pożyczki bez biku na oświadczenie pozyczki bez meldunku warszawa pożyczki dla rolników 2012 bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt pozyczka bez bik wabrzezno kredyt bez bik 30000 kredyt chwilówki praca opinie kredyty chwilówki chrzanów rynek bocian pożyczki wieluń umowa o kredyt prosty wzór pożyczki wieloratalne część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg pomocne pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na sam dowód kredyt bank oddział jana pawła warszawa pożyczki bez bik świnoujście praca licencjacka o kredytach kredyt samochodowy dla pracujących za granicą kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa oblicz ratę pożyczki pekao jak zaksięgować kredyt w rachunku bankowym kredyty bez biku dla firm kredyt bank os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w pułtusku kredyt bank blonie kredyt bank ranking najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank kalkulator pożyczki w domu poznań euromax pożyczki reklama pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pup jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik bank pekao sa kredyt na samochód w jakim kraju najlepiej dostać pożyczkę kredyt z komornikiem ruda slaska kredyt bank susz godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki bolesławiec umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienie odsetki od pożyczki kosztem podatkowym kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bgz pożyczki na dowód gdańsk pożyczki internetowe opinie umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem wzór eurocent pożyczki opinie odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej pożyczki online bez bik ranking kredyty bez biku opole kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki turek kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów godziny otwarcia biz pożyczki kredyt bank brzeziny kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas karr pożyczki alior bank kredyt kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego jaka kwota pożyczki jest wolna od podatku gdzie dostac pozyczke z komornikiem w starachowicach pożyczki płock konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy vat pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank opinie ekstra kredyty chwilowki kredyt w pko bp forum pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami numer kredyt do orange kredyty mieszkaniowe wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w mielcu kredyt bank jakie bankomaty kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyt studencki pko transze kredyt bank warszawa grojecka kredyty chwilowki piekary sl pożyczki money najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik potrzebuje pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki podobne do takto kredyty chwilówki nowa sól kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa sfałszowana umowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank brzesko kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo pożyczki 5000zl bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach mlawa kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt oniliaj pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej przedawnienie pożyczki art na czym polega umowa pożyczki kredyty bez biku sosnowiec santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki gumtree kraków szybkie pożyczki przez internet ranking rachunek depozytowy w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie warunki kredyt bank płock ul wyszogrodzka kredyt bank braniewo kredyty chwilówki raty kredyt z komornikiem kamienna gora kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem pożyczki prywatne 24h karencja w spłacie pożyczki umowa pożyczki ang kredyt bank warszawa lokaty kredyt bank aukcje kredyt bank w mlawie kredyt na dowód bez bik zaświadczeń kredyty bez bik pozabankowe pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik pożyczki praca kredyt bank zmiany w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt kredyty mieszkaniowe wiek kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór pożyczki od ręki toruń kredyt bank samochody poleasingowe kredyt bank powstańców śląskich wrocław kredyt bez biku w poznaniu kredyt bank ruczaj kredyt bank międzychód pożyczki chwilówki opinie pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk szybkie pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku bgż kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala udzielenie pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank w czestochowie pożyczki na działalnosc pożyczki bez podatku podatek przedawnienie pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank w toruniu godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki na dowód lublin kredyt bank charakterystyka wierzyciela pożyczki sprzedaż wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty 2014 alior bank kredyt pod zastaw kredyty bez bik chrzanów pożyczki prywatne w domu klienta bocian pożyczka nr tele pożyczki chwilówki tarnowskie góry pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin pożyczki chwilówki dla emerytów kredyt bank dni otwarcia kredyt bank karwiny godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania bydgoszcz pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pomorskie kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona zastawem bocian pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa bocian pożyczki lębork kredyt bank klienci indywidualni kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy kredyty chwilówki puławska 71 kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej spółce pożyczki pozabankowe tychy wzór umowy pożyczki lombardowej kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator 2014 pożyczki na dowód gorzów pożyczki bez biku włocławek warszawa arkadia kredyty getin bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów tarnów kredyty chwilowki swidnica optima pożyczki jakie raty jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt bank skierniewice kontakt kredyt bank kraków oddziały wzór umowy pożyczki zfron kredyty dla firm bez bik wniosek o kredyt bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie poręczenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny a śmierć kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bgz które banki dają kredyt w euro kredyt bank ostrobramska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy na mieszkanie w kamienicy pożyczki w bankach porównanie pożyczki bez bik wielkopolska kredyt bez bik suwałki pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla pracowników gross capital pożyczki daily finance pożyczki getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bankowy kredyt bank wielkokacka kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium pozyczka prywatna chrzanow kredyty bez krd do domu bocian pozyczki kwidzyn pożyczki profi credit nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczka na dowód szybki kredyt elk 24h kredyt bank w grodzisku maz zwrot pożyczki wspólnikowi bocian pożyczki goleniów kredyty chwilówki ostróda kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy godziny otwarcia kredyty bankowe z komornikiem pożyczki gotówkowe 2014 kredyt bank a wbk pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyt na dowód lukas bank kredyt bank piła plac konstytucji kredyt bez biku bielsko biala przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt bank kredyt bank ii oddział kraków kapelanka pożyczki bocian kartuzy kredyt bank rybnik telefon poszukuję pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez bik slask kredyt bank pleszew przedłużenie pożyczki pożyczki w uk po polsku księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki z wfośigw kredyty bez biku wroclaw jak jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob pracujacych w uk prosta umowa pożyczki eurocent podobne pozyczki pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna kredyt bank w kepnie wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców kredyt konsolidacyjny z najniższym oprocentowaniem bocian pożyczki pruszcz gdański ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik kredyt w wbk na klik provident warunki pożyczki kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 kredyt bank 24 kredyt bank lodz zgierska pożyczki pozabankowe lębork pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe w którym banku wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt bank ul kasprzaka oprocentowanie pożyczki wibor 3m kredyt bank w słupsku pożyczki od rodziny znajomych kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator pożyczki domówki grudziądz kredyty chwilówki łódź pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeńpoznan kredyt bank raporty bieżące bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt bank kielce bankomaty pożyczka chwilówka konin pożyczki gotówkowe dublin pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem kredyt bank przelewy internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe wbk bocian pożyczki oborniki pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki dla kogo kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock jak udzielać pożyczki pożyczki bez dochodu i bik pożyczki poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel pożyczki kościerzyna

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad