warunki otrzymania kredytu konsolidacyjnego wbk pożyczki bez dochodów i bik kredyt bank łączy się z bz wbk kredyty mieszkaniowe mieszkanie dla młodych santander kupuje kredyt bank 2012 umowa pożyczki z zastawem wzór pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku pożyczki na weksel kraków kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań pożyczki atiz kredyt bank krosno bankomaty bank pko sa kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp prywatne pozyczki na weksel kredyt bank w lublinie kontakt umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank oferty pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki pięniędzy kredyt bank karmelicka betgang pożyczka pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank tomaszów lubelski umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania kredyt bank wniosek o wakacje kredytowe pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez przedpłat kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 kredyty bez bik lub prywatne w nowym sączu kredyty chwilowki lodz pożyczki 2000 kredyt bank zmiany pożyczki społecznościowe ranking umowa pożyczki do wypełnienia kredyt bank net pożyczki w amber gold opinie pożyczki dla firm szczecin kredyt bankowy finansowanie czy kredyt bankowy jest zawsze oprocentowany pożyczki prywatne będzin w jakim banku wziasc kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki podatek od odsetek pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód wezwanie do zapłaty umowa pożyczki wzór kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego tempo finanse pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki w uk kredyt bank cashback kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wloclawek pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań kredyt w uk po polsku oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kalkulator kredyt bank kraj pochodzenia pożyczki ekspresowe legnica kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator kredyt bank głogów kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w gdańsku pożyczki w domu u klienta chorzów udzielę pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki podpisana za granicą kredyt mieszkaniowy w chf kalkulator kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osób samotnych co to jest kredyt bez bik umowa przyrzeczenia pożyczki pożyczki z najmniejszym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank 7 procent kredyt bank gdańsk zaspa godziny otwarcia przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki prywatne nysa pożyczki w banku pożyczki door financial kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź kredyt bank zwrot za paliwo bezpieczne pożyczki bez bik pozyczki bez bik i krd przez internet dobre pożyczki bez bik opinie umowa o spłatę pożyczki udzielę pożyczki bez przedpłat pożyczki na dowód chwilówki kredyt bank w gliwicach kredyty pozabankowe chwilówki kredyt na oświadczenie bez bik obliczenie podatku od pożyczki kredyt bank otwarcie mti pożyczki kredyt bank raszyn poniatowskiego kredyt bez bik do 3000 pożyczki ksu kredyt chwilówka roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki tarnów kredyty bez bik starachowice kredyt bank piotrków kontakt kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie zdrój przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt bank pożyczki na dowód od 18 kredyt bank karmelicka umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki prywatne pozyczki opole kredyt bank włoclawek pożyczki kaśka kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego kontakt pożyczki oddłużeniowe poznań kredyt bank w sochaczewie odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek kredyty chwilówki on line pożyczki dla zadłużonych konsolidacyjne kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking kredyty bez bik piła pożyczki pod zastaw głogów pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu jaki bank udziela kredytu bez bik spłata pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyty pozabankowe slask pożyczki na dowód giżycko pożyczki bez bik oława umowa pożyczki koszty notarialne szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt inwestycyjny w idea bank preferencyjny kredyt studencki w pko bp istota kredytu i pożyczki kredyt bank kościuszki pruszków kredyt bank gdynia karwiny kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 pko bp pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski optima pożyczki słupsk pożyczki chwilówki warszawa pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia urząd skarbowy zgłoszenie pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa pożyczki optima bydgoszcz optima pożyczki do domu opinie kredyt bank w zielonce godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne cieszyn pożyczki bez zaświadczeń koszalin umorzenie pożyczki po niemiecku kredyt bez bik grójec kredyt bank wiek kredytobiorcy kredyty mieszkaniowe dla ludzi pracujacych za granica umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki kredyty i pożyczki dla jst kredyt bank warszawa nowy świat pożyczki prywatne piotrków trybunalski bocian pożyczki kołobrzeg kredyty bez bik w plocku odsetki od pożyczki cypr kredyt bank lipowa białystok pożyczki dla zadłużonych warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody współmałżonka getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy infolinia kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników kasa jowisz pożyczki kredyt bank spółdzielczy wschowa pożyczki chwilówki ciechanów pożyczka bez bik abis kredyt bank bankomaty mielec kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik odsetki od pożyczki cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki prywatne bez bik i zaświadczeń pozyczki bez rejestrow poznan credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet pożyczki chwilówki bez konta kredyt w fortis bank kredyt bank wrocłąw w jakim banku nie brac kredytu kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie umowa pożyczki bez terminu spłaty kredyt bank łowicz telefon kredyt samochodowy w mbanku kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór numer konta w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kalkulator najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki na dowód bez bik łódź pożyczki bez bik porównanie pożyczki kwidzyn skarabeusz pożyczki przemysl czy kredyt bankowy jest opodatkowany kredyty santander alior bank kredyt umowa zlecenie pożyczki prywatne gdzie szukać kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank oprocentowanie udzielę pożyczki prywatnej łódź pożyczki prywatne września kredyt bez biku pabianice pożyczki bez bik słubice lub kredyt bank grodzisk wlkp kredyt gotówkowy bez bik warszawa umowa pożyczki referat skarabeusz pożyczki ruda śląska szybkie kredyty bez bik spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku mikropożyczki dolnośląskie obliczanie procentu pożyczki pożyczki dla pracowników pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy ubezpieczenie mieszkania kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice pożyczki praca kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kredyty pozabankowe bez bik forum kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd kredyt bank łuków kontakt bocian pożyczki malbork pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe kredyt gotówkowy od osób prywatnych bez krd pożyczki z lombardu kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd kredyty pozabankowe inowrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy pod zastaw innego mieszkania kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi zus promesa udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki feniks kredyt bank gorzów matejki godziny otwarcia bartek pozyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz kredyty mieszkaniowe jaki bank kredyt konsolidacyjny z gotówką kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki pożyczki do 500 zł kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2011 kredyt studencki bank pekao sa kredyt konsolidacyjny podstawa prawna jakie oprocentowanie pozyczki gotowkowej w pekao bp kredyty poza bankowe bez big siedlce adresy i nr tel warunkowa umowa pożyczki kredyt bank 24 kredyt oszczędnościowy w getin banku kredyt bez bik bez zabezpieczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim pożyczki krapkowice oświadczenie udzielenia pożyczki alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank karmelicka kredyty w alior banku opinie bank pko sa symulacja kredytu pożyczki bocian szczecinek kredyt gotówkowy bank bph opinie uruchomienie pożyczki pożyczki lubartów pożyczki preferencyjne nfośigw kredyt chwilówka mbank bocian pożyczki warunki umowa pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego pożyczki w provident konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy a pcc kredyt bank opole kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum kredyty chwilowki legnica opinie jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bankowe i pozabankowe kalwaryjska krakow pożyczki na dowód inowrocław kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki kredyty chwilówki franczyza pcc od umowy pożyczki dla spółki 2012 pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum kredyt banku centralnego kredyt pozabankowy na zakup samochodu pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej pożyczki gros kapitał umowa pożyczki od firmy zagranicznej umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs księgowanie kredyt bank sa oddział rybnik kredyt bez konta w banku umorzenie pożyczki zfśs jak dostac kredyt w uk na mieszkanie kredyt bank w krakowie pożyczki luton pożyczki prywatne sosnowiec kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank wrocław powstańców śląskich kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko kredyt bankowy bez bik przez internet bocian pożyczki tarnobrzeg mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ kredyt pozabankowy w banku kredyt dla firm w fm banku umowa kredytu w prawie rzymskim kredyt bank konto ekstra oszczędnościowe kredyty chwilowki piekary slaskie pożyczki pozabankowe w gorzowie wlkp znaczenie kredytów w działalności banków bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica umowa pożyczki między dwoma osobami w jakim banku wziąć kredyt family pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kredyty bez bik toruń kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie rachunku kredyt bank warszawa marki kredyt chwilówka sandomierz kredyt bank w szczecinku kredyt na dowód przez internet bez biku getin bank kredyt 5000 wonga pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki otrzymania pożyczki na dowod mlawa bocian pożyczki wodzisław śląski bocian pożyczki przyznawalność kredyt bank chojnice kościuszki kredyt dla zadluzonych boleslawiec pożyczki na dowód kielce umowa pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego umowa pożyczki darmowy wzór kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu pożyczki chwilówki gdzie najlepiej pożyczki pekao szybkie kredyty online bez bik niespłacony kredyt w banku kredyt bank krynica zdrój godziny otwarcia czy mozna zawiesic kredyt w banku jak księgować odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki jaki procent kredytu w vivus bocian pożyczki ostróda pożyczki od osób prywatnych na weksel bocian pożyczki obligacje kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt pożyczki całodobowe kraków bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu optima sa pożyczki opinie kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie pożyczki pod zastaw lubuskie alior bank kredyt dla studenta pożyczka prywatna 15000 bez weryfikacji warszawa kredyt prywatny świdnica kredyt bank rawicz kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza skarabeusz pożyczki tarnów pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt studencki pko infolinia pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania potrzebuję pożyczki 2012 pożyczki dla firm bez big getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki giszowiec kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki gdańsk grunwaldzka pożyczki zamiast dotacji kredyt bank warszawa ursus kredyt bez bik do 10 tys dobre pożyczki chwilówki kod na kredyt 1 zł w orange kredyt bank sanok tel kredyt bez bik 15000 pożyczki długoterminowe w dąbrowie górniczej kredyt w uk na dom pożyczki wejherowo kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik kredyt studencki pko spłata kredyt studencki wbk spłata kredyt w provident utrata pracy konsolidacja kredytów jak to działa umowa pożyczki wzór urząd skarbowy bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe bezzwrotne pożyczki dla rolników umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie pożyczka prywatna 15000 bez weryfikacji warszawa kredyt bank lipno tel pozyczki prywatne olsztyn kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat forum kredyt konsolidacyjny chorzów pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo kredyt bank janów lubelski pożyczki piła kredyt prywatny wzór umowy cywilno prawnej umowy pożyczki wzory auto kredyt bez bik bocian pożyczki ełk pożyczki bez bik przez internet w 15 minut podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pod weksel gdańsk bocian pożyczki numer tel umowa pożyczki pracownik wzór kredyt bank minsk kredyty bez biku lodz pożyczki w domu klienta odsetki od pożyczki kosztem podatkowym lloyds kredyt gotowkowy skarabeusz pożyczki gliwice banki dające wszystkim kredyt samochodowy kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice kredyt bank frank w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt na samochód kredyt bez bik stargard szczeciński pomocne pożyczki nie oddanie pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum kredyt bank bz wbk santander pozyczka dla zadluzonych w biku kredyty chwilówki środa wlkp kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki bez bik komornik szybkie pożyczki bez bik opole czy podatek pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym pozyczki do 15000 anglia kredyt bank zambrów telefon pożyczki eden konsekwencje kredyt w eurobank forum pożyczki oscar kredyt bank awaria systemu umowa pożyczki przewłaszczenie na zabezpieczenie jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one idea bank warunki pożyczki idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz skarabeusz pożyczki wniosek najtańsza pożyczka w płocku kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy na rozpoczecie dzialalnosci gospodarczej gdzie w rybniku dostane kredyt bez biku udzielić pożyczki po ang orange kody na kredyt kredyt bank czeladź pożyczki online w 15 minut bez bik pożyczki bez bik i krd wrocław umowa pożyczki gofin kredyt bank łomża kontakt kredyt bankowy dla firm kredyt bank centrala formy pożyczki kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp pożyczka dla kazdego lubin pożyczki na dowód bez bik poznań gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin pożyczki bez bik w radomiu kredyt bank chrzanów tel umowa pożyczki gotówki między osobami prawnymi pożyczki pozabankowe kętrzyn praca pożyczki bocian kredyt bank we włocławku pożyczki na dowód lubań kredyt bez bik szybko kredyt bank płace kredyt dla firm bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki u kruka pożyczki bez zaświadczeń lublin kredyt bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz pożyczki grudziądz kredyt na oddłużenie oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa 2013 kredyt bez bik i krd bolesławiec restrukturyzacja przeterminowanego kredytu wbk pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat pożyczki dla małych firm z unii kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 lat pozyczki z marr jak ksiegowac 1000 zl pożyczki lublin kredyt bank w swinoujsciu w ktorym banku nalepiej brac pozyczke na samochod pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg kredyt bank nowa dęba pożyczki pod zastaw krosno kredyt bez bik głogów kredyt studencki bank gospodarstwa krajowego warunki dostania pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty mielec pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyt bez bik torun kredyty bez biku piła kredyty chwilowki plock bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank ii oddział kraków kapelanka pożyczki dla zadłużonych warszawa kredyty prawo bankowe kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 regulamin pożyczki ze środków obrotowych wszystkie pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt w aig bank polska kredyt konsolidacyjny we franku kredyt bank sa jelenia góra pozyczki chwilowki bez bik krd od reki zabrze

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad