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otwarcia kredyt bez bik dla rolników kredyt bank dewizy kredyty preferencyjne banki potrzebuje pożyczki na dowód pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica kredyt gotówkowy bez bik sosnowiec potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe dla nowych firm w jakim banku wziąć kredyt pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin pożyczki chwilówki nakło pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank praca opinie umowa pożyczki wzór weksla pko bp sa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko bp kredyt studencki aneks odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki online od 18 lat pożyczki kredyty na dowód kredyty mieszkaniowe santander prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań pawinski krzysztof warszawa pozyczki umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk kredyt bank s a centrala kontakt kredyt bank oddzialy w krakowie pożyczki publiczne kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj objawy pożyczki pożyczki domowe grudziądz epef pożyczki kredyt bez biku lodz gdzie najlatwiej po pozyczke pod zastaw domu kredyt bank 1500 kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys pożyczki dla firm porównanie umowa pożyczki gotówki podatek pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt bez bik wbk szybkie pożyczki dla rolników kredyt bank wielkokacka kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank w białobrzegach oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyt bez bik zywiec kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska kredyt na mieszkanie a umowa na czas określony pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik forum kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli tani kredyt inowroclaw kredyt bez biku nowy sącz pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce pożyczki prywatne opole jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności kredyt studencki pko umorzenie kredyt bank sa cieszyn pożyczki na działalność pożyczki bez bik kościan kredyt bank tarnów telefon pożyczki mini firma skarbiec pożyczki kontakt abis pożyczki dla każdego kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp oprocentowanie pożyczki w skok stefczyka global pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób pracujących za granicą facebook pożyczki kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik grójec pożyczki pod zastaw suwałki kredyty chwilówki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lodz wolczanska kredyt konsolidacyjny promocja kredyt bank przelewy online umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc pożyczka całkowicie przez internet warszawa kredyty chwilowki kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank złe kredyty w działalności banków kredyty chwilówki blog gdzie dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej torun kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji kredyty chwilówki tychy budowlanych pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża cena rynkowa pożyczki alior bank karta kredytowa na dowod pożyczki pasłęk prodomo pożyczki nowe mia kredyt bank ix oddział w warszawie pożyczki wągrowiec pożyczki śląsk w jakim banku kredyt przez internet kredyt bank w łomży kredyt bank białobrzegi radomskie kredyt bankowy przez internet odsetki od pożyczki jako przychód pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator reklamacja pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock warunki kredytu w banku wbk kredyt bank cennik opłat mini pożyczki bez bik szybkie pożyczki głogów kredyty bankowe stan początkowy pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank a wbk skarabeusz pożyczki tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki na dowód porównanie pożyczki łowicz kredyt bank bednarska łódź pożyczki bez bik olsztyn fundusz inwestycyjny pożyczki kredyt bank szczecin dąbie godziny otwarcia pożyczki we frankach kredyt bez bik zgorzelec 30 tysiecy pozyczki dla zadluzonych w poznaniu kredyt bankowy okres przedawnienia bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości 2013 pożyczki prywatne bez wstępnych opłat szybkie pożyczki tarnów kredyt bank w myslenicach kredyt bank żniwna poznań kredyty bez bik gumtree cesja wierzytelności pożyczki pożyczki odnawialne udzielane przedsiębiorcom pożyczki jeremie łódzkie pożyczki ostatnia deska ratunku mikropożyczki dla absolwentów kredyt dla małej firmy bez bik pożyczki skok wesoła kredyty od reki bez biku i krd na sam dowód w kielcach kredyt bank krapkowice godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic wniosek kredyt bank łomża telefon pożyczki bocian gryfice wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty płock formy pożyczki kredyt samochodowy ranking sierpien 2013 cel pożyczki kredyt bank pracownicy kredyt bank w gliwicach pożyczki bocian w pile mikropożyczki na otwarcie działalności kredyt w banku aib pożyczki bez bik w wałbrzychu pożyczki raz dwa kredyt bank ken 57 czy alior bank udziela pozyczek z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki przeterminowane kredyt konsolidacyjny problemy pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego pozyczka na dlugi pod weksel kredyt bank janów łódź kruk kredyty w puławach pożyczki lubin ipko kredyt na oswiadczenie kredyt bank biłgoraj praca kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza dotacje unijne pożyczki kredyt bank ostróda kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator open finance pożyczki dla zadłużonych konsolidacyjne pożyczki w domu klienta wrocław kredyt bank w wołominie pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń przez internet pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna pożyczki w 24h przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank kapitał kredyt studencki warunki uzyskania kredyt bank mateusze pożyczki chwilówki łomża charakter umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól kredyt bez bik 10000 zł pozyczki pozabankowe na dowod 4000 zl pożyczki gwarant kredyty chwilówki pyskowice pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank pożyczki dla małych firm umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit kredyt bez bik ruda śląska kredyt bez bik oleśnica bocian pożyczki bielsko pożyczki pozabankowe żnin umowa pożyczki w kc umowa pożyczki pcc 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw suwałki umowa pożyczki od kolegi pozyczki walbrzych z bik krs i komornikiem kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja forum kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat pożyczki cywilne wrocław kredyt bank lublin godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt bank rzeszow rejtana nfośigw pożyczki preferencyjne kredyt bank rumia kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing prawo podatkowe pożyczki kredyty bez biku gniezno kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra kredyt bankowy obrotowy kredyt gotówkowy bank pko sa odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota kredyty mieszkaniowe z 1992 roku kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartosci kredyt a prawo bankowe kredyt bank z bz wbk alior bank kredyt gotówkowy na dowód eurocent pozyczki wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej pożyczki prywatne malbork kredyt bez bik ostrołęka czy w santanteze banku latwo jest dostac pozyczke kredyty chwilówki praca warszawa wzór umowy pożyczki pcc wzór umowy pozyczki kredyt bank ul abrahama kredyt bank ketlinga kredyt bank janów lubelski kontakt umowa pożyczki aneks mirosław czyżykowski pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy bytom kredyty chwilówki nowe kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank dłużnicy pożyczki na oświadczenie kraków pozyczki walcz bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny ang kredyt chwilówka 2000 zł kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw oświadczenie zwrotu pożyczki alina wacławek pożyczki premium pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy komornik chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty kielce szybkie pozyczki bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank awaria systemu kredyt bank kosciuszki kielce wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt bank infolinia 24h kredyt bank karta kredytowa opłata pożyczki repo kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn umowa pożyczki odsetki za zwłokę kredyt konsolidacyjny w tym samym banku zawieszenie raty w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik bolesławiec kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku pożyczki bez bik bez meldunku w dowodzie kredyty bez bik bankowe kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt pożyczki bez bik wałcz kredyty pozabankowe skierniewice kredyt bank ostrowiec św pewne pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt studencki banki udzielające kredyt bank historia prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód kredyt bank warszawa v oddział banki udzielające kredytu bez bik kredyt bez bik gdansk pożyczki do domu bydgoszcz pozyczki chwilowki w irlandii mikropożyczki klon bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl kredyt pożyczka pozabankowa kredyt bank najgorszy szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii pożyczki 24h opinie santander kredyt ratalny a bik pożyczki gotówkowe telefon kredyty chwilówki panel logowania jaki jest numer na kredyt z orange udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie szybkie pożyczki bez bik rzeszów kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki chwilówki online bez zaświadczeń kod na kredyt w orange kredyt konsolidacyjny w pnb paribas pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet najnowsze pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomści w tarnobrzegu optima pożyczki kraków provident oferta pożyczki kredyty bez bik szamotuły pożyczki pozabankowe w białymstoku kredyt bank sanok chopina pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz pożyczki w pko sa szukam szybkiej pożyczki kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kontakt koszt pożyczki w providencie pożyczki na które trzeba uważać umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracodawcą a pracownikiem getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank kędzierzyn bocian pożyczki zabrze,gliwice pożyczki rapida kredyty bez bik dla nowych firm pożyczki dla zadłużonych lubin jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt bank warszawa tel pożyczki na dowód z komornikiem abis slask pozyczki kredyty chwilowki belchatow kredyt studencki pko czy pekao pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami pozyczka dla firm bez oprocentowania dotacje białystok pożyczki chwilówki kępno ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności pożyczki prywatne jelenia góra activa 500 czy bez problemu daja pozyczki kredyt bank stargard telefon pożyczki bez biku włocławek ubezpieczenie pożyczki od utraty pracy kredyt bank tczew godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik jarosław pożyczki pod zastaw kościan kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 11 kredyt bank prowizja od wpłaty pożyczki dla widniejących w krd umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania wzór pozyczka z bociana dla kogo pożyczki bocian łódź przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce pracujac za granica notarialne umorzenie pożyczki dla syna pożyczki kredyty w domu klienta kredyt studencki eurobank podatek od darowizny pożyczki pożyczki z budżetu jst pożyczki w banku bgż pożyczki chwilówki wołomin obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank koszty odsetek od pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na zakup mieszkania kredyt w banku dla studenta kredyt bez bik raty udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie pożyczki i kredyty bez bik chorzów katowice szybkie pożyczki 0 kredyt online bez bik kredyt studencki pko bp poręczyciele pozyczki w mielcu bocian kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku kredyt bez bik niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki bocian cieszyn numer kredyt bank karty kredytowe mikropożyczki dla firm kod do kredytu orange kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie kredyt bank gocław pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z pup pożyczki franczyza pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat online kredyt bank sa telefon pożyczki chwilówki mysłowice kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku forum pożyczki bez erif kredyty chwilówki wieluń praca pożyczki na dowód bez biku kredyt bank nysa kontakt pożyczki trzebnica kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnego rodzica pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica kredyt konsolidacyjny doradca finansowy uczciwe pożyczki prywatne fundusze unijne pożyczki pożyczki na dowód świdnica pożyczki w tax care kredyt na 5 zł orange kredyt studencki lukas bank kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt pożyczki bielsko biała połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców wzór szybkie pożyczki bez bik kalisz kredyt bank pso kredyt konsumencki banki kredyt bank prabuty kontakt kredyt bank w polsce pożyczki pod zastaw gdynia kredyt dla firm bez bik i zus kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie 2013 sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu odsetki od pożyczki inwestycyjnej pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki dla młodych rolników kredyt bank sprzedaż wierzytelności kredyt cetelem bank kredyty chwilówki system partner pl pożyczki z narodowego funduszu ochrony środowiska

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad