konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2012 oddziały kredyt banku szczecin ei global pożyczki kredyty chwilówki reklama kredyt bez bik zawiercie prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw forum umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław ul dworcowa bocian pożyczki jaki procent pożyczki gotówkowe zielona góra kredyt bank rakowicka telefon kredyty chwilówki co to jest umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie kredyty chwilówki na sms alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt studencki pko niezaliczony semestr pożyczki dla firm łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt bankowy online kredyty helios pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty kredyt bank warszawa zeromskiego kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim kredyty w uk dla polakow kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa lokata rentierska kredyt bank opinie kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe bytom pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kraków bocian pożyczki rumia kredyt studencki w pko opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd bardzo szybkie kredyty bez bik kod na kredyt na orange alior bank kredyt na start pozyczka dla zadłuzonych pozyczka do domu gdynia jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu kody do orange na kredyt kredyt chwilówka wodzisław kredyt pozabankowy częstochowa kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank placówki lublin gross pożyczki opinie bocian pożyczki żywiec pożyczki chwilówki sieradz pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd kredyt bank biała podlaska rywal pożyczki go kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank opinie kredyt bank marki telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki prywatne na podkarpaciu pozyczka na weksel zgorzelec kredyty chwilówki opinie pracowników kredyt bank arka kredyt bankowy dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w bik kredyt bank w częstochowie orange jaki jest kod na kredyt gdzie wziąć kredyt bez biku pozyczki bez bik krd pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności konto osobiste w kredyt banku opinie kredyt bank warta kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej admin pożyczki pozabankowe okres przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs bilansowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego własny kąt forum bankomaty kredyt banku w pile kredyt bank stalowa wola kontakt pożyczki na dowód jaworzno jak odmówić komuś pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum obliczenie raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim poręczenie pożyczki wzór skarabeusz pożyczki gotówkowe opinie kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności konto ror w kredyt banku pożyczki online chwilówki kredyty pozabankowe malbork pozyczki 18lat bialystok pożyczki i darowizny w rodzinie kredyt bank wolczanska w jakim banku mały kredyt getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie opinie kredyt bank piaskowa góra wałbrzych wniosek o kredyt studencki pko sa umowa pożyczki a śmierć pożyczkodawcy pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt dla firm bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola pożyczki dla zadłużonych białystok kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik wawa pożyczki prywatne mogilno kredyt bank warszawa popularna godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki rzeszów kontakt kredyt bankowy pasywa czy aktywa lombard pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości jak dostac kredyt w uk na dom pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie umowa pożyczki w walucie kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kredyt bank lokata impet gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ing kredyt w 15 minut na dowod w kb24 kredyty chwilówki rata umowa pożyczki loan agreement pożyczki kokos forum oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm pożyczki bez bik zielona góra ei global pożyczki kredyty bez bik w krakowie pożyczki od ręki bez biku pożyczki chwilówki kasprowicza kredyt bank numer banku potwierdzenie odbioru pożyczki pożyczki na święta bez bik pozyczki na dowod w domu klienta krotoszyn i okolice umowa pożyczki ze spółką pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 wartości pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank bydgoszcz focha kredyty bez biku malbork pożyczki dla emerytów i rencistów w jakim banku brać kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie pozyczka onlain lubuskie kredyt porównanie banków pożyczki typu provident kredyty bez bik elblag biura kredytowe pozabankowe boleslawiec umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór wzór umowy pożyczki od brata pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom pożyczki 10000 zł pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki wadowice kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenie kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys pożyczka w domu bez bik umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór orange jaki jest kod na kredyt pożyczki prominent kredyt w eurobank forum umowa pożyczki pieniędzy word pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 kalkulator pożyczki bankowej kredyty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki bez biku częstochowa kredyt bank s a ul kasprzaka 2 8 pożyczki na dowód wonga giżycko kredyt w ktorym banku pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra mikropożyczki wiki pozyczka bez bik pod zabezpieczenie boleslawiec kredyt bank choszczno umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie pożyczki bez erif kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zł pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank lezajsk targowa kredyt bank psie pole kredyt bank łódź ketlinga godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez limitu wieku umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie pozyczka z bez bik i z komornikiem lodz pożyczki eden finance kredyt bank s a i oddział w warszawie kredyt bank kursy walut chf kredyt bank pułtusk tel pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu opinie pożyczki pozabankowe najtanńsza sprawdzona pożyczka bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe z 1992 roku umorzone odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy umowa pożyczki właścicielskiej kredyty mieszkaniowe wrocław oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego deutsche bank kurs chf w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych oferuję pożyczki pożyczki świebodzice pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz szybkie pożyczki bez krd i bik pożyczki bocian wągrowiec skok kujawiak pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny olsztyn kredyt bank bankomat bez prowizji kredyt chwilówki gliwice kredyty bez bik lębork umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bank warszawa ciołka 10 szybki kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik żyrafa pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez bik online drobne pożyczki pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat poznań pożyczki bez bik i krd gdańsk sprawdzone pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zwrot pożyczki proz kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli pko bp pozyczki bez bik ciechanow słupia pożyczki dla firm umowy pożyczki od udziałowca umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze wzór optima pożyczki do domu łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń mikropożyczki definicja kredyty chwilówki poznań opinie umorzenie pożyczki przychód podatkowy bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty bez bik jaki bank pożyczki w żagiel szybkie pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki bez bik do 10000 kredyty bez bik gniezno ikko projekt pożyczki bocian pozyczki walbrzych kredyty pozabankowe tychy pożyczki chwilówki racibórz kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt bank ul wielicka godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki praca bytom kredyty chwilówki kraków teatralne kredyt konsolidacyjny potrzebne dokumenty czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem iwona wayne pożyczki pożyczki prywatne chełm kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank opinie pożyczki bez bik bez meldunku w dowodzie pożyczki online bez bik i krd pożyczki bezzwrotne dla firm pożyczki chwilówki katowice prywatna szybka pozyczka zywiec wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator 2014 oblicz ratę pożyczki pko bp omnico pożyczki kredyt bez bik gdzie kredyt na dowód kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa kredyt bank grupa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych pożyczki udzielone księgowanie pożyczki prywatne lębork umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór pożyczki jeremie koszalin optima pożyczki do domu łódź pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia kredyt bank międzychód pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu kredyt chwilówka getin bank jak obliczyć nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki kredyt bank kondratowicza kontakt umowa pożyczki to umowa pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy kalkulator kredyt bank niedurnego kredyt bank wrocław bielany wrocławskie kredyty bocian zywiec kredyt w banku od 18 lat pożyczki społecznościowe w polsce pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyt bank tychy kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji lublin kredyt bank klienci kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie 2013 pożyczki prywatne online pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat kredyt internetowy eurobank kredyt bez bik bez konta bankowego pożyczki bez bik rawicz kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń zmiana warunków pożyczki pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn pożyczki tygodniowki elbląg kredyt bankowy bez bik placówka warszawa kredyty bankowe pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy kredyt online praca pożyczki chwilówki afera o kredyt świdwin kredyty wictoria opinie pożyczka na 60 dni udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego bocian pozyczki grojec bocian pożyczki dokumenty pożyczki chwilówki najnowsze udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy dochody z zagranicy kredyt bankowy bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw chrzanów kredyt bank 3 maja lublin kredyt bank brzeg kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku kredyty bez bik w wałbrzychu wypowiedzenie kredytu credit agricole udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie kredyt bank gdańśk pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica pożyczki w 24h przez internet bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik grudziądz pożyczki typu mezzanine kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki koszty banki kredyty pożyczki pożyczki od ręki przez internet symulacja kredytu w credit agricole pozyczki bez biku online kredyt bank filia łomianki kredyt bank tarnobrzeg telefon kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy przez internet pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik kredyt bank ruczaj kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik pożyczki euroloan kredyty chwilowki zywiec pożyczki dla firm suwałki alior bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank ukraina kredyt konsolidacyjny ile procent kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2013 kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 pożyczka do domu płock termin przedawnienia zwrotu pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bank millenium kredyt pozabankowy toruń pożyczki w domu klienta bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank w ostrowie wielkopolskim pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyty konsolidacyjne w getin banku usługi finansowe pożyczki microfinance pożyczki kredyt bank kasprzaka 22 umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg pożyczki od osób prywatnych na weksel udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez przedpłat pożyczki pozabankowe legnica pożyczki pozabankowe dla kogo deklaracja odsetki od pożyczki marka pożyczki ełk kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego kredyt bez bik gniezno usługa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy kredyt bankowy długoterminowy zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej jak wziąć kredyt w orange 5 zł firma kronos pożyczki kontakt pożyczki ogłoszenia warszawa mikropożyczki dla absolwentów kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty kredyt pozabankowe oferty pożyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka kredyt bank wschowa preferencyjny kredyt studencki banki kredyt bank sa kontakt kredyt bank patriotów godziny otwarcia rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt w banku spółdzielczym warunki mbank kredyt samochodowy kredyt bez baz kredyt bank jakie bankomaty za darmo odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2012 wpływ pożyczki na rachunek walutowy pożyczki bez big i krd pożyczki na procent gdańsk wzór druku pożyczki kredyt w eurobanku tax care pożyczki dla firm ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2013 kredyty chwilowki lodz pożyczki z obsługą w domu podkarpacie kredyt bank mielec kontakt kredyty chwilówki września umowa pożyczki oprocentowanie kredyt bank bialobrzegi banki pożyczki gotówkowe chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd pożyczki w skoku forum pożyczki dla firm bph atiz pożyczki opinie formularz umowy pożyczki pożyczki provident kontakt pożyczki w domu klienta poznań koszt pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki bez bik jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank kościan godziny otwarcia kredyt bank płock ul wyszogrodzka szybkie pożyczki na dowód bez bik kwota pożyczki netto kredyty i pożyczki cesja bocian pożyczki opinia kredyt bank gorczewska 200 kredyt bank ul mickiewicza białystok pożyczki stefczyka bożena molenda szybkie pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu pcc od umowy pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych oprocentowanie santander kredyt na samochod w uk aktualizacja wartości pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bez bik warszawa kredyty dla firm bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum kredyt studencki który bank wybrać pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen lukas bank kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki na zakup samochodu kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum kredyt bez bik na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem kredyt bank toruń godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik od dłuż dobry kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki bez bik opole kredyty chwilówki warszawa bielany pożyczki chwilówki w gdyni pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy mafi pożyczki chwilówki kielce umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami w jakim banku najłatwiej kredyt eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator szybki kredyt w banku odsetki od pożyczki cypr bocian pożyczki czat kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku opinie pożyczki na dowód zabrze kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 pko bp lublin pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pieniężne definicja kredyt bank pakiet aktywny pożyczki społecznościowe ranking umowa pożyczki dla pracownika wzór oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko bp bank credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki bez podatku umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt pozabankowy częstochowa betgang pożyczki co to jest kredyt bez bik kredyt samochodowy na firmę korzyści kredyt bank płock godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wbk połączenie umorzenie pożyczki przychód podatkowy kredyt bez bik gumtree kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt w ktorym banku kredyt bank w nysie pożyczki bez bik malbork kredyt bez bik chojnice kredyt konsumpcyjny bank zabezpieczenie notarialne pożyczki pożyczki w uk dla polaków zawieszenie kredytu bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy w noble bank kredyt chwilówki żywiec pożyczki na otwarcie działalności kredyty studenckie mbank

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad