czy banki udzielają pożyczek pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyt bank krzeszowice pożyczki prywatne zdunska wola kredyty do firm parabanki umowa pożyczki od jakiej kwoty mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki getin bank kredyty samochodowe telefon kredyt chwilówka porównanie bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt zagraniczny z komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe białogard pożyczki gotówkowe promocje kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea opinie umowa pożyczki w spółce cywilnej pożyczki pod zastaw opinie pożyczki gotówkowe online bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy nadpłacanie kredyty konsolidacyjne łódź kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2012 szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kredyty chwilówki komisja nadzoru finansowego pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kredyt bank goldenline umowa pożyczki oszustwo biuro dobrej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania jaki procent kredytu w vivus kredyt bank piła kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2013 kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opinie dekretacja pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank lokaty 3 miesieczne pko kwidzyn kredyty studenckie obligacja 4 pożyczki konsolidacyjnej kredyt bank warszawa bankomaty ktory bank da kredyt bez bik kredyt w banku bez biku w ktorym banku brac kredyt pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko pożyczki okey oblicz kredyt samochodowy santander nowy kredyt pozabankowy kredyty pozabankowe luban kredyt konsolidacyjny bez małżonka pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bank oddział włocławek kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór pożyczki pozabankowe białystok kredyt bank poznań niepodległości pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki spłacana w ratach umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach lisiak przemysław pożyczki kredyt w meritum banku opinie kredyt bank adres kredyt bank włoszczowa pożyczki bez bik wejherowo umowa pożyczki w spółce komandytowej pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach gdynia pożyczki do 12000 nowe lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank spółka akcyjna warszawa pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej puck rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór kredyty chwilówki windykator kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko bp podrobiona umowa pożyczki kredyty bez bik bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik z mini ratą kredyt w ulster bank ie kredyt bank mickiewicza 50 kredyt bank piłsudskiego siedlce kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie pożyczki cieszyn pożyczki bez bik do 10 tys kredyty chwilówka online kredyt na pit w getin banku forum pożyczki od osób prywatnych rzeszów pożyczki bez bik jasło pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 fines pożyczki opinie numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big krd pro domo pożyczki szczecin pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 marcin pytel pożyczki kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole opinie oferta pożyczki gotówkowej szybki kredyt na samochód bez bik umowa pożyczki bez formy pisemnej umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt pozabankowy 5000 kredyt bank ryki pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnów pożyczki pod zastaw zasady pożyczki dla zadłużonych konsolidacyjne kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnych umowa pożyczki koleżeńskiej umowa pożyczki raty wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce pożyczki bez krd olsztyn pszczółka pożyczki opinie kredyt bankowy aktywo czy pasywo krecik pożyczki kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd nadpłata pożyczki ing kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja vivus uk pożyczki umowa pożyczki spółce kredyt bez bik poznań umowa pożyczki forma prywatne pożyczki lubin wzór umowy pożyczki pienieżnej kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kredyt u pośrednika czy w banku kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia kredyt szybki bez bik i krd pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt bank sa swift code kredyt bank przez internet kredyt pozabankowy bez bik forum umowa pożyczki druk pcc pożyczki pozabankowe garwolin pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy alior bank kredyt na oświadczenie pożyczki eurobank kredyt w banku niemieckim obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław kredyt bez bik leszno banki kredytu konsumenckiego pożyczki w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny podstawa prawna jak dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank oferta pracy pozyczki na procent dublin kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie pożyczki społecznościowe wikipedia kredyt bank pensja oddziały kredyt banku białystok kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator agricole kredyty chwilówki jakie raty pozyczki chwilowki od osob prywatnych mielec praca licencjacka o kredytach kredyt bank archiwalne kursy walut gross pożyczki opinie jak księgujemy pożyczki kredyt w noble bank kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk kredyt bank prowizja bankomat pożyczki przez internet 24h getin bank kredyt samochodowy infolinia kredyt w 15 minut na dowod w kb24 pożyczki całkowicie przez internet żyrafa pożyczki logowanie pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony kredyt bank lublin narutowicza tel gdzie daja kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pekao sa kredyt samochodowy getin bank warunki przeterminowane pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe długoterminowe odsetki od pożyczki kalkulator gofin bocian pożyczki środa wlkp pozyczki bez meldunku warszawa pożyczki bez bik 24 umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny w chwilówkach kredyt konsolidacyjny w lukas banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking placówki kredyt banku w katowicach bank bph da kredyt jak mam komornika kredyty mieszkaniowe rzeszów pożyczki kasa kredyt bez bik krosno umowa pożyczki ściąga pożyczki dla zadłużonych online kredyt bank warszawa grochowska kredyt na start w lukas bank kredyt chwilówka gdansk kredyt bank adres do przelewu odsetki od pożyczki wyliczenie pożyczki chwilówki oświęcim kredyty chwilówki goleniów kredyty chwilówki rozmowa kwalifikacyjna kredyt bank kurs walutowy pozyczki online pożyczki prywatne małopolska bocian pożyczki mail pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kontakt tel udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika kredyty chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza pożyczki prywatne ostrołęka kredyty pozabankowe pod weksel kredyt bank zgierz kontakt alior bank kredyt opinie forum pożyczki dla rolników warszawa kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym kredyty w santander bank pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska kredyt bank akcje pożyczki społecznościowe podatek kredyt w alior banku a bik umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór kredyt bank warszawa grójecka bocian pożyczki z komornikiem bocian pożyczki opinie gowork szybkie kredyty dla firm bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik restrukturyzacja kredytu w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik i krd poznań pożyczki pod zastaw auta alior bank kredyt opinie wzór umowy pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu kredyt bank sa oddział rybnik pożyczki pod zastaw śląskie pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt bank private banking refinansowanie pożyczki bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank kozienice kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji pożyczki do domu szczecin wzór umowy pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen kredyty bez bik pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank w gryficach szybkie pożyczki głogów pożyczki do 10 000 kredyt bank warszawa placówki kredyt konsolidacyjny na dokończenie budowy domu jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny jednorazowe udzielenie pożyczki a vat pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice pożyczki na dowód bocian umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi wzór kredyty chwilowki poznan glogowska kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world kredyt na umowie na czas określony przewalutowanie pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczony kredyt bank w koninie pożyczki preferencyjne nfośigw kredyt samochodowy dla emerytów pożyczki przelicznik pożyczki pod zastaw gołdap kredyt w banku pko bp pozyczki pocztowe podatek od pożyczki kara kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny godziny otwarcia pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór kredyt chwilówka jawor umowa pożyczki w rodzinie umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór helios pożyczki pożyczki prywatne września bocian pożyczki milicz kredyty chwilówki kadry umowa pożyczki bocian pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki finansowe kredyt bank oddział konstancin pożyczki na dowód pleszew pozyczka 15 tys przez internet kredyt dla firm bez bik krd pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt chwilówka poznań praca pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi pożyczki prywatne zasady szybkie pożyczki kościan kredyt bank w opolu pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow kredyty chwilówki międzyrzec podlaski kredyt bank w grodzisku maz kredyt konsolidacyjny jak go dostać oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank lublin ulica zana wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkodawcę kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus bankomaty umowa pożyczki udziałowca dla spółki wzór kredyty w uk dla polakow kredyty chwilówki kutno w jakim banku macie kredyt zabezpieczenie pożyczki wekslem in blanco zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2013 reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt bank w mlawie konwersja umowy pożyczki pozyczka bez sprawdzania kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych firma optima pożyczki wymagania kredytowe barclays bocian pożyczki żory kredyt bank warszawa zytnia kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zachodni wbk kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie zdrój optima pożyczki warszawa kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe kredyt bank przez internet kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator alior bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki wzór pozyczki w domu klienta slask kredyt bank myślibórz bocian pożyczki kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców wzór bezpieczne pożyczki bocian pożyczki białogard kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia kiedy umowa pożyczki jest nieważna turbo pożyczki pożyczki bez stałych dochodów kredyt bez bik online 10 lat kredyt bank rabaty kredyt bank wrocław legnicka konwersja pożyczki na kapitał skutki podatkowe pożyczki przez internet nowe pozyczka dla pracujacym w czechach pożyczki internetowe dla bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki bez bik krd udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu pożyczki prywatne piła kredyty chwilówki puławska umowa pożyczki ojciec syn pożyczki bez rejestrów pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat umowa pożyczki w prawie cywilnym kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko opinie pożyczki chwilówki limanowa kredyt konsolidacyjny 60 tys kędzierzyn koźle pozyczki bez biku i krd siódemka pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank x oddział warszawa kredyt w banku przelicznik inpost pożyczki pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen kredyt bankowy w przedsiębiorstwie kredyt bank sokółka telefon kredyty bez biku zielona góra wszystkie pożyczki przez internet kredyt bez bik grudziadz kredyty chwilówki koło pożyczki pod zastaw pabianice szybkie pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych zmiany w kredyt banku rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank kredyt samochodowy który bank pożyczki w domu klienta kalisz umowa pożyczki akcji kredyty chwilowki swidnica kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast pożyczki wrocław bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik getin bank wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra kredyt bank tarnów kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kasprzaka godziny otwarcia jak wyrobić kartę kredytową bez zgody rodziców pożyczki łuków wzór umowy pożyczki prywatnej pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt bank akcjonariusze kredyt studencki nowe zasady kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo pożyczki chwilówki lębork kredyt bank wyliczenie raty potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki chwilówki na dowód rzeszów szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki całą dobę mennica pozyczki 2014 rok pożyczki bez konta bankowego kredyty chwilówki gryfino kredyt bank w lomzy kalkulator kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych wrocław pożyczki pożyczka na już pożyczki pod zastaw sieradz szukam pożyczki bez bik pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki bez zameldowania kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia kredyt ranking banków alior bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp provident warunki pożyczki godziny przelewow kredyt banku pożyczki providus santander bank kredyty konsolidacyjne wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór umowa pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki pozabankowe forum dyskusyjne kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kredyt bank świętojańska gdynia kredyt bank forum dyskusyjne szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyt bank ruda śląska gredan pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty prowizja kredyt bank powsińska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank kredyt bank olawa mikropożyczki lubuskie umowa pożyczki świadek pożyczki na nową firmę kredyty pozabankowe poznań kredyt w alior banku kalkulator kredyt bank lokaty 2014 pożyczki do 15000 bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator open finance w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty bank pko sa spłata kapitału pożyczki szybkie pożyczki do 2000 kredyt bank warszawa romera parabank kredyt mariusz patrowicz pożyczki w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy kredyt mieszkaniowy 70 tys oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp kredyty chwilówki świętojańska udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt bank pułtusk telefon umowa pożyczki stawka pcc dobra umowa pożyczki pożyczki niski procent kredyt bank gniezno godziny otwarcia pożyczki w 15 minut bez bik udzielę pożyczki bez przedpłat wszystkie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki na procent bydgoszcz szybkie pożyczki z zajęciem komorniczym kredyty bez bik pszczyna kredyt bank marketing kredyt bank dabrowskiego poznan umowa pożyczki 777 pożyczki od rodziny pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka sms kredyt bez biku umowa pożyczki z jedynym wspólnikiem kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w jastrowiu pożyczki pozabankowe udzielane w domu pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik raciborz kredyty bez zaswiadczen i bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy wyposażenie mieszkania kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank kredyt w banku wcześniejsza spłata najtańszy kredyt bankowy pożyczki dla młodych pożyczki kredyty na dowód numer kontaktowy do mennicy pozyczki jelenia gora pożyczki na dowód porównanie kredyty mieszkaniowe gus bocian pożyczki jarocin kredyt mieszkaniowy na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt bank w krasnymstawie pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole pozyczki na oswiatczenie kalisz pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank obsługa klienta udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kraków kredyty konsolidacyjne trudne pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków kredyt bank sa chojnice kredyt bank bogatynia telefon pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn kredyt bank natolin kredyt studencki wbk

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad