odmowa udzielenia pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki na święta kredyt bank olesno pożyczki jak w provident kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki rejestracja pożyczki kredyt bank częstochowa piłsudskiego kontakt ikko projekt pożyczki pozyczka onlain lubuskie kredyt alior bank pozyczka bez big w domu klienta meritum bank kredyt opinie pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego deutsche bank kredyt bank zamość kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator pożyczki przez internet alior bank bes bik kredyt bank bankomaty kredyt bank konsolidacyjny kredyty bez bik przez internet pozyczka dla pracujacym w czechach pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości toruń pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik kredyt w banku pko kalkulator pożyczki udziałowców potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach tanie pożyczki bez bik w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki pożyczki międzyrzecz kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki bez bik grodzisk wlkp czy bank stanfader udziela kredytow bez bik o banknot pozyczki kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe regulamin kredyt studencki w banku credit agricole kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin pożyczki pod zastaw toruń pożyczki bez bik bartoszyce pożyczki pod zastaw gniezno pożyczki kredyty chwilówki pożyczki dla uczących się kredyty chwilówki skoczów wzór pisma pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki w domu klienta gdynia czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod w uk pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyt mieszkaniowy praca za granica alior bank kredyt w euro kredyty bez bik raciborz szybkie pożyczki internetowe bez bik kredyt dla banku nabywcy kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej kredyt bank radzyń podlaski pozyczki gotuwkoiwe lichwiarze kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 pożyczki odnawialne kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 pozyczki inne niz prowident kredyt bank środa śląska kontakt odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank szybkie pożyczki bytom kredyt z banku ochrony środowiska warrus pożyczki kontakt umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki wzór pożyczki na zakup towaru pożyczki pod zastaw działki rolnej szybki kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik kredyt z banku pocztowego konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a odsetki umowa pożyczki jaka forma kredyty pozabankowe sieradz pożyczki ngo mikropożyczki nobel kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych 2012 kredyt bank pl kursy walut kod na kredyt na orange urząd skarbowy zgłoszenie pożyczki szukam pożyczki szczecin pożyczki ze środków unijnych kredyty chwilówki dział kadr pożyczki najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bank kudowa zdrój pożyczki creditpol pozyczka z obsluga w domu warszaw pożyczki i kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy kredyt bank kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin pożyczki chwilówki nowe firmy uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont mieszkania pożyczki łódź kredyty pożyczki gostynin kredyt pozabankowy częstochowa euro cash pozyczki szczecin ogłoszenia pożyczki pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki parabank kredyt bankowy oprocentowanie kredyt bank wyliczenie raty kredyt bank lublin żagiel ul zana ewidencja pożyczki długoterminowej eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank lease umowa pożyczki w rodzinie a podatek kredyt bank katowice kościuszki kredyt w ulster banku uk nefis pożyczki oszukuje kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat kredyty chwilówki wrocław pożyczki bez bik pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta kredyty chwilówki krs umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką kredyt chwilowki gdansk kredyt bank zlecenie stałe kredyt bank plonsk kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium kalkulator kredyt bez biku bielsko biala kredyt bez bik pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny eurobank camperia pożyczki bez big kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety i wady pożyczka na 60 dni drobne pożyczki przez internet umowa pożyczki po niemiecku kredyt bank sa lublin micro finance pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyty pozabankowe umowa pożyczki a weksel pożyczki od osób prywatnych podatek kredyt bank wąwozowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank centrala wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki walutowej kredyt bank łódź ul ketlinga godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny to kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy pożyczki pozabankowe w bełchatowie ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing kredyt 15tys bph pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl pożyczki prywatnie w jakim banku warto brać kredyt kredyt bank inowrocław kontakt jak księgować pożyczki udzielone pozyczki prywatne bialogard kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały kredyt gotówkowy bank bph kredyty chwilówki blog ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki do domu optima kredyt konsolidacyjny wcześniejsza spłata kredyt na start w idea banku forum bocian pożyczki wejherowo kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl pożyczki banki bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników feniks pożyczki białystok pożyczki pozabankowe do domu pożyczki abis opinie kredyt bank krynica prodomo pożyczki toruń pożyczki na dowód tylko kredyt bank biuro prasowe kredyt bank praga południe kredyt w banku czeskim kredyty bankowe bez bik umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej kredyt bez bik do 3000 kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim pożyczki ratalne bez bik kredyt bank człuchów pozyczki bez bik oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku warunkowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki od ręki bydgoszcz pożyczki gotówkowe parabanki pożyczki bez bik mysłowice kredyty bankowe stan początkowy pożyczki kapitał ludzki szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt bez biku szczecinek pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet na dowód kredyt bank najlepsza lokata kredyt bank witomino godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi a pcc szybki kredyt online bez biku pożyczki od prywatnej osoby kredyt bank doładowanie telefonu kredyt bank katowice mielęckiego kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank pożyczki w domu klienta śląsk pożyczki od osób prywatnych radom w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt bank kraków stradomska kredyt bank wypłaty bez prowizji kredyt do 3000 bez bik kredyt w banku millennium forum provident dwie pożyczki kredyt bank tarnobrzeg godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku jaki procent kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy kredyt konsolidacyjny z poręczycielem abis pożyczki opinie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łódź kredyt w banku potrzebne dokumenty pożyczki pozabankowe będzin pożyczki bialystok pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt bank w gliwicach cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki kredyt banki sieradz kredyt bank kraków ul długa umowa przedwstępna pożyczki wzór pożyczki gotówkowe prominent księgowanie umowy pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki całkowicie prywatne pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank drezdenko kredyty chwilowki klobuck kredyt bank gdańsk chałubińskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach forum kredyt bank sa biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody współmałżonka pożyczki internetowe opinie jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt studencki banki 2013 spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pcc kredyt bankowy pekao kredyt online bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagane zarobki kredyt pozabankowy długoterminowy kredyty chwilówki praca śląsk kredyty i pożyczki trójmiasto kredyt mieszkaniowy zwrot podatku pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa pożyczki kyzoo opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny nie w banku pożyczki tomaszów mazowiecki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństwa żyrafa pożyczki rejestracja pożyczki eden finance optima s a pożyczki kredyt bank w borku wlkp kredyt gotówkowy bez biku kredyt bank piłsudskiego łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny z żyrantem cashout pożyczki kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank dąbrowa tarnowska godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki końskie optima pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w pnb paribas umorzenie pożyczki z zfron jak zaksięgować kredyt bank gdansk zaspa kredyt bank warszawa centralna kredyty chwilówki debica pożyczki przez internet forum bocian pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt chwilówka reklama formularz umowy pożyczki pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie nr telefonu kredyty mieszkaniowe od nowego roku kredyt bank lubin kredyt bank trzebinia mikropożyczki na rentę socjalną pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik termin przedawnienia spłaty pożyczki czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace kredyt bank wlodawa pożyczki bocian radom kredyty chwilówki skawina kredyt bank ostrowiec świętokrzyski kredyty pozabankowe kontakt kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia konsolidacja kredytów gotówkowych mbank kredyty chwilówki warszawa grójecka bocian pożyczki reklama umowa pożyczki kwoty kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie kredyt studencki pko umowa kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia pozyczki bochnia skarabeusz pożyczki tarnów bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator emilion pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 takto pożyczki kontakt reklama pożyczki 2012 kredyty chwilówki piotrków tryb kredyt bank szczecin adres kredyty bez bik opole kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kalkulator pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp szybki kredyt elk 24h umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc kredyt studencki bank pko kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty kredyt bank pso kredyty bankowe dlugoterminowe bocian pożyczki bydgoszcz ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej kredyty chwilówki bez big szybkie darmowe pożyczki placówki kredyt banku w katowicach kredyt bank kłodzko godz otwarcia mikropożyczki opole pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy stanisław świder pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach szczecin prywatne pozyczki chodziez kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kalkulator kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników odmowa zwrotu pożyczki w którym banku kredyt na dowód kredyt bank warszawa krs getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum provident symulacja pożyczki pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt bank ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdańsk kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska kredyt bankowy a podatek vat pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp pożyczki dla urzędników opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki długoterminowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank zamość partyzantów 12 kredyt konsolidacyjny opole potrącenie z wynagrodzenia raty pożyczki udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe bilans prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków ranking banków w polsce kredyt kredyt bez bik myszkow pożyczki tise kredyt banki sieradz kredyty bez bik us zus pożyczki wałbrzych pożyczki bocian lubelskie pożyczki pozabankowe łódż kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach szwajcarskich premium pożyczki opinie pożyczki koło kredyt bank łomża praca kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum kredyt bez bik do 30000 kredyt ranking banków kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy ile do spłaty pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki udzielone przez polskę umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki teleklient pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej pożyczki społecznościowe chwilówki zabezpieczenie notarialne pożyczki kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia forum pożyczki prywatne kredyt online bez bik krd przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki społecznościowe 2013 camperia pożyczki bez big kredyt bank zabezpieczenie pożyczki pomysł na biznes idea bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka pożyczki regita kredyt bez bik krd kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2013 fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs szybkie pożyczki online pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz wzór umowy pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce bank pko bp kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank opinie udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi a pcc kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2013 kredyt bank radom kredyt bank głęboka lublin umowa pożyczki dla firmy wzór kredyt bank piłsudskiego siedlce kredyt bank warszawa adres pozyczki prywatne bez rejestrów kredyt bank tomaszów maz kredyt bank oddziały warszawa wola pożyczki asper umowa pożyczki podatek dochodowy pożyczki w domu klienta umowa pożyczki pieniędzy weksel pożyczki w języku polskim pożyczki pod zastaw kościan pożyczki na dowód śrem pożyczki na dowód uk kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości katowice takto pożyczki kontakt pożyczki dla firm bez bik big krd kredyt bank głogów kredyt bank czy wbk pożyczka na spłatę komornika banki kredyty pozabankowe do 30000 kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski pożyczki bez biku legnica pożyczki chwilówki śrem kredyt bank toruń fosa pożyczki podporządkowane w bilansie umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt bank jelenia góra ul wolności tani kredyt bez biku kredyt bank zmiana danych kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum getin bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie pożyczki żory pożyczki pieniędzy niespłacanie pożyczki kredyt w db bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki rybnik bez bik kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk pożyczki chwilówki wołomin bankomat kredyt banku wrocław pożyczki chwilówki ciechanów euromedia pożyczki zawieszenie raty w kredyt banku pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek pożyczki polskiej żyrant pożyczki alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu adler pożyczki szybki kredyt elk 24h mbank pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank legnicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe dla firm podatek od pożyczki kara grzegorz kowal pożyczki ltwe kredyty poznan ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców łódzkie kredyty chwilówki w domu klienta pożyczki prywatne skarżysko kredyt w banku zagranicznym umowa zawarcia pożyczki wzór pko bp kredyt studencki do kiedy legitymacja kredyt bankowy raty pożyczki darlowo kredyty bez bik do 20000 kalkulator rat pożyczki ekspresowej kredyty chwilówki kępno kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 pożyczki dla fundacji umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki bez krd olsztyn forta pożyczki opinie kredyty bez biku online kredyt bank ul kasprzaka kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane kredyt bank międzyrzec pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk alior bank kredyt opinie forum szybkie pożyczki lubin kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego kredyty bankowe praktyczny poradnik klienta pożyczki z dostawą do domu poznań bank udzielajacy pozyczki z dochodami z zagranicy ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom cesja umowy pożyczki pcc kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym bocian pożyczki gniezno kredyt bank oddział ursynów meritum bank kredyt na start bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad