pożyczki mosina pożyczki jessica umowa pożyczki do wydruku ewidencja pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego alior bank pożyczki na dowód szybko kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki członkowi rady nadzorczej banki kredyt mieszkanie dla młodych najszybszy kredyt w banku alfa kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki z oprocentowaniem kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking banków umowa pożyczki między rodzicami a dziećmi podatek pcc od pożyczki między firmami pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp pożyczki prywatne kutno umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kielce potrzebuje pożyczki bez bik bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy alior bank kredyt na auto w jakim banku kredyt na otwarcie firmy pożyczki pozabankowe ełk pożyczki pozabankowa pożyczki unijne kredyt bank fuzja forum najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki jaki podatek pcc prywatne pozyczki do 50000 wrocław kredyty bez bik 5000 pożyczki prywatne gdańsk pożyczki blog kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i krd szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą pożyczki wspólpraca pożyczki bocian gorzow wlkp kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla kalkulator kwota pożyczki brutto okres karencji w spłacie pożyczki unilinkpożyczka toruń pewne pożyczki dla każdego opinie pożyczki pcc kredyt w koncie credit agricole oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp marża banku kredyt obrotowy bocian pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki na dowód chojnów getin bank kredyt online pożyczki z unii europejskiej kredyt bank kantor pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław optima pożyczki do domu forum kredyty pozabankowe opole kredyty chwilówki bytom piłsudskiego ubezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników kredyt bank powstancow slaskich kredyty chwilowki oswiecim umowa pożyczki z wekslem wzór kredyt bank gdansk wrzeszcz umowa pożyczki ojciec syn pożyczki z funduszu rozwoju przedsiębiorczości kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego umowa pożyczki po angielsku kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko szybki kredyt sms bez bik kredyt bank w kępnie umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem pożyczki bocian reklama kredyt bank warszawa targówek umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od osoby prywatnej bank pko sa kredyty kalkulator kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat mennica pożyczki opinie udziele pożyczki prywatnie poznań pożyczki na dowód toruń kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza kredyt bank sa iban w którym banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank ostróda kontakt pozyczki bez bik i krd na oswiadczenie pożyczki nowe online pożyczki prywatne lubelskie ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kredyt bez biku dla zadłuzonych kredyt konsolidacyjny prawo pożyczki do 4000 zł kredyt online bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank marketing kontakt pozyczka z biura pracy wodzisliu kronos pożyczki kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank likwidacja konta umowa pożyczki kiedy pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy bph kredyty chwilówki tychy kontakt kredyt chwilówka dla zadłużonych szybkie pożyczki bez bik do domu dolny śląsk prywatne pożyczki dla nieletnich olsztyn lista pozyczek bez bik kredyty chwilówki ile trzeba oddać ubezpieczenie kredytu w banku millennium pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank radom godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt w meritum banku opinie pożyczki referat ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy look finanse pożyczki jak wziąść pożyczke kredyt bez bik wrocław kredyt bez bik mbank kredyt bank sa warszawa adres bezzwrotne pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych duże kwoty kredytu bez bik dla firm pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów pożyczki pozabankowe nie provident kredyt bank chmielna kredyt bankowy chomikuj umowa pożyczki udziałowca dla spółki wzór pożyczki na wysoki procent kredyt bank polska adres kredyt studencki 2013 opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych forum kredyt mieszkaniowy 350 tys w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt kredyty chwilowki umowa zlecenie kredyty chwilówki bitwy warszawskiej udzielone pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank biuro powiernictwa kredyt bank wolomin pożyczki na dowód online bez bik pozyczki tczew kredyty bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bez bik umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe wbk kredyt odnawialny pko bp bik pożyczki przez internet bez pracy kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole opinie obliczanie pożyczki ing pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup samochodu konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a odsetki kredyty bez bik w gorzowie wlkp umowa pożyczki ratalnej wzór kredyt bank gostyń godziny otwarcia forma pożyczki szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd pożyczki konin kredyty kredyt bank zgorzelec kontakt kredyt bankowy prawo bankowe pożyczki bez historii kredytowej umowa pożyczki jaki procent pożyczki novum kruk opinie umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki nieruchomości szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych forum kredyt bank włoclawek kredyt 3000 bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy bank legnica pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik i krd pożyczki bez krd lublin pożyczki przez internet bez pracy skarabeusz pożyczki w domu optima namysłów pozyczki prosell pożyczki kredyt bank bez prowizji bankomaty kredyty chwilówki świdnik na czym polega umowa pożyczki kredyt bank w elku dobry kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki kraków pożyczki pułtusk kredyt samochodowy na firmę porównanie kredyt bez bik w kielcach wysokość pożyczki bez podatku kredyt bank rodzaje kont pożyczki pod zastaw głogów takto pożyczki kontakt kredyt bankowy a konsumencki prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyt bank śródmieście kredyt bank sa lublin zana kredyt bank w zakopanem kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 bank pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki lichwa uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bez bik puławy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy umowa pożyczki od udziałowców kredyty chwilówki nowy bytom pożyczki bezprocentowe dla nauczycieli umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne podatek kredyty chwilówki komisja nadzoru finansowego pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz pożyczki dla nowej firmy kredyt na dowód bez biku pożyczki od osób prywatnych katowice najgorsze pożyczki kredyty chwilówki on line kredyt firmowy pozabankowy szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu czy duza jest przyznawalnosc pozyczki optima mikropożyczki bangladesz kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ bankomaty kredyt bank łeba pożyczki z unii na rozwój firmy umowa zawarcia pożyczki wzór potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy pożyczki chwilówki kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy na weksel szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet do ilu kredyt santander kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm kredyty chwilówki gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kredyt bank nowa europa notowania umowa pożyczki jak wypełnić pożyczki chwilówki bez bik szczecin kredyt bank miedzyrzecz umowa pożyczki z akcjonariuszem nowe pożyczki chwilówki kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us betgang pożyczka kredyty bez bik w domu pożyczki ewidencja księgowa wyłudzenia kredytów tarnowskie góry pożyczki od ręki lublin pożyczki kredyty bez historii siedziba kredyt banku warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko sa pożyczki pozabankowe pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank nr iban kredyty mieszkaniowe irlandia kredyt bank w lubuskim umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce kredyty chwilówki dęblin kredyt w banku pekao sa opinie pożyczki agh kredyt bank dębica godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń forum kredyty w meritum bank kredyt bank piotrków tryb kontakt wniosek o kredyt bez biku pożyczki w niedziele pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo bez bik kredyt bez bik ostrołęka pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik pożyczki w domu klienta sosnowiec pozyczka na weksel zgorzelec kredyty pozabankowe chorzów kredyt bank charakterystyka kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredytową pożyczki od osób prywatnych lublin pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń online abis pozyczka głogów numer telefonu elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego idea bank oprocentowanie kredytów umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pożyczki bez biku włocławek umowa pożyczki wzór doc pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe 2000 kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska kredyty hipoteczne dla zadluzonych w bik lodz kredyty bez biku lodz kredyt bank puławy godziny otwarcia promocyjne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik nowogard pożyczki na procent poznań asper pożyczki forum kredyt inwestycyjny prawo bankowe pożyczki bez podatku podatek pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki prywatnej wzór umowy pożyczki raty optima pożyczki kalkulator bocian pożyczki biała podlaska księgowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt odnawialny bank pekao sa kredyty bankowe forum bocian pożyczki malbork pożyczki na dowód lublin bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl kredyt konsolidacyjny z zadłużeniem pożyczki abis opinie kredyty chwilówki ligota kod kredytu w orange kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy pożyczki prywatne tarnów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik ciechanow ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pekao sa ratalne szybkie pozyczki przez internet agar w jakim banku brac kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd czy skok udzieli kredytu jak jest windykacja 2014 skarabeusz pożyczki wieluń pozyczki dla beezrobotnych w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank warszawa al ken umowa pożyczki spółce pożyczki w wałczu baltic pożyczki kredyt bank adres mailowy kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt bez bik online kredyt bank centrala wrocław udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank pelplin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank o lublin żagiel pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki wzór pożyczki bez biku częstochowa odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kraków kosiński pożyczki podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bank kontakt mailowy pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank szybkie pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt bank piaseczno godz otwarcia jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji kredyty bez biku rzeszów bocian pożyczki kontakt kredyty chwilówki siemianowice śląskie kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały kredyt chwilówka warunki pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica kredyty bez bik sochaczew kredyt bank praca kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 pożyczki bez biku przemyśl żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór word kalkulator rat kredytu pożyczki niespłacony kredyt w banku pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik lublin kredyty bez bik w lublinie kredyty bankowe podział pożyczki na pesel pozyczka w uk na benefity status pożyczki kredito24 kredyt studencki banki oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 kredyt bank pl kursy walut mikropożyczki dla firm 2013 udzielenie pożyczki a faktura vat kredyty bez bik jarosław pieniądze do domu pożyczki kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabanku pozyczki chwilowki natychmiastowe z komornikiem poznan kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najlepiej forum kredyty bez bik zgorzelec umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak umowa pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator porównanie partner pozyczki opinie koszalin pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki kredyt bank wykupiony udzielę pożyczki na procent 2013 kredyty bankowe msp konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór kredyt bank sprzedaż santander pożyczki dla polaków w niemczech kredyty banki spółdzielcze kredyt studencki wbk forum kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin kredyt bez bik włocławek pożyczki bez bik 6000 wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki szybkie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe mcredit pożyczki wycena odsetek od pożyczki na dzień bilansowy kredyty bez bik czechowice dziedzice siódemka pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bez bik na samochód kredyt bank warszawa windykacja oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki lista odsetki od pożyczki koszty podatkowe kredyty bez bik konin pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole opinie dobrej pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe chrzanów pożyczki alior sync umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank forum pożyczki prywatne malbork księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku forum kredyty pozabankowe luban umowa pożyczki fiskus kredyty mieszkaniowe wyszukiwarka kredyt gotówkowy credit agricole oprocentowanie slwstrzymanie splaty kredytu kredyt w uk na benefity umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobą fizyczną a firmą kredyt bank ostrowiec św kredyt bank opole godziny otwarcia sprzedaż kredyt banku 2012 pożyczka przez telefon na dowód kredyt bez biku opinie pożyczki w profi credit forum pożyczki pod zastaw kęty wymagalność pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe gdzie kredyt studencki pko bp umorzenie kredyty chwilówki jaki procent pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik forum umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze pożyczki bez biku białystok umowa pożyczki za granicą kredyt bank olsztynek godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko zakończenie studiów pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłużonych kontakt tel pożyczki chwilówki bez odsetek kredyt bank nr swift kredyt samochodowy 2013 forum kredyt bank lezajsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zarobki 2012 kredyt bankowy wbk kredyt bank poland address kredyt bank opłata za sms kredyt chwilówka pko szybkie pożyczki przez internet forum pożyczki nfośigw pożyczki w banku millennium kredyty chwilówki radom praca kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza pożyczki 50000 pożyczki pl kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność lublin pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki piła jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt mieszkaniowy 130 umowa pożyczki wzór za darmo skok centrum pożyczki trust pożyczki kto płaci podatek od umowy pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie kontakt w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki kredyty bez bik skarzysko pożyczki bocian bielsko biała nowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki rejestracja w us kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja godziny otwarcia raty kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki prywatne dla osób z komornikiem umowa pożyczki między pracodawcą a pracownikiem kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki 2014 pożyczki prywatne toruń pożyczki pozabankowe w koszalinie bocian pożyczki sms pożyczki od internautów partner pożyczki piła pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości forum mg finance pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy nordea habitat kredyty bez bik mielec sprzedaż kredyt banku santander transze w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki z odsetkami kredyt chwilówka spłata pko bp kredyt studencki aneks kredyt bez bik slask pożyczki z ratami tygodniowymi pożyczki pszczółka

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad