kredyt bank niskie oprocentowanie bezpieczna pozyczka znajomemu formularz konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy kredyt studencki pko kalkulator kalkulator pożyczki kasa stefczyka pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz kredyty banki porównanie pożyczki pkd kredyt bank oferty pracy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od siostry latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange pożyczki optima opinie podporządkowanie spłaty pożyczki praca kierownik pożyczki bezzwrotne pożyczki dla mikrofirm santander kredyt w salonie samochodowym ktorym pożyczki prywatne w płocku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka kronos pożyczki warszawa pożyczki chwilówki artykuł oferia pożyczki pożyczki nowogard kredyt bank obsługa kart kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bzwbk kredyty na samochod bez biku camperia pożyczki bez big pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki spółka zoo pożyczki w pko bank polski kredyt bank w radości wyłudzenie pożyczki kk kredyt bank ndm pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt bank gdansk slowackiego ewidencja kredytów w banku komercyjnym kredyt bank plock kontakt żyrafa pożyczki kontakt pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku chwilówki lublin pożyczki lublin chwilówki lubelskie kredyt bank pracownicy hortus pożyczki siedlce kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie pożyczki w kasynach kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach szwajcarskich żyrafa pożyczki logowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej kredyt bank żary telefon pożyczki krosno abis slask pozyczki kredyt bez bik slask firma kredyty chwilówki opinie zmiany w kredyt banku kredyt gotówkowy ranking banków alex pożyczki wrocław pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadzczen i limitów wiekowych kredyty mieszkaniowe dla emerytów kredyt bank ul abrahama kredyt bez bik banki optima pożyczki katowice kredyt techniczny banku centralnego pożyczka przez internet bez sprawdzania kredyty chwilówki ulotki kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut kokos pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej kredyt dla emeryta w banku pocztowym umowa użyczenia pożyczki pożyczki dla firm łódź tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank bielany kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa kredyty chwilowki swidnica bocian pożyczki chojnice kredyt z orange jaki numer wzór umowy pożyczki z wekslem kredyt bank brian tracy promocje w kredyt bank kredyt w uk natwest pożyczki dla nowych firm na start kredyt bank kostrzyn pożyczki na komornika kredyt bankowy ciekawostki kredyt bank w gorzowie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach umowa pożyczki wspólnik sp z o o bocian pożyczki praca opinie kredyt banki mikołów pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank pożyczki kredito pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik bydgoszcz kredyty w fm bank kredyt bez biku jakie oprocentowanie alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank szybki kredyt elk 24h pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp 2013 na jaki numer wziasc kredyt w orange kredyt samochodowy eurobank kredyt bank wiceprezes kredyt chwilówka prudnik bank pko sa kredyt studencki kontrakt pożyczki w prawie rzymskim sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 kredyty chwilówki definicja pożyczka meritum stargard umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem wzór pożyczki ratunkowe świdnica kredyt bank kazimierzowskie kredyty bez bik jaslo pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt bank bezpłatne bankomaty odmowa przyznania pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki w domu klienta optima kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bez bik września porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 chwilowki bez zdolnosci kredytoeej na dowod pożyczki chorzów pożyczki chwilówki będzin kredyt bank puławska 303 pożyczki pod zastaw częstochowa pożyczki na konto bankowe kredyt bank kapitał umowa pożyczki z firmą kredyt bank logowanie firma bocian pożyczki olsztyn pożyczki tuchola umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki bez bik grodzisk mazowiecki pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki komandytowej pożyczki pozabankowe śląsk kredyt bank w płońsku wykop pożyczki szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody współmałżonka pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez bik mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 umorzenie pracownikowi pożyczki z zfśs kredyty na samochód bez bik wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy opodatkowanie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt odnawialny w banku millenium skok piast kredyt 5000 getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bez bik w płocku nowe pozyczki pozyczka bartek kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz powalisza kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych db kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank program razem kredyt chwilówka zarobki kredyty chwilówki siemianowice kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin kredyty chwilówki żywiec dworcowa kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie pożyczki online bez bik od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa wczesniejsza spłata kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny kredyt bank łomża telefon kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi pożyczki pozabankowe na spłatę zadłużenia pożyczki bez bik września wzór na obliczenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank chałubińskiego getin bank kredyt na oświadczenie umowa zlecenie kredyt w banku pożyczki gros kalisz pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyty chwilówka rzeszów banki które udzielają kredytu bez bik pożyczki bez bik i krd opole kredyt gotówkowy bez bik online kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe pożyczki na franczyzę kredyt bez bik bez konta bankowego łódź pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki chodzież skok wspólnota pożyczki udzielę pożyczki kredyt bank awaria systemu oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyty pozabankowe zabrze pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód kredyt bank lokaty dewizowe kredyty konsolidacyjne lublin pożyczki bez bik lębork kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy kredyt studencki bank pko sa wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank sa żyrardów w jakim banku wziąć najlepiej kredyt kredyt bank najlepsza lokata pożyczki ustawa kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk kredyt w bilansie banku kredyty chwilówki prudnik pożyczki gotówkowe ing kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim singiel duże pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bocian w słupsku kredyt bank twardzickiego bydgoszcz pożyczki na procent płock kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości w bank bgż pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont mieszkania kredyt bank bialobrzegi kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt chwilowka czestochowa pilsudskiego kredyt bez bik katowice pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników umowa pożyczki i weksel kredyt w eurobanku opinie pozyczki leszno kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat pożyczki radomsko profi kredyt kontakt klodzko pf kredyty chwilówki szybki kredyt w uk forum kredyt bank dworna łomża pożyczki ze złym bik pożyczki dla pes pożyczki bocian szczecinek kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole sprawdzone pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt w banku oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik 7 global pożyczki bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank kredyty bankowe z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody kredyt bank warszawa romera kredyt konsolidacyjny gotowkowy kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank aureus pozyczki proton kredyt częstochowa kredyty bez bik długoterminowe wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt bank zabrze 3 maja poręczenie pożyczki krzyżówka kredyt samochodowy getin bank warunki bank pekao sa kredyt studencki pożyczka bez biku lublin getin bank kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca pożyczki uam kredyt bankowy podstawa prawna pozyczka na dowód w tesco kredyty bez bik opole kredyty chwilówki praca ulotki kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki kredyt bank wrocław gliniana godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ketlinga 21 kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki pożyczki na start dla firm kredyt studencki bank zachodni wbk pożyczki w banku millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea bank kredyt bank biuro maklerskie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online pożyczki jst szybkie pożyczki elbląg pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec kredyty do firm parabanki umowa pożyczki ratalnej kredyt bez bik świdnica pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm maksymalne oprocentowanie umów pożyczek pozyczki atiz ostrow kredyty chwilówki pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyt w banku wbk bocian pozyczki tomaszów maz pożyczki gotówkowe udzielane w domu umowa pożyczki konsekwencje pożyczka 200 zł żywiec pożyczka kredyt bank zabrze pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych pożyczki sezam całą polska pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyt bank 3 maja słupsk pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu socjalnego kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 kredyt mieszkaniowy euro oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze wzór sieradz pożyczka 15000 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik szczecin pozyczki jarocin bez zaswiadczen bez bik kredyt bank kętrzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny open finance pozyczki pozabankowe ostroda bez sprawdzania baz danych pożyczka bez bik i krd z komornikiem wypowiedzenie kredytu getin bank kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik kupon 1 kredyt bank pożyczki prywatne lublin pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt bank oszukuje czy warto brać kredyt studencki forum umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczki z up pożyczki pod zastaw nowy sącz podatek od pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki pod weksel warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat bez zabezpieczeń kredyty bankowe książka chomikuj umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór kredyt bez bik krd online szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online pożyczki nowe online kredyt bank niepołomice kredyt pozabankowy kraków kredyt bank tfi pożyczki w banku bez bik pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 min pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bankowy wbk kredyty bez bik w legnicy czy pożyczki w skoku są ubezpieczone getin noble bank kredyt na samochod pożyczki prometeusz wrocław deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie pożyczki z obsługą w domu pożyczki międzychód ing pożyczki opinie preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko spłata w którym banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyty mieszkaniowe rynek wtórny pozyczki dla osob krd i pracujacych na czarno szczecin jaki jest kredyt do orange bartek pożyczki getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki dla firm pko umowa pożyczki dla spółki komandytowej kredyt bez biku zielona góra kredyt na firme bez biku umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna wzór dziedziczenie pożyczki umowa pożyczki kiedy jest nieważna w jakich bankach można wsiąść pożyczkę na dowod kredyt bank payu wierzyciel pożyczki forum szybkie pożyczki kołobrzeg pożyczki gdzie najtaniej pożyczki ratunkowe wycena pożyczki wg zamortyzowanego kosztu kredyt mieszkaniowy minimalny wkład własny gros pożyczki inowrocław odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pożyczka pod zastaw kielce kredyt bank kontakt pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet umowa pożyczki postępowanie upominawcze kredyt w raiffeisen bank forum ubezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej częstochowa pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik grojec kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie definicja pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki ltro kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony kredyty bez bik tarnów kredyt bank karta multima kredyt unijny idea bank forum pt wygodne pożyczki getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe pożyczki pod zastaw nowy targ kredyt bank w siedlcach pożyczki przez internet getin bank umorzenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bankowy warunki pożyczki ing w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na auto pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór krecik pożyczki kontakt w jakim banku brać kredyt gotówkowy kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe porównanie umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt bez bik od zaraz kredyt na otwarcie firmy bez bik kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska 49 bocian pożyczki warszawa skok wspólnota pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa wiatraczna pożyczki bocian na dowód kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej wrocław kredyt studencki banki udzielające jak odmówić pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn ślimak pożyczki kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny plus dodatkowa gotówka kredyty pozabankowe świętochłowice kredyt bez bik 6000 umowa pożyczki zastaw wzór umowa pożyczki świadek oblicz ratę pożyczki w pko bp kredyt bank sa bielsk podlaski kredyty pozabankowe dla nowych firm kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank pożyczki gotówkowe łomża kredyty chwilówki pińczów kredyt bank połączenie z bz wbk aby wziasc pozyczke w noble banku co potrzeba kredyt bank zabrze pozyczki w domu slimak i inne bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki bez bik przez internet najtańsze pożyczki w bankach pożyczki chwilówki na dowód online kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę komornika odsetki karne umowa pożyczki pożyczki morąg szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank godziny otwarcia warszawa kredyt bank pruszków godziny otwarcia prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie pożyczki pozabankowe bez przedpłat kredyt pozabankowy na dowód kredyt bank warszawa książkowa pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków umowa pożyczki słownik paulina dabrowska pozyczki kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt przykładowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki dla udziałowców kredyt bez bik skierniewice najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki na dowód forum pożyczka pozbankowa 40000 bez przedpłat kredyt bank zniwna bocian pożyczki prudnik kredyt bankowy a rozwód fgp pożyczki kredyt bank racibórz pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości leszno wyłudzenie pożyczki kk kredyt bank współpraca kredyt bank w żorach najtańsze kredyty gotówkowe bez bik bocian pożyczki dla kogo pożyczka w raciborzu pożyczki pod zastaw pkd pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej wrocław zwrot pożyczki pieniężnej za pokwitowaniem wzór szybkie pożyczki racibórz kredyt bank kozienice bankomaty kredyt banku lublin kredyt bank prowizja od wypłaty pożyczki od prywatnego inwestora kredyt bank wawelska kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa rata kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs umowa pożyczki a pcc 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst kredyt studencki pko bp sa pożyczki pracownicze oprocentowanie leasing czy kredyt samochodowy forum pozyczki pozaabankowe bez pracy pożyczki chwilówki online bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank wagrowiec pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja pożyczki trójmiasto kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank forum zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym forum

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad