kredyt bank sa warszawa centrala pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie kredyt bank direct pożyczki w uk na rok pożyczki chwilówki ustka alior bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt pelikan z bik i krd kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław umowa pożyczki do spółki najtanszy kredyt w ktorym banku kredyt w banku łąckim kwota główna pożyczki prywatne pożyczki w internecie wanluks pożyczki czy umowa pożyczki jest umową wzajemną szukam pożyczki na weksel pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód pożyczki bez podatku podatek pomocne pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki zdjęcia oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pekao sa umowa pożyczki a vat kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór easy cash pożyczki pozyczki prywatne kredyt w multibanku kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw pożyczki bez bik do 10 000 polskie finanse pożyczki kredyt bank grojecka 186 kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki lloyds kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt gotówkowy w santander oprocentowanie pozyczki bez zaswiadczen bielsk podlaski kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy a pcc kredyty w getin noble bank jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać kredyty bez bik pomorskie pożyczki chwilówki chełm kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik online pożyczka z zakładu pracya bik pożyczki bankowe oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska pożyczki bez bik zakopane advice financial pożyczki umowa pożyczki maksymalne oprocentowanie kredyt bank wrocław telefon kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 pożyczki chwilówki meritum pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek kredyt bank konto firmowe pomarańcza owocne pożyczki umowa pożyczki zastaw kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 kredyt bez bik us i zus kredyt bez bik do 20000 kredyt chwilówka krotoszyn pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik kredyt pozabankowy na zakup mieszkania polecane pożyczki opinie jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pozyczki bez bik krd kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko bp kredyty chwilówki wzór umowy jak wziasc kredyt w banku kredyty mieszkaniowe forum kredyt bank łochów pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem kredyt bank białystok lipowa kredyt bank warszawa godziny pracy kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie kredyt samochodowy porównanie banków pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bydgoszcz kredyty pozabankowe rybnik kredyt bank kondratowicza warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt mieszkaniowy w multibanku kredyt pozabankowy alior bank kredyt kontakt kredyt bank koscierzyna pożyczki mielec kredyt studencki bank bps optima pożyczki opinie kredyt bank fundusze nieruchomości impex trade pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki z up kredyt bank ząbki meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie kredyt chwilówka co to jest kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kazdego pożyczki prywatnie poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2014 pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace kredyt w uk na mieszkanie pożyczki na start firmy bez bik umowa kredytu w prawie rzymskim pożyczki partnerskie kredyt bank lubin pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla prokuratorów kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku wbk kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku kredyt pleszew bez biku pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc kredyt bez biku sosnowiec kredyt bank poznań morawskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik jaslo kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank opinie alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty preferencyjne banki umowa pożyczki odstąpienie kredyt bank sa w warszawie departament windykacji pożyczki multibank kredyt bank warszawa kabaty udzielenie pożyczki a vat 2012 kredyty chwilówki wieluń praca pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik gdańsk kredyt bank kościuszki pruszków kronos pożyczki opinie bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank w rankingach realne pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez biku gdynia kredyt bank radom żeromskiego kontakt kredyt w banku arabskim bocian pożyczki trzebiatów umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat tragedia w kredyt banku kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania umowa pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw pożyczki w domu wągrowiec pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin kredyty chwilówki wrocław bez bik pożyczki na dowód bielsko biała umowa pożyczki a podatki pożyczki dla udziałowców kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki wekslem potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank wąwozowa 35 odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pożyczki activia pożyczki udzielane przez jst pożyczki tarnów kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz kredyt w uk bez historii kredytowej kredyt pod zastaw ziemi bez bik kredyt bank polska rybnik pozyczki do raciborza prywatne pożyczki chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej bocian pożyczki z komornikiem umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel jaki jest nr na kredyt w orange kredyt bez bik na auto pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet pożyczki bez bik big krd erif kredyt bank sesje bankowe bedzin kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt studencki pko niedostarczenie zaświadczenia pożyczki pod zastaw bielawa bocian pożyczki kalisz dombank kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online kredyty chwilówki ligota kredyt bank jumper pożyczka bez bik 30000 pozyczki bocian leszno kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe standard pożyczki citibank kredyt bank ile kosztuje przelew pożyczki przez internet 24 kredyt orange numer wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp wzór kredyt studencki pekao opinie kredyty chwilówki żary sprzedaż kredyt banku santander pożyczki chwilówki żagań pożyczki na dowód śrem pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank wyniki pożyczki gotówkowe szybko praktyka w kredyt banku kredyt bank kanały dystrybucji pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz pożyczki wojciech górski udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i krd odsetki od pożyczki a przychód kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd prywatne pożyczki kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kredyt mieszkaniowy zwrot podatku zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bez biku lodz kredyty pozabankowe łódź w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki chwilówki zabrze kredyt konsolidacyjny legnica kredyt bank adres mailowy odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe pożyczki 24h w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt 2013 pożyczki brzesko skarbiec pożyczki oszustwo bocian pożyczki rzeszów kontakt pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt w credit agricole dokumenty ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing kredyt bez bik w skok pożyczka chwilówka żyrafa obliczanie pożyczki kredyty w idea bank opinie kredyt bank ekstralokum kredyty bez bik wałbrzych pożyczki na podjęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie kredyt bank lipowa białystok pożyczki nakło zwrot pożyczki proz kredyt bez bik elbląg kredyty chwilówki bez bik przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw augustów kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania kredyt bank wielicka kraków godziny otwarcia kalkulacja pożyczki w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowod kredyty chwilówki kozienice kredyt bank franczyza umowa pożyczki elementy w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie kredyt bankowy historia pożyczki gotówkowe żary kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń pozyczki jredyty zakopane kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie ofert kredyt bank chuck norris kredyty bez biku kielce bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla kredyt bank sa żagiel lublin kredyt bank czestochowa dekabrystów kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności kredytowej godziny graniczne w kredyt banku kredyt współpraca awaria systemu w kredyt banku kredyty mieszkaniowe białystok pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra mikropożyczki opole kredyt bez bik niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank pelplin telefon kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kredyt bank zambrów telefon zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw domu kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium kredyt studencki bzwbk kredyt bank górczewska 200 kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią w bik kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel 2013 pożyczki chwilówki filarum ewidencja księgowa umorzenia pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank lubicz kredyt pozabankowy opinie kredyt bank branches pożyczki prywatne sosnowiec pożyczki do domu białystok umowa pożyczki w rodzinie wzór kredyt studencki wbk forum alior bank sa kredyt pożyczki pozabankowe profi credit kredyt chwilówka porównanie data wymagalności pożyczki pożyczki przez internet plus kredyt mieszkaniowy najtańszy forum oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe cash pożyczki zgłoszenie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt bez biku zgierz kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank w mińsku maz pożyczki online bez bik kredyt bank chełmża pożyczki na zakup towaru tanie pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank pszów godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca księgowanie kredyty chwilówki szczecinek zgłoszenie pożyczki recyklerów ogame umowa pożyczki wzór weksla kredyt bank 24 infolinia pożyczki kredyty bez bik pożyczki chwilówki zasady pożyczki ratalne online kredyt chwilówki kraków pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum pożyczki 15 tys kod kredyt w orange millenium kredyt na start pożyczki wśród najbliższych kredyt bank polish sailing team koszty notarialne umowy pożyczki kredyt bankowy na mieszkanie pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości pozyczki dla zadluzonych od lat 19 przez internet kredyty chwilówki bytów kredyt bank grupa kbc pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet kredyty bez biku tychy pożyczki bez bik 10 000 kredyt w lukas bank alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki na dowód tarnów umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne podatek egzekwowanie pożyczki rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej pozyczka typu providen euro cen bocian pożyczki bez bik online kredyt w banku aib kredyt na dowód jaki bank pożyczki prywatne elbląg pożyczki prywatne bez bik pożyczka pozbankowa 40000 bez przedpłat czy w skok stefczyka można wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób z komornikiem kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia na życie getin bank online kredyt wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy doc oprocentowanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie kredyty pozabankowe radomsko pożyczki społecznościowe wikipedia pożyczki u klienta w domu pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zastawem wzór kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia pożyczki w uk na rok kto brał kredyt w getin banku kredyt na dowód bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw świdnica pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z urzędu pracy kredyty bez bik krd big pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej odsetki karne pożyczki kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska pożyczki odnawialne jak zaksięgować zaciągnięty kredyt bankowy kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole kredyty bankowe wypracowanie poznan glogowska pozyczki bez biku kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku szybkie pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank w polsce kredyt w banku eurobank pożyczki na wakacje pożyczki od ręki przez internet odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2012 kredyty chwilówki bochnia pożyczki skarabeusz nowy targ kredyt pożyczka pozabankowa kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp jakie dokumenty kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie pomocne pożyczki opinie sprzedaż kredyt banku forum kredyt bank lomianki pożyczki na dowod bez sprawdzaniaw olesnie kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego kredyt bez bik w getin banku spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej prywatne kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp opinie kredyty pozabankowe tczew kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking pozyczka od zaraz warszawa kredyt bank gpw przeterminowane pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wynagrodzenie pożyczki od inwestorów prywatnych kredyt w getin noble bank opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulacja kaska pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2012 kredyt chwilówka bedzin kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy podatek od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia kredyty bez bik lubuskie kontakt z para bankiem w rzeszowie udzieli pozyczli istota kredytu i pożyczki kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe telefon kredyt bez bik szybko kredyt bez biku bytom kredyty chwilówki oszustwo pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kraków kredyty chwilowka sosnowiec optima pożyczki malbork bank pożyczki na dowód pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania prywatne umowa pożyczki odnawialnej dom pod zastaw kredytu okres oczekiwania forum pożyczki oddłużeniowo komornicze kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie pozyczki na pit kamienna gora kredyty bez bik wałcz umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór kredyt w ge money bank opinie kredyty chwilówki bez bik przez internet pożyczki od 19 lat przez internet nowe konto w kredyt banku przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki marka pożyczki białystok kredyt optima kontakt chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów pożyczki provident gdańsk kredyt pozabankowy na oświadczenie rata kredytu pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw bytom umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem pcc pozyczki bialogard pożyczki bez bik puławy ekspres kasa pożyczki credit agricole ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt poza bankowy bez biku kredyt bank geneza pożyczki od zaraz wrocław provident kredyt bank sopot ul kościuszki pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki forum kredyty chwilówki poznań opinie pożyczki bezzwrotne z unii pożyczki z ue dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny ing kredyty chwilowki krakow kalwaryjska kredyt bank łódż pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim warunki rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank odsetki od pożyczki koszty podatkowe kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego lukas bank pożyczki pozabankowe pomorskie kredyt bank zalozenie konta kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac umowa pożyczki od rodziców kredyt bank przelewy z zagranicy pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą bez bik pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań odsetki od pożyczki wibor ile można wziąć pożyczki na dowód pożyczki pod zastaw śrem umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzory kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim w pko sa kredyt bank placowki najtańsze pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kalkulator kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko pożyczki od osób prywatnych online kredyt samochodowy w santander ranking kredytów w bankach pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław pożyczki unijne na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź alior bank kredyt dla rolników kredyt bez bik do domu pożyczki jessica udzielanie pożyczki kredyt bank zawiercie godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik i krd opinie udzielę pożyczki prywatnej poznań kredyty chwilówki na dowód kredyt bank szkolenie w warszawie pożyczki bez bik 4000 kredyt w rachunku bieżącym bank spółdzielczy

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad