kredyty mieszkaniowe dla emerytów pożyczki pod zastaw śląskie kredyty chwilówki ile procent kredyt bank dluga pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec kredyt bank forum 2011 przykładowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta optima pożyczki gotówkowe opole kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd kredyty bankowe praca kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator ing opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów umowa pożyczki na procent pożyczki pod zastaw kęty pożyczka dla pracownika wzór umowy potrzebuję ów kredyt kredyt gotówkowy bez bik opole uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty bez bik zary kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia pożyczki w domu kraków pożyczki dla nastolatków pożyczki wonga opinie umowa pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme pozyczki krotkotermnowe jaworzno pozyczki chwilowki bez bik krd od reki zabrze kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie kto brał kredyt w getin banku pożyczki pod zastaw chrzanów kredyt bank siedlce kontakt kredyt bank niemcewicza pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel orange kody na kredyt mikropożyczki z ue pożyczki pozabankowe ostrowiec pożyczki na komornika kredyt bank sa regon kredyt w pko bp opinie 2012 pożyczki na prawo jazdy kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny reklama kredyty bez biku z komornikiem pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen i przelewania grosza placówki kredyt banku łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy na 120 wartości kredyt bank rozana kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki między najbliższymi pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kraków kredyt w banku opinie cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy polbank kalkulator kredyt bank ustka zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry pożyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank wejherowo tel pozyczki banknot pożyczki pozabankowe września pożyczki dla górników bartuś pożyczki rumia kredyt bez bik banki kredyt bank w jarocinie kredyt bank medicover auto kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochod kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyty bez bik dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez biku legnica kredyt bank lublin opinie bocian pozyczki radom bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank nazwa kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie bocian pożyczki ustka kredyt bank regon kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt pekao sa kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa marszałkowska cesja pożyczki a pcc pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź kredyt bank adres główny szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik kredyt bank w wałbrzychu pożyczki bez bik big krd online kredyty bez bik sieradz pozyczka w domu wałbrzych deklaracja pcc od umowy pożyczki ewidencja księgowa pożyczki kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt bank konsultant umowa pożyczki między firmą a osobą fizyczną kredyt bank sa centrala warszawa kredyt bank małopolska kraków pożyczki prywatne kredyty chwilówki częstochowa pożyczki udzielone przez polske umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o obliczanie pożyczki ing kredyt bank rawicz sarnowska 2 pożyczki pozabankowe rawicz zmiany w kredyt banku pożyczki dla firm bielsko kredyt bank warszawa żoliborz prywatne pożyczki pod weksel 2013 optima pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki pcc kredyt w banku bz wbk auta na kredyt bez biku szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt w banku aig gdzie kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków kredyt bank lokaty dla firm pożyczki regita kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt bank przelewy z zagranicy allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik 5000 pożyczka bez bik garwolin kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki windykator opinie uznanie pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe deutsche bank pożyczki piła pożyczki na dowód kielce pożyczki chwilówki na dowód olsztyn kredyty chwilowki z dojazdem do domu kredyt bank rrso getin noble bank oprocentowanie kredytów prywatne kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce pożyczki prywatne mława placówki kredyt banku gdańsk pożyczki online bez wpłaty umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny optima pożyczki tel kredyt bank dt pożyczki bocian starogard gdański kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 kredyty bez biku poznan idea bank kredyt opinie szybkie pożyczki chorzów umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt bank lubartów pożyczki na dowód 2012 kredyt bank dzierżoniów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank praktyki studenckie kredyt gotówkowy bank bph opinie kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy pko bp poznań kredyt studencki pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe bez bik kredyt na samochód bez bik krd pożyczki bez biku pozyczki walcz bez bik na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu podatek od umowy pożyczki w 2012 kredyt bez bik gostyn kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska pożyczki chwilówki grudziądz szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice kredyt bank w luboniu godziny otwarcia pozyczki od osob prywatnych poznan umowa podporządkowania pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent kredyt bank rada nadzorcza pożyczki rynku pieniężnego kredyt bank połączenie windykacja kredyt ok kredyt bank ikze kredyty chwilowki zyrardow kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator spłata pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyty chwilówki na czym polegają pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk szybkie pożyczki online bez bik czy od pożyczki płaci się pcc umowa pożyczki dla firm kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank kredyt bank london umorzenie pożyczki z zfss kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne kredyt bank ii oddział katowice kredyt bank cennik przelewów niezgłoszenie pożyczki kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta kredyt bank archiwalne kursy walut kredyty siódemka czechowice kalkulator kredyt bank gdynia witomino wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank radom telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny co znaczy millenium kredyt na start kredyt samochodowy forum opinie wiarygodne pożyczki bez bik pozyczki bez bik ciechanow kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredytowa kędzierzyn koźle pozyczki bez biku i krd kredyt bez bik braniewo symulacja kredytu na kamienice zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna kredyt bez bik legionowo szybkie pożyczki w szkocji kredyt bank jana pawła warszawa pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki pożyczki bez windykacji umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen kredyty chwilówki legnica bankomat kredyt bank warszawa kredyt samochodowy lukas bank pozyczka bez bik na splate komornika kredyt bank w jarocinie kredyt w uk natwest kredyt bank busko godziny otwarcia pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa bank pko bp kredyt odnawialny abis wniosek o kredyt kredyt bank złocieniec zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank w rawiczu opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie pożyczki prywatne 2013 opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyt bank pruszków kredyt bez bik nowy sącz bocian pozyczki warunki udzielenia pożyczki bez erif kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz tytuł przelewu pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy pożyczki udzielone przez udziałowca umowa pożyczki regulacje prawne pożyczki a pcc pożyczki 10000 zł jakie jest oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko kredyty chwilówki starachowice credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny z gotówką prywatne pożyczki lubań kredyt bez bik na firme pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki dla firm bielsko pożyczki w 15 minut na koncie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych w bik kredyt w euro jakie banki kredyty chwilówki logowanie system partner kredyt bank radzymińska białystok przelew w kredyt banku pożyczki od rodziny podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki wzór pożyczki otrzymane kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański pożyczki olsztyn pieniężnego partner pożyczki warszawa kredyty konsolidacyjne kraków kredyt bank glowna siedziba umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy forum pomocne pożyczki opinie pożyczka na dowód do 10000 w banku kredyt dla firm w banku spółdzielczym kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank24 bocian jakie wymagania kredytowe optima pożyczki forum kredyt bank w brzegu kredyty bez bik jarosław kredyty bez bik do 80000 pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice kredyty bez bik i komornika regulamin pożyczki vivus kredyt bank w piasecznie kredyt bank karolkowa kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa pożyczki na dowód kutno kredyt w banku czeskim pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum kredyt bez bik na dowod sosnowiec pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki prywatne gniezno ślimak pożyczki kraków pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych kredyty prywatne bez biku pożyczki rumia kredyt bank pieniężnego olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony warunki kredytu w banku millenium kredyt bank bialystok zwyciestwa pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank lokaty umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór kredyt na rok kredyt w pko opinie kredyt bez bik zabrze kredyty banków komercyjnych pożyczki na dowód jawor kredyt bankowy pdf obliczanie procentów pożyczki kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki na pit zielona góra kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe na pit kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego kredyt bank sprzedaż waluty alior bank kredyt online pożyczki bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyt bankowy po angielsku pożyczki bez bik grodzisk wlkp wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki na procent gdańsk pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt chwilówka na telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko kredyt bank zgierz kontakt kredyt dla emeryta w getin banku kredyt bank 10 kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank forum poręczenie pożyczki przez gminę wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od brata pożyczki chwilówki turek kredyt bank sa gorzów wlkp pożyczki jeremie pomorskie szybkie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz kredyty bez bik toruń w jakim banku wziąć kredyt studencki serwis finansowy dobrej pożyczki pożyczki od prywatnych firm kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór kredyty chwilówki kutno kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank opinie umowa pożyczki z bankiem pożyczki bez bik internetowe bocian chwilowka kredytową nr tel międzyrzecz kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku zachodnim kredyty mieszkaniowe plock udzielę pożyczki pod weksel poznań kredyt bank sieradz godziny otwarcia cesja pożyczki pcc kredyty konsolidacyjne poznań kredyt w alior banku a bik kredyt bank bez prowizji kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia feniks pożyczki olecko kredyt konsolidacyjny do 300 000 pożyczki bez bik przez internet kredyty chwilówki lubliniec wpływ pożyczki na rachunek walutowy kredyt dla emeryta w getin banku pożyczki na dowód z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bank polski udział kredytów w aktywach banku kredyty bez bik na raty szybki kredyt online bez bik kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego pożyczki uk kredyt bank mafia kredyt bez bik banki forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła al konstytucji pożyczki bez bik i dochodu kredyty bez bik zdunska wola cel przeznaczenia pożyczki kredyt porównanie banków kredyty bez bik kwidzyn kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyt bez bik czy warto kredyt bank kampania telefoniczna optima pożyczki tczew kredyt bank konsultant jak wziąć kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator kosztów pożyczki kredyt bank sprzedaż dewiz kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk kredyt bank opole kontakt udzielanie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp marża kredyt a bankowy rejestr kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki kredyt bank 224 kredyt bank wrocław telefon pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo kredyt bank bgz kredyty chwilowki piekary sl banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik pożyczki dla doktorantów szybkie pożyczki online na dowód lublin pozyczka na dowod bez dochodu podatek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty kredyt w banku bph opinie kredyt bank praca białystok eurocash pożyczki lublin umowa pożyczki między małżonkami kredyt bez bik wniosek przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno aport pożyczki kredyty na dowod 18lat olsztyn pożyczki na oświadczenie ogłoszenia kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem poręczenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyty chwilowki lask pożyczki brzesko pożyczki optima ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne kredyty chwilówki szczecinek umorzenie pożyczki księgowanie oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie pożyczki domowe na dowód sandomierz jakie jest oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko kredyt bank sa oddział w lublinie kredyt samochodowy dla firm alior bank optima pożyczki olsztyn kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja kredyty chwilówki kraków teatralne pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse wcześniejsza spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko bp pożyczki społecznościowe a pcc pozyczki od osob prywatnych bialystok jak wziąć kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyty bez bik włocławek pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez zaswiadczen kredyty mieszkaniowe dopłaty kwota pożyczki a pcc przedawnienia pożyczki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing pożyczka z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank provident pożyczki dla firm prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki promesa udzielenia pożyczki wzór pożyczki 100 zł pożyczki z urzędu pracy 2013 pożyczki atut kredyty mieszkaniowe wkład własny pożyczki gotówkowe w holandii kredyty mieszkaniowe we frankach szwajcarskich bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pozyczki abrewo kredyt budowlany w jakim banku kredyt bank żytnia 15 alior bank kredyt odnawialny kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łomża potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow rafał kuryłowicz pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie stałe czy zmienne pożyczki bankowe kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big pożyczki prywatne wołomin ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf chomikuj oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie www optima pl do ilu daja kredyt pożyczki bez bik żyrardów pożyczki bez bik i krd online kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki zfśs pożyczki pruszcz gdański szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki żagań

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad