kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno kredyt w getin banku kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum kredyty chwilówki łomża kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa umowa o zwrot pożyczki kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik na 10 lat kredyty chwilówki w tychach kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik forum kredyt bank sa zagiel pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego pożyczki za gierka kredyt studencki pko czy pekao kredyty chwilówki piaseczno kredyty konsolidacyjne na umowe zlecenie kredyty chwilówki kalkulator kredyt bank rachunki bankowe kredyt bank ekstrakonto junior ujawnienie pożyczki jaki jest kod do orange na kredyt pożyczki polska różne polska usługi centrala kredyt banku w warszawie kredyty bez bik oddłużeniowe współpraca kredyty pozabankowe skierniewice kredyt bank sa lublin zana pożyczki pod zastaw przemyśl kredyt bank 2 oddział warszawa kredyt pleszew bez biku w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice dobranie pożyczki w ing pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask kredyt bank grupa kredyt bank mann i materna kredyty bankowe bilans kredyt bank legnicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki w uk na rok kredyt bank sa email pożyczki w domu klienta głogów kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyt bank lipowa 4 kredyt samochodowy w kosztach firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik przez internet kredyt orange na jaki nr kredyt bank czeki kredyt bank kościuszki katowice kredyt bez bik gdańsk pożyczki na dowód opinie kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka godziny otwarcia pożyczki portal kwota pożyczki proz pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny co znaczy pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu umowa pożyczki w prawie niemieckim kredyty chwilówki ełk pożyczki chwilówki vivus szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyt bank restrukturyzacja pożyczki chwilówki za 0 pożyczki chwilówki bez prowizji zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki akt kredyt bank kubusia puchatka kredyt bank gliniana helios pożyczki pożyczki mikołów credit agricole pożyczki pożyczki z funduszy mikro kredyt w uk po polsku pożyczki dla zadłużonych bytom pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski kredyt pozabankowy toruń kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew kredyty helios kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal pożyczki prywatne żyrardów rejestracja umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik kredyt bank w rankingach kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku zielona góra pożyczki prywatne żary kredyt dla firm bez bik kielce kredyt bank warszawa swift dlugoterminowe pozyczki pod zastaw pożyczki dębica kredyt bank toruń kontakt mikropożyczki w indiach pożyczki kronos kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki od ręki bydgoszcz kredyt bank konkurs kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank środa śląska kontakt kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum kredyt samochodowy santander bank kredyt w getin banku opinie kredyt bez biku na telefon kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia dwa kredyty w jednym banku kredyt bank reuters kredyt bank grojec wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w ktorym banku oplaca sie wziasc kredyt we wroclawiu kredyt bank obotrycka kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst pozyczki dla zadlzonych bialystok szybkie pożyczki od 19 lat kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin konto kredyt bankowy księgowanie kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk kredyty chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza pożyczki pracownicze oprocentowanie alex pożyczki kredyt obrotowy w jakim banku pożyczki kaktus szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń pozyczki pozabankowe w euro w holandii kredyt bank oszczędzanie pożyczki dla polaków w uk kredyty banki ranking pożyczki biznesowe pożyczki pozabankowe vivus kredyt w banku komercyjnym kredyt prywatny z komornikiem pożyczki głogów pożyczki prywatne ogłoszenia pożyczki skarbu państwa umowa pożyczki w lombardzie kredyt bank łódż zgierska szybkie pożyczki opole bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty oprocentowanie pożyczki w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik bytom drugi kredyt w innym banku kredyt pozabankowy gdansk pożyczki interes umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczki na dowód bez bik online kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia pieniężnego kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości pożyczki na dowód szczecinek kredyt bank dluga kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy kredyt bank rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki od siostry wzór pożyczki lublin lubartowska pożyczki profi credit opinie kredyt studencki w jakim banku konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyty w idea banku forum kredyt bank krynica godziny otwarcia euro providus pożyczki pozyczki poza bankowe bez sprawdzania zdolności kredyt bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank karta visa pożyczki z europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego nowe pożyczki online szybkie pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyt bank aleje marcinkowskiego poznań pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy wzór umowy zawarcia pożyczki bocian pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki prywatne na terenie gostynia pożyczki prywatne mazowieckie kredyt bez bik ruda śląska kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt bank lokaty 2014 duży kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki bez bik na telefon kredyt bank lokata avocado umowa pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez bik czy pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank jastrowie godziny otwarcia konin kredyty bez biku kredyt chwilówka krakow kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór umowy pożyczki osób prywatnych pożyczki w domu klienta legnica kredyt bank cz kredyt bank kupiony kredyt w getin noble banku opinie pożyczki finanse bgk pożyczki dla absolwentów pozyczki prudnik kredyt bank zamość partyzantów 12 kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis bank pożyczki prywatne łódż kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór pożyczki nasielsk dobre kredyty bez biku kredyt z orange 5 zł kredyt bank w słubicach kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał kredyt bank lubartów pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki termin przedawnienia pożyczki chwilówki bez baz pożyczki internetowe pożyczki bez biku dla rolników pożyczki do 40000 kredyt bank w płońsku czy umowa pożyczki musi być oprocentowana umowa pożyczki spółka pożyczki na dowód olsztynek kredyt bank jarosław pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt bank sa iban pozyczka bez umowy o prace na dowod szczecin pożyczki prywatne gdańsk expres pozyczki infolinia pożyczki pozabankowe nysa kredyt gotówkowy bez bik poznań pożyczki z funduszu efs idea bank warunki pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki u pożyczkodawcy pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń bocian pożyczki żary szybkie pożyczki na dowód warszawa kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego pożyczka bez dochodu i komornikiem na reke ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki umowa pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki ang najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat kredyt bank profit plan kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 kredyty pozabankowe malbork kredyty bez biku w plocku kredyty hipoteczne dla zadluzonych w bik lodz kredyt bank sa lublin zana 39a kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich kredyt w toyota bank opinie szybkie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe pożyczki bez oprocentowania pożyczki chwilówki porównanie pożyczki pieniężne w rodzinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka pożyczki chwilówki nowości profi credit kalkulator pożyczki pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us pożyczki na dowód słupsk sesje przelewów w kredyt bank alior bank kredyt na pit cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyty bez bik oddłużeniowe alior bank kredyt na auto kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście kredyty bez biku wroclaw slimak pozyczki kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik wrocław kredyt studencki pko forum kredyty bank pko sa lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt bank godziny otwarcia tczew kredyty pozabankowe tarnów umowa pożyczki w spółce komandytowej umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie wzór kredyt bank znin kredyt gotówkowy bank millenium kalkulator kredyty bez bik i krd tychy pożyczki chwilówki bez prowizji pożyczki chwilówki w krakowie kredyty chwilówki na oświadczenie pewny kredyt onlain kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank forum kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy kredyty samochodowe bez bik krd pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki gotówki druk kredyt bank fundusze nieruchomości kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki bytom piłsudskiego umowa pożyczki między rodzicami a dziećmi kredyt bank placowki w gdansku pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach kredyt bank nowy dwór mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku zagranicznym kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowod online hnarutowicza leszno kredyty dla zadluzonych kredyt bank konto osobiste opinie kredyt bank restrukturyzacja konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2011 pożyczki trzebinia kredyt bez bik nowa sól kredyt w 5 minut udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania kredyt bank pożyczka kalkulator kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki odsetki karne jaki kod na kredyt orange pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji orange kod kredytu pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 umowa pożyczki wzór weksla neobank kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 kredyt bank kurs akcji kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław udzielanie pozyczek a vat bank credit agricole kredyt gotówkowy panda pożyczka nysa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny na co uważać pożyczki chwilówki przez sms pożyczki chwilówki poznań gdzie najlepiej wziąć kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki kępno kredyt bank lezajsk targowa pożyczki prywatne na procent płock szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet kredyty pozabankowe luban kredyty bankowe pojęcie najkorzystniejsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum pożyczki chwilówki białystok pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska kredyty pożyczki dla zadłużonych wzór umowy pożyczki dla rodziny umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie pożyczki chwilówki nakło kredyty w eurobanku opinie pożyczki w pracy pożyczki pozabankowe provident kredyty i pożyczki trójmiasto pożyczki 24h na dobę pożyczki chwilówki łuków pożyczki z zakładu pracy pożyczki prywatne rypin kredyt bank oddział w dębicy kredyt bez bik big mariusz patrowicz pożyczki cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyty pozabankowe opole kredyt bank wniosek kredytowy kredyt bank centrum windykacji kredyt studencki w którym banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń kredyt studencki pko kiedy spłata kredyty pozabankowe i prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych kredyty chwilówki tychy windykatorzy kredyt w banku pko kalkulator konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank łowicz tel źyrafa pożyczki szybki kredyt 5 tys niski procent opolskie alior bank kredyt pożyczki przez internet bez pracy kamila ignasiak pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kredyt bank powstanie chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd kredyt w getin noble bank pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 pożyczki alibaba wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyty bez bik raciborz bocian pożyczki krosno kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk telefon czy istnieje jeszcze mennica pozyczki w jeleniej gorze kredyty bank santander kredyt bank piaseczno kontakt kredyty konsolidacyjne mbank kredyty bez bik slupsk kredyt konsolidacyjny chomikuj kredyt pozabankowy rzeszów pożyczki w domu klienta w warszawie kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach kredyt chwilówka telefon pożyczki między podmiotami powiązanymi umorzenie pożyczki pcc kredyty chwilówki przez telefon pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku pożyczki końskie pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyty bankowe samochodowe pożyczki bocian praca opinie kredyt na mieszkanie ing bank slaski kredyt na dom pozabankowy pożyczki chwilówki porównanie activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych wałbrzych raciborz pozyczka pod weksel kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz pożyczki olsztyn bez bik umowa przyrzeczenia pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk pożyczki prywatne pruszków łódź pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bankowe przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik ciechanow kredyty pozabankowe 10000 umowa pożyczki druk darmowy kredyt ge money bank pożyczki dla firm toruń kredyt bank sieradz bankomaty kredyt bank reuters finan pożyczki do domu pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra kredyt bank finanse z zasadami kredyt bank kasprzaka telefon bocian pożyczki pruszcz gdański pożyczki kredyty bez historii kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator kredyty bez biku bydgoszcz kredyt bank kraków dietla godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem pożyczki udzielane w domu klienta warszawa windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank skawina godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki odsetki umowne sesje przelewów w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki gotówkowej wzór pozyczki krotoszyn umowa pożyczki w walucie godziny przelewow w kredyt banku kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik szczecin kredyt bank iphone pożyczki lubliniec pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele kredyt bank zwycięstwa gliwice kredyt bank sulechów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank węgry pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl robert kotowski pożyczki panda pożyczki opinie jak księgujemy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz pożyczki do domu poznań kredyt w banku komercyjnym kredyt bank reklama kredyt samochodowy ranking listopad 2013 umowa pożyczki pod przymusem pożyczki bez bik współpraca kredyt bank warszawa windykacja pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom kredyt na otwarcie firmy ze zla historia kredytowa prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka kredyty chwilówki w pile kredyt bank opłata za kartę kredyt chwilówka nowa ruda umorzenie pożyczki u pożyczkodawcy umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pcc kredyt bez bik i zaświadczenia o zarobkach szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny rio kalkulator pożyczki pko sa spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pozyczki z komornikiem sosnowiec kredyt bank tychy kontakt kredyt bank lezajsk pożyczki do 1200 szybkie pozyczki pod zastaw busko pożyczki dla polaków w niemczech mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki książka kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki na dowód provident kredyt w banku holenderskim kredyt bank ul żytnia optima pożyczki do domu opinie kredyt w idea bank na start forum skarabeusz pożyczki wieluń pożyczki na dowód eurobank kredyt bez bik konin pożyczki prywatne wałcz kredyt obrotowy dla firm bez bik szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad