kredyt lombardowy w banku pożyczki chwilówki na dowód online optima pożyczki na dowód udziele pożyczki prywatnej forum druk pożyczki z pkzp kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skawina pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet karr pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na dowód umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na raty przedłużenie umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt w getin banku na oświadczenie udzielać pożyczki ang wartość pożyczki pozyczka na telefon wrzesnia okolice księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika pożyczki kruk sa podatek od pożyczki z banku kredyt bankowy dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank wierzyciel pożyczki forum pożyczka w domu bez bik dobra pozyczka warszawa dla zadluzonych kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin godziny otwarcia kredyt na mieszkanie bank pocztowy kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt chwilówka kutno kredyty bankowe książka chomikuj kredyt bank lokata warta kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp kredyt bank wbk szczecin kredyt bank warszawa patriotów pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet kredyt studencki bz wbk kredyt bez bik 20 tys pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz czy dostane pozyczke w ei global kiedy odsetki od pożyczki nie są kosztem podatkowym kredyt bank dyrektor regionalny spłata pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking pozyczki prodomo wejherowo kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea oprocentowanie w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku forum pożyczki łódź opinie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy czy sygma bank udziela pozyczek pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki gotówkowe ing kredyt bank maestro udzielam uczciwych prywatnych pozyczek pożyczki łomża kredyt bank gdańsk kredyty chwilówki nowy bytom ewidencja księgowa umorzenia pożyczki banki ktore daja kredyt przy otwarciu konta kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej pozyczka od ręki września i okolica pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 prawo podatkowe pożyczki kredyt studencki pko żyrant umowa pożyczki z synem pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie forum pożyczki na działalność bez bik pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach gdynia pożyczki z up kredyt bank w zambrowie księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach banki kredyty z komornikiem kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror pożyczki prywatne uczciwie umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c kredyty chwilówki starogard gd umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking 2013 monetia pożyczki druk umowa pożyczki pożyczki lubartów kredyt bank wypowiedział umowę bocian pożyczki kontakt warszawa kredyt studencki pko 2014 kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik plock pożyczki ozorków pozyczki poznan gros capital,tempo pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica oświadczenie o zwrot pożyczki bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt bank rybnik godziny pożyczki kronos zawiercie kredyt pozabankowy bez biku jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyty bez bik prywatne kredyt bank kalwaryjska kraków godziny otwarcia łukasz formela pożyczki kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt w uk bez historii kredytowej pożyczki bez biku lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim wbk kredyt bez bik puławy kredyt bank oddział białystok ul mickiewicza pozyczki dla polakow w londynie bez bik i umowy o prace kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne pod weksel umowa pożyczki co musi zawierać pożyczki z dostawą do domu wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millennium przedłużenie umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań kredyt bez biku jakie oprocentowanie refinansowanie pożyczki provident ile można wziąć pożyczki na dowód kredyt chwilówki sosnowiec pożyczki bezprocentowe dla firm centrala kredyt banku warszawa kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski aleksander jodłowiec pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska profit pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wlkp kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny skok jaworzno pożyczki unijne na działalność gospodarczą ubezpieczenie zdrowy kredyt w getin banku szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod awans pożyczki kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a pożyczki pod zastaw gruntów kredyt bank suwałki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank otwock andriollego banki które daja kredyt bez bik potwierdzenie salda pożyczki mieszkaniowej wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank żagiel łódź kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki tychy tel kod na kredyt w orange go kredyt bank bankomaty białystok prywatne pożyczki w lublinie optima pożyczki warszawa kredyt bank konto firmowe kredyt bank zgubiona karta pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów pożyczki bez bik firmy pożyczki jeremie wrocław kredyty chwilówki miechów formy pożyczki kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas pożyczki ze spłatą tygodniową pozyczki deblin bez bik schemat księgowania pożyczki mariusz dudziński pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 tys kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola czy trudno o kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp bsribas opinie kredyt bank traugutta radom kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia pozyczki na weksel slask kredyt chwilówka poznań praca kredyt studencki bzwbk 2012 pożyczki podobne do providenta w częstochowie pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyty bez bik wierzyciel ratalne szybkie pozyczki przez internet agar kredyty bez bik lębork kredyty konsolidacyjne artykuł kredyt bank wyciągi kredyt bank limit kredytowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych opinie bocian pożyczki bielsko biała kredyty mieszkaniowe deutsche bank pożyczki do 1200 pożyczki pod zastaw przemyśl kredyt w getin banku 2013 pożyczki dla rolników 2013 kredyt przez internet bez zadnych zaswiadczen pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt studencki kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyty chwilówki firmy kredyt w banku a komornik kredyty chwilówki gredan banki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp kredyt bank jelenia góra wolności pożyczki w 15 minut kredyt w bos banku opinie pożyczki w domu klienta toruń bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki w mbanku opinie bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny deustche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyt bank działdowo pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pożyczki włodawa porównanie kredytów samochodowych dla firm gdzie można dostać kredyt bez bik atiz pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyty chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana opinie kredyty chwilówki w tychach umowa pożyczki bez terminu spłaty kredyt bank iii oddział warszawa ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny do 30 lat bezpieczne pożyczki przez internet pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez dochodu niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego idea bank warunki pożyczki kredyt bank diners club pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyt bank dewizy kredyt bank powsińska podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki alior opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki meritum pożyczki na dowód jastrzębie zdrój kredyt konsolidacyjny pko warunki pożyczki bez bik kraków pożyczki eurobank kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza godziny otwarcia w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyty bez bik białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy dla malzenstw kredyt bank marki piłsudskiego pewne pożyczki dla każdego kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 getin bank pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki pieniężne definicja kredyt bank lokaty maj 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 kredyt dla firm w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki na telefon 24 pozyczki z zadluzeniem komorniczym kredyt bankowy wyłudzenie pożyczki kodeks karny kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt bez bik przez internet odsetki od pożyczki deklaracja iii oddział kredyt banku w poznaniu pozyczki dla zadluzonych bez dochodu pożyczki dla firm bez bik pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki internetowe bez biku kredyt bank gorlice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny notus kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice gros pożyczki poznań pożyczki na dowód kraków kredyt bank nowa huta kredyt bank krapkowice kontakt porównanie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki w uk kredyt bank żagiel adres pożyczki pozabankowe chrzanów dokumentowanie zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik włocławek kredyt bank włocławek regon kredyty chwilówki sulechów kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank s a centrala kontakt oblicz ratę pożyczki gotówkowej szybkie pożyczki prywatne warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe myszków pożyczki niski procent opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki pożyczka bez krd forum kredyt bank kostrzyn umowa pożyczki wzór 777 kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs szybkie pożyczki poznań w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez biku szczecin szybki kredytyt gotwkowe przez internet bez bik idea bank kredyt forum kredyty chwilówki fordon kredyt inwestycyjny prawo bankowe bocian pożyczki biała podlaska jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one umowa pożyczki wspólnika wzór ksiegowanie przelewow w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc gdzie szukac pożyczki pozabankowej w starachowice kredyt mieszkaniowy oblicz raty kredyt bank ełk ul słowackiego kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik kredyt bank nr kontaktowy pożyczki bocian praca kredyt bank płock kontakt konwersja umowy pożyczki kredyt bank łódź ketlinga kredyty chwilowki lodz pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu kredyt mieszkaniowy 250 tys jaka rata termin przedawnienia z umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilowki wroclaw drobnera kredyt studencki pekao pozyczka dla zadłużonych gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem faktura za odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt pozabankowe poznan kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp rodzina na swoim najtaszy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet umowa pożyczki podatek od odsetek oprocentowanie kredytu w banku lukas kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 27 poznań kredyt bank lokata z premią 6 5 pożyczki na dowód bez dochodów lokata jesienna w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny długoterminowy gdzie kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy kielce czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace kredyt w noble bank kredyty chwilówki ligota kredyt bank żeromskiego pożyczki społecznościowe podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie ing bank online kredyty z komornikiem kredyt pozabankowy na pit łukasz woźniak pożyczki kredyt bank w bielanach wrocławskich pożyczki 24h na dobę kredyt chwilówka lodz kredyty bez bik pabianice kredyty chwilowki lodz kredyt bank sa relacje inwestorskie kredyt bank tarnów lwowska belgia kredyty forum kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki podatki kredyt mieszkaniowy ing bank kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy program kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki oszuści kredyt bank zytnia warszawa pożyczki prywatne żywiec pożyczki agricole kredyt bank centrala warszawa kredyt bankowy cechy bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w banku pocztowym pożyczka bez biku kielce kredyt w nordea banku udzielę pożyczki bez rejestrów wysokie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki multibank kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca najtanszy kredyt w banku pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej kredyt bank problem z bankomatem umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi najtańszy kredyt samochodowy forum tanie pożyczki bez bik udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace umowa pożyczki pod zastaw wzór deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum umorzenie pożyczki zfron kredyt bank w piasecznie kredyty bez bik krd wrocław umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych kredyty bez biku sosnowiec pożyczki bocian formularz kredyt bez bik alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny credit kronos pozyczki czy każda umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu kredyt na pit pożyczki bez biku białystok pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe kasiora pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki między osobami prawnymi kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy pożyczki lubartów najszybsze pożyczki online kredyt ratalny w credit agricole kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra pożyczki w domu klienta bez przelewu za groszbydgoszcz kredyt bez bik w czestochowie pożyczki pozabankowe pierwsza za darmo pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty pozyczka bez big w domu klienta dolnosląskie kredyt odnawialny pko pożyczki online chwilówki kredyt bank w borku wlkp kredyt bank infolinia czynna kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt bank godziny parabanki i pozyczki pozabankowe od zaraz kredyty pozabankowe inowrocław kredyt ratalny eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kalkulator obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki wykaz placówek kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt pozabankowy 50000 kredyty chwilówki partner logowanie kredyt bank pabianice godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bez bik kod kredytu w orange kredyt konsumpcyjny bank millenium kredyt w banku bez krd kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet za darmo reklama pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tychy kadry poręczenie pożyczki a zdolność kredytowa alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki gryf kredyt do 3000 bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku kredyt getin bank rodzina na swoim global pożyczki bydgoszcz przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy multibank kredyt samochodowy opinie forum kredyty chwilówki praca śląsk kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin pożyczki prywatne żyrardów oprocentowanie pożyczki odnawialnej ing kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik optima pożyczki do domu opinie pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów pożyczki bez dochodów i krd kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia mikropożyczki w polsce kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany przedłużenie pożyczki w wonga pożyczki bez bik głogów szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki łódź chwilówki wzory dokumentów pozew o zwrot pożyczki firma uzyskała kredyt w banku 12 kredyt bank mysłowice kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowy numer kontaktowy do mennicy pozyczki jelenia gora pożyczki katowice księgowanie odsetek od pożyczki udziałowca kredyty bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki janosik sosnowiec kredyt bank 24 pl kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki przez internet forum odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie kredyt konsolidacyjny w chwilówkach kredyt bank 24 infolinia pożyczki w wałbrzychu kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia duomax pożyczki formularz pożyczki pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik i krs pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek jowisz pożyczki kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia pożyczki do 12000 kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank forum umorzenie pożyczki a vat kredyt bank miechów pożyczki od osób prywatnych na weksel kredyt bank transfery meritum pożyczki bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe optima

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad