kredyt banku kursy walut kredyt bank księgowość elektroniczna pożyczki bez bik w koszalinie pożyczki pit kredyty chwilowki umowa zlecenie pożyczki chwilówki kołobrzeg kredyt bez bik w jakim banku prywatne pożyczki pod weksel poznań pożyczki deutsche bank pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodów kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska kredyt mieszkaniowy na 120 wartości pożyczki na pierwszy biznes podatek od pożyczki pożyczki bez biku w koninie pozyczki bez baz gdansk kredyt bank w kutnie umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek dochodowy kredyt bank lokata negocjowana luk pożyczki kredyt bank fuzja forum przejęcie kredytu przez firme kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach pod jaki numer kredyt do orange pożyczki obliczanie rat pożyczki bgk kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus bankomaty kredyt bez bik myszkow kredyt bank człuchów kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa pożyczki na własny biznes kredyt konsolidacyjny pko forum kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż umowa pożyczki pcc 3 kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk kredyt bank w wieluniu kredyty bez bik i krd koszalin pożyczki polkowice kredyty bez bik ostrow wlkp kredyty chwilowki sprawdzają bik kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę komornika oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2012 kredyt bank twardzickiego pożyczki bank bgż pożyczki bez bik co to kredyt bank skierniewice kontakt kredyt w alior bank konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie kredyt w koncie bank pocztowy kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp sa umowa udzielenia pożyczki przez gminę umorzenie pożyczki w księgach legnica pożyczki bez bik kredyty w nordea bank kredyt mieszkaniowy ing forum deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy wzór pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki kredyt bank pso kredyt studencki alior bank pożyczki między firmami a pcc pożyczki z komornikiem udzielane w domu bardzo szybki kredyt bez bik kokos pożyczki gotówkowe mikropożyczki na założenie firmy bocian pożyczki nidzica podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2012 pożyczki 4you kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia cesja praw z umowy pożyczki łukta pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe koszty pożyczki bez bik ostrołęka bocian pożyczki gliwice kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie zarobki pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2012 udziele pożyczki prywatnie poznań kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych czerwiec 2013 czy kredyt bank jest otwarty w sobote astra pożyczki przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie pożyczki kruk sa kredyty bankowe ksiegowanie pożyczki nowe online umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc optima pożyczki leszno potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia good cash pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tarnowskie góry potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia za pracę kredyt bank 2 oddział warszawa pokwitowanie pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank nowy swiat warszawa kredyt bez bik w płocku oblicz rate kredytu w banku pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód online udzielę prywatnej pożyczki online pożyczki chwilówki wronki szybki kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp provident warunki pożyczki pożyczki abis opinie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych bankomat kredyt bank sieradz knf pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe udzielane w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emeryta kredyt konsolidacyjny a rodzina na swoim kredyty online bez bik pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt studencki pko bp 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny katowice cel umowy pożyczki pozyczka do domu bez bik pożyczki od rodziny znajomych kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 kredyt bank zarząd umowa pożyczki dla roidziny kredyt bankowy długoterminowy kredyty mieszkaniowe millenium kalkulator pożyczki dla nieletnich podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami kronos pożyczki pozyczki prywatne bialogard pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki pozabankowe na 2 lata optima pożyczki lębork kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla kalkulator kredyt w getin noble bank opinie kredyty bez biku kielce pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank konto pożyczki długoterminowe potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki dzisiaj kredyt w polskim banku praca za granica kredyt bank warta gwarancja kredyt bankowy w przedsiębiorstwie pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń pożyczki bezzwrotne dla policjantów kredyty mieszkaniowe wrzesień 2012 kredyt bank sa wrocław kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział quick cash pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz pożyczki aviva eden pozyczki zielona gora kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt studencki pko kiedy rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla msp kredyt w banku czy przez doradcę kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik kredyty bankowe stan początkowy pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź jak udzielać pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski getin bank kredyt przez internet kredyty bez biku warszawa pozyczka wonga uk pożyczki gotówkowe starogard gdański optima pożyczki forum pożyczki w wonga pożyczki 3000 zł kredyt bez bik oswiecim kredyt studencki ranking banków pożyczki dla zadłużonych zielona góra kredyt bank mariusz kaczmarek kredyt bank program lojalnościowy kredyt bank token problem kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów za granicą kredyt studencki wbk 2011 skarabeusz pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bank gdansk noskowskiego pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem kredyt bez bik olsztyn w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw zgierz kredyt konsolidacyjny dla prowadzących działalność pożyczki pozabankowe chrzanów umowa pożyczki partycypacyjnej pożyczki prywatne piaseczno istota kredytu kredyt samochodowy dla firmy pożyczki inwestycje kredyt bank w kościanie kredyt bank wroclaw legnicka kredyt konsolidacyjny z najniższym oprocentowaniem pozyczki dla zadłuzonych kredyty bez biku na oswiadczenie kredyty chwilówki sochaczew kredyt bank warszawa patriotów pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki od osób prywatnych katowice umowa pożyczki pienięznej kredyt samochodowy banki umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie kredyt dla firm bez bik krd koszt pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki gotówkowe rzeszów pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank pozyczki bez konta kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodego małżeństwa ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe szybkie pożyczki online od 18 lat alfa kredyt ranking marża banku kredyt kredyt bank pocztowy forum żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a pożyczki chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać bocian pozyczki wniosek pozabankowa pozyczka bez bik 20000 pożyczki prywatne z komornikiem kredyty bez bik 10000 bocian pożyczki praca łódź kredyt bank w nowym targu pożyczki z nfośigw pożyczki optima praca kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa kredyt bank warszawa filie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na samochód kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe kredyty bez zaświadczeń bez bik w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki akcent kredyt bez bik radom kredyt bank krynica pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz pożyczki bocian bytom cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy regulamin pożyczki w eurokoncie optima pozyczki ciechanów odsetki od pożyczki w deklaracji vat kredyt bank wielicka 181 udzielę pożyczki pozabankowe czy umowa pożyczki musi być sporządzona na piśmie pożyczki gorzów wlkp najtańsze pożyczki online pożyczki na dowód ruda śląska szybkie pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyty bankowe praca licencjacka pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów pożyczki na dowód ostróda kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt bank władze kredyt w banku potrzebne dokumenty optima pożyczki na dowód pożyczki 18 lat kredyt bank oddział w piotrkowie trybunalskim wzór pokwitowania zwrotu pożyczki pieniężnej kody na kredyt w orange bocian pożyczki wolsztyn kredyt studencki zasady udzielania kredyt bank profit pożyczki prywatne jarosław kredyty chwilówki w płocku kredyt na start w idea banku opinie prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka oprocentowania w kredyt banku pożyczki społecznościowe uk pozyczki chwilowki szczecin darmowy kredyt na sam dowod bez zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki pcc kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy abis pożyczki infolinia optima pożyczki zielona góra bocian pożyczki opinie skutki kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości szybkie pożyczki chwilówki kredyty przez internet bez bik i krd wzór na obliczenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bez krd kredyt bankowy jest stosunkiem ekonomicznym w jakim banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt forta pożyczki łódź kredyty studenckie wbk kredyt bankowy na samochód wymagalność umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyty bez bik pruszków kredyt bank sa lublin ul zana 39a umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt bank wypowiada umowy na życie bankomaty kredyt bank łeba kredyty bez bik i bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet kredyt pozabankowy na weksel pożyczki bez bik i krd legnica kredyt samochodowy santander kalkulator allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt w banku bph forum pożyczki dla osób bez dochodów pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej pożyczki chwilówki bielsk podlaski pożyczki łódź chwilówki kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 umowa pożyczki żyrant kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl oddziały kredyt banku w białymstoku szybki kredyt sms bez bik kredyty bankowe sciaga pożyczki gotówkowe zielona góra pozyczki od reki gdynia kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu najnowsze pożyczki bez bik kredyt w db bank opinie kredyty chwilówki puławska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania odsetki od pożyczki nkup pożyczka kielce online kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości kredyt w getin bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wniosek ewidencja wpłat pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki dla pracowników księgowanie kredyt bank kolo kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka bedzin kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bank opłaty za konto pożyczki bez bik rybnik kredyt niemcy forum pożyczki na dowód w pko kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę abis pożyczki bocian pożyczki żary kredyt bez bik i zaświadczenia o zarobkach pożyczki bez bik 0 kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski pożyczki koszalin polskie pozyczki opinie bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik i big pożyczki unijne dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie ofert kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator 2012 raty pożyczki przedawnienie pożyczki dla pracowników kredyty bez bik radom kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik ekspresowe pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank kupon 5 pożyczki do domu warszawa pozyczki od ręki mława kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka opinie windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyty chwilówki tychy windykacja kredyt bank trojmiasto pożyczki bez bik rawicz kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław kredyty bez bik od zaraz alior bank kredyt na auto kredyt w paribas bank opinie umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki pod zastaw swarzędz kredyt bank zamykanie konta pożyczki dla firm kraków ranking banków w polsce kredyt pożyczki pod weksel lubin pożyczki kościan kredyt bank bankomat euronet pozyczki bez bik do 25000 umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej kredyt bez bik piaseczno pożyczki prywatne zielona góra szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo pożyczki poznań kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym kredyt przez internet bez biku potrzebuję pożyczki wrocław pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych udzielać pożyczki kredyt bank grajewo pożyczki bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy kredyty konsolidacyjne najtańsze kredyt bank mikołów godziny otwarcia pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank biskupiec kredyt bank placówki partnerskie kredyt bank katowice godziny otwarcia ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik zory windykacja pożyczki cena pożyczki udzielę pożyczki pod weksel koscian getin bank kredyt na pit oprocentowanie kredyt na dowód w getin banku kredyty pożyczki i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyt bank przez internet prodomo pożyczki starogard oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbank kredyt bank transfery kredyt bank w dąbrowie górniczej pożyczki w ramach regionalnych funduszy pożyczkowych ile kosztuje kredyt w banku umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy kredyt bank powstancow slaskich warszawa pożyczki jarosław pożyczki trzebiatów tablica 30 tysiecy pozyczki dla zadluzonych w poznaniu pożyczki prywatne żory pożyczki dla podmiotów ekonomii społecznej kredyty chwilówki rozmowa kwalifikacyjna umowa pożyczki historia umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór kredyt w banku z bikiem kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing bocian pożyczki druga pożyczka pożyczki w banku ing pożyczki busko zdrój kredyt samochodowy ranking 2014 kredyt gotówkowy eurobank opinie infolinia pożyczki pro domo kredyt bank pko sa kalkulator pożyczki bez bik tczew pożyczki prywatne giełda pożyczki umk udzielę pożyczki prywatnej poznań kredyt bank włocławek kalkulator kredytowy konsolidacyjny alior bank pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego kredyty chwilówki siedlce euromedia pożyczki bocian pożyczki warunki kredyty chwilówki windykacja kredyt bank oława kontakt kredyt bank oleśnica kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk pozyczki do domu świdnica kredyt w uk na rok kredyty chwilowki slupsk ambulans pożyczki kredyt na samochód w credit agricole kredyt bez bik swidnica kredyt bez biku olsztyn kredyty chwilówki giszowiec kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska kredyt samochodowy w banku bph kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana kredytobiorcy pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz alior bank kredyt symulacja pożyczki namysłów kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk kredyt bocian glogow symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing pożyczka przez internet pozabankowa bełchatów kredyt bank warszawa białołęka pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne wrocław pożyczki bez bik oświęcim pożyczki w banku pocztowym szybkie pożyczki gdańsk kod na kredyt 1 zł w orange kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki pożyczki na świeta kredyt na dowod w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik i krd czestochowa pożyczki pozabankowe w gorzowie wlkp atiz pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world kredyt samochodowy ranking kalkulator fundusz inwestycyjny pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty 2013 kredyt bank zmiana danych kredyt bank karta concerto pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik kredyt novum bez bik kredyt studencki pekao sa wniosek kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pko umowa pożyczki od kolegi kredyt konsolidacyjny w lukas banku sprawdzone kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe kredyt bank certyfikaty inwestycyjne bocian pożyczki nakło nad notecią kredyt bank iphone udzielać pożyczki english kredyty chwilówki miechów umowa pożyczki z podmiotem zagranicznym

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad