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bankowy jako żródło finansowania w jakim banku kredyt na dowód kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów pozabankowa pozyczka bez bik 20000 pozyczka lubsko bez bik kredyty chwilówki logo pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dochodach pożyczki chwilówki dla firm optima pożyczki grudziądz pożyczki dla zadłużonych w erif kredyt bank międzychód kredyty bankowe ksiegowanie kredyt bank w kutnie kredyt bank pelplin kredyty mieszkaniowe białystok oprocentowania w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości odsetki od pożyczki koszty finansowe pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy optima pożyczki oddziały pozyczki dla zadluzonych boleslawiec kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów bez prowizji pożyczki na dowód bez dochodu kredyt studencki banki oblicz rate kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyt bank łódź ul zgierska pożyczki transfer pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw pożyczki od gangsterów kredyt bank zawiercie godziny otwarcia bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank kraków szuwarowa godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy fiat bank prestiż pożyczki 24 h pożyczki telefon pożyczki pozabankowe starogard gdański kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt studencki bzwbk 2012 który bank udziela kredytu bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia kredyt bank kraków wielicka umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek kredyt bez konta w banku kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i krd umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki skutki podatkowe gross pożyczki opinie kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła ii pożyczki do domu gdańsk nobilon pożyczki opinie godziny przelewow w kredyt banku kredyt bank chojnice kościuszki kredyt bank białobrzegi kontakt najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 kredyt bank ike pelikan pożyczki pożyczki bez bik w ełku kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin kredyt bank w tychach kredyt w bank zachodni wbk opinie kredyt bank zablokowana karta departament windykacji mala pozyczka pożyczki prywatne pod weksel rzeszów pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków pożyczki bez bik gryfice pożyczki katowice 3 maja dobry kredyt pozabankowy kredyty chwilówki kadry ranking kredytów w bankach alior bank kredyt obrotowy dla firm kredyt studencki pekao forum kredyt bez bik złotów jak wziasc kredyt do 25000 pożyczki tylko na dowód przez internet kredyty bez bik w rzeszowie pożyczki bezzwrotne kredyt eurobank opinie kredyty chwilówki międzyrzec podlaski kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w kłodzku ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 pcc od pożyczki płaci tanie pożyczki przez internet udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec kredyt bez bik i krd poznan pożyczki pomarańcza w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na firmę pozyczki na oswiadczenia jak dzialja kredyt dla pracujących za granica forum zarobki kredyt bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 pożyczki access udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich pożyczki chwilówki online nowe kredyty bez biku bytom pożyczki dla dzieci bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia bankomaty kredyt banku w pile pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt bank zlecenie stałe kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie bocian pożyczki tczew kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska kredyt studencki pko poręczyciel pożyczki bez biku od zaraz kredyt bez bik na dowód pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyty dla firm bez bik pozyczki net zdunska wola pożyczki gold klasyfikacja pożyczki bank pko sa kredyt na samochód pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa provident wysokość pożyczki pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres pożyczki bez biku w poznaniu pozyczki poza bankowe typu provident optima pożyczki dla domu pożyczki od 19 lat kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole kredyt bank olsztyn aura pożyczki bez bik bełchatów kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2014 pożyczki prywatne opodatkowanie kredyt bez bik i dla zadłużonych pożyczki najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne pod nieruchomość pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn kredyty chwilówki warszawa kredyt samochodowy oferty banków który bank udziela kredytów bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka kredyt bank godziny księgowania kredyty chwilówki bez bik online kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki bez bik rzeszów pożyczki dla osób z niskimi dochodami bilansowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego własny kąt forum kredyt prostoliczony śmierć kredyt w euro które banki pożyczki bez bik ełk pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty pożyczki w 15 minut na konto pożyczki chwilówki płońsk kredyt bank euribor pożyczki bez bik kutno kredyt bank węgorzewo kredyt konsolidacyjny do 15 lat pożyczki dla zadłużonych toruń pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka kredyty gotówkowe bez bik dla firm kredyt dla firm bez bik kraków kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn kredyt bez bik rybnik kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych poznań kredyt w pko bp kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing kredyt konsolidacyjny invest bank pożyczka pod zastaw kielce bank pko bp kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank pisz pożyczki pod zastaw inowrocław bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw tarnobrzeg kredyt bank 24 kredyty santander consumer bank kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne pabianice kredyty mieszkaniowe z 1992 roku wyszków pożyczki bez bik big krd prado pożyczki katowice kredyt bank plac zbawiciela telefon kredyty w uk po polsku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank adres główny umowa pożyczki stawka 20 idea bank kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie kredyt bank pruszcz gdański pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża pozyczki z komornikiem boleslawiec kredyt bank białołęka bez bik bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie pożyczki żnin kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyty chwilówki poznań wichrowe wzgórze szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108 warszawa pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej jaworzno pożyczki pozabankowe bochnia ile można potrącić pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt w jakim banku najtaniej wrocław pożyczki prywatne arleg pożyczki pożyczki chrzanów umorzenie pożyczki w walucie obcej jak obliczyć nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pdf jak dostac pozyczke w atiz kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty kredyt bank piaseczno tel pożyczki w żagiel odsetki od pożyczki przykład potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt samochodowy dla emerytów kredyt chwilówka windykacja kredyt bank połczyn zdrój kredyt bank kielce praca umowa pożyczki z bratem bezzwrotne pożyczki z up kredyt w bank bph opinie pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski kto udziela pozyczek bez bik ubezpieczenie kredytu w aig bank finan pożyczki opinie pożyczki gotówkowe dla nowych firm kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wałbrzych kredyty mieszkaniowe pułapki pożyczki bez bik 24 kredyt samochodowy mbank oprocentowanie pożyczki na oświadczenia pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódzkie kredyt z banku ochrony środowiska pożyczki z pfron 2013 kredyt w banku bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki podporządkowane kredyt w banku na dowod szybkie pożyczki bez bik aig kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu pożyczki vivus kredyt bank żary kontakt pożyczki chwilówki mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki unijne na rozwój firmy kredyt w banku brodnickim kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik umowa spłaty pożyczki wzór pożyczki na dowód rybnik pożyczki pod weksel kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank konto firmowe umowa pożyczki od rodziny wzór kredyty bez bik małopolska pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik banki udzielające kredytów bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż opinie kredyt na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik w którym banku wziąć kredyt na budowę domu kredyty bez bik brodnica pko kredyt konsolidacyjny forum actum pożyczki kredyty chwilówki porównanie kredyt bank depozyt kredyt pozabankowy bez bik krd kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia pożyczki warp kredyty konsumpcyjne w działalności banku bank pko bp kredyt odnawialny zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny zdunska wola kredyt bankowy po angielsku kredyt studencki pko wzór umowy szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet przewalutowanie kredytu w banku millennium bocian pożyczki zarobki kredyt studencki w pko bp sa pożyczki z budżetu jst kredyt konsolidacyjny wyjaśnienie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt w banku komercyjnym praca licencjacka meritum bank kredyt online opinie pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw samochodu tempo finanse pożyczki opinie kredyt hipoteczny dla rolników bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik dąbrowa górnicza kredyt mieszkaniowy wbk forum pożyczki na dowód w bydgoszczy pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości częstochowa getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt studencki pko bp 2012 kredyt obrotowy w idea bank opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla bez wkładu kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem dochodowym szybki kredyt pozabankowy bez bik odsetki od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie pożyczki umowa transze w kredyt banku kredyt orange jaki kod kredyt bank lokaty z bonusem pożyczki ing prywatne kredyty hipoteczne lodz kredyt gotówkowy w millenium bank pożyczki gold alior bank kredyt dla rolników kredyty bez bik stargard szybkie pożyczki 24h pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych kredyt w orange yes pod jaki numer kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa szybkie pożyczki w olsztynie w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyty chwilówki jaki procent kredyty preferencyjne dla rolników banki kredyt bank olsztyn getin bank kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki chwilówki sosnowiec pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej kredyt bank import przelewów mikropożyczki kraków providus ostrow pozyczki zabezpieczenie pożyczki wekslem in blanco umowa pożyczki z ratami numer telefonukredyt chwiluwka w słupsk kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kalkulator pożyczki kredyty na dowód pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt bank bławatna gdynia zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi pcc od pożyczki od rodziny kredyty chwilówki bez bik przez internet pożyczki od osób prywatnych na weksel pożyczki milicz kredyt bank biuro prasowe kredyt bank bok kredyt w uk na dom umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel kredyt bank plac solny wrocław godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki gotówkowe forum pcc od pożyczki od firmy udzielenie pożyczki przez gminę kredyt bank jest bankiem kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredyt bank warszawa powstańców kredyty bez bik na działalność gospodarczą getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank poznań morawskiego dyskontowanie pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad