pożyczki na dowód zawiercie firma optima pożyczki kredyt unijny idea bank opinie kredyt bank gocław umowa pożyczki z rodzicem księgowanie przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt gotówkowy bez bik iz komornikiem kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki dla windykowanych kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2012 pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku oprocentowany umowa pożyczki pisemna pelikan pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe wawa kredyt udzielany według prawa bankowego kredyt bank zambrów kontakt kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie kredyt bank w starachowicach kredyt bank bz wbk santander pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki szybkie pożyczki chwilówki online wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyty chwilówki kraków kalwaryjska pozyczka od reki na dowod plock kredyt bank długie ogrody kredyt do 15000 bez bik multika zywiec kredyty bez bik kredyt w skok stefczyka forum optima pożyczki toruń kredyt samochodowy dla rencisty kredyty chwilówki chojnice kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont domu skarabeusz pożyczki olkusz kredyt bank w aleksandrowie kujawskim pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce w którym banku najłatwiej o kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki września wzór umowy spłaty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkladu wlasnego kredyt bank w mielcu kredyt bank pruszcz gdański kredyt bank kepno pożyczki jessica pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem szukam pożyczki prywatnej 2012 pożyczki dla mundurowych kruk pozyczki dla zadluzonych pożyczki bez weryfikacji wniosku pożyczki z dofinansowaniem kredyty bez bik legionowo podatek od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty bankowe ksiazka pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror bocian pożyczki gotówkowe poznań umowa pożyczki finansowej nowe szybkie pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki pod warunkiem kredyt bank lukow telefon kredyty chwilówki we wrześni kredyt studencki banki pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka kredyt bank lokaty finan pożyczki kalisz potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie umowa pożyczki chwilówki wzór kredyt bank w białobrzegach kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank skarabeusz pożyczki kościan pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw pożyczki chwilówki w pile konsekwencje podatkowe pożyczki jak uzyskac kredyt bez biku pożyczki osobiste kontrakt pożyczki w prawie rzymskim pożyczki pod zastaw mosina kredyt przez internet na mieszkanie pożyczki z unii europejskiej umowa pożyczki zawarta pod warunkiem kredyty chwilówki opolskie kredyty chwilowki gdansk kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator euro kredyt konsolidacyjny chwilówka kredyt bank mediamikser kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik szybki bank pocztowy kredyt online kredyty samochodowe ing pożyczki dla start up prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia banki kredyty gotówkowe ranking skarabeusz pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank ełk ul słowackiego umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi pożyczki notarialne kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja kredyt bank giełda notowania kredyty bez bik oferty kredyt bez bik poznań pożyczki gotówkowe credit agricole kredyty kielce pożyczki do domu łódź optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt kredyt bank inowrocław pożyczka pod weksel prywatna w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na dom umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża pożyczki pozabankowe gniezno pozyczki pod weksel olkusz kredyt bank zielona góra al niepodległości pożyczka na dowód przez pocztę szybki kredyt bez bik online konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki firma udzielająca pożyczki preferencyjny kredyt studencki banki kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa kredyt bank w janowie lubelskim kredyt bank żagiel nr tel neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych kredyt bank polski pożyczki i kredyty pozabankowe kredyt bank lwowska kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt w orange yes pod jaki numer pozyczki pozabankowe bez bik w powiecie kutnowskim kredyt bez biku lodz kredyt bank w starachowicach kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia pozyczka na wysoki procent na dowod nowy sacz pożyczki wewnątrzkorporacyjne w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki chwilówki umowa parabank kredyt kredyt bank rejtana rzeszów kredyty chwilówki bitwy warszawskiej oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online kredyt bank sa lublin zana 39a jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca czy mozna umorzyc kredyt w banku kalkulator procentowy pożyczki kredyt bank liczba klientów kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zamość pozyczka na dowodd bez zaświadczeń kamien kredyty bez bik big udzielone pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie kredyt bank przelewy online oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe pożyczki gotówkowe z obsługą w domu kredyt bank kraków królewska godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód przez internet pożyczki bank bgż umowa pożyczki między firmami kredyt bez bik lublin pożyczka prometeusz pożyczki kielce korzyści z pożyczki pożyczki prometeusz wrocław pożyczki bez bik będzin kredyt bank karta do bankomatu kredyty chwilówki oświęcim kredyty chwilówki inwestor opinie kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt w eurobank opinie pożyczki gotówkowe uk pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki 15 tys kredyt chwilówka 15 minut bocian pożyczki jaworzno kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny wysoka prezyznawalnośc pozyczek konsolidacyjnych szybkie mikropożyczki wymagalność odsetek od pożyczki w jakim banku wziac kredyt odsetki od pożyczki partycypacyjnej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę osobie fizycznej umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank placówki kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń kredyt chwilówka kutno umowy pożyczki podatek pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie tanie kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium bank opinie kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki pozabankowa kredyt bank likwidacja karty kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bank wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum pozyczki prywatne gros pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe na 30 lat kredyt bank augustów kontakt oświadczenie o wypowiedzeniu umowy pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe ciechanów kredyt konsolidacyjny w londynie kredyt konsolidacyjny rio pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank sa windykacja pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław kredyt gotówkowy skok chmielewskiego kredyt bank działdowo kredyty chwilówki śląsk kredyt bank gold profit kredyt bank w rawiczu kredyt bank chrzanów tel kredyt bank iban swift kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gorzów godziny graniczne w kredyt banku kredyt bank mickiewicza 50 kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyt bank włoclawek bank bph kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt gotówkowy w ing banku śląskim kredyt konsolidacyjny na oswiadczenie przyznawalność kredytów w credit agricole kredyt bank łódz piotrkowska umowa pożyczki a zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego kredyt bank pl powstańców warszawy kredyt bank warszawa bankomaty czas oczekiwania na kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki pozabankowe gorlice kredyt bank dane adresowe pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 forum kasy stefczyka czy warto wziasc kredyt konsolidacyjny charakter prawny umowy pożyczki bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu pożyczki bez biku śląsk umowa pożyczki doc neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych oprocentowanie kredytu fm bank kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska kredyt bank notowania akcji dobra pożyczka mazowieckie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku millennium forum kredyt bank kredyty konsolidacyjne wyrok umowa pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa targowa kredyt w kredyt banku forum kredyt bank raty infolinia bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku kredyt bank wypowiedział ubezpieczenie na życie kredyt na dowód w domu klijeta w łodzi bocian pożyczki mława pożyczki w domu klienta piła darmowe pożyczki przez internet pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek kredyty chwilówki inwestycje opinie kredyty przez internet bez biku pożyczka z żyrantem cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyt bank wroclaw legnicka kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank sprzedaż nieruchomości kredyt bank w bochni pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin kredyt na alimety bez big bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm skarbiec pożyczki infolinia pożyczki chwilówki w ciechanowie pożyczki na dowód kościerzyna kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna kredyt dodatkowy w getin banku kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont kredyt bank piłsudskiego siedlce pozyczki na procent warszawa universum pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wonga pożyczka w kredyt banku opinie pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg kredyt studencki pko oprocentowanie pozyczki na raty pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz szybki kredyt w jakim banku kredyt bank kartuzy kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 bank pko sa kalkulator kredytowy pozyczka od reki bez biku pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank kredyt bank kb pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd pozyczki z komornikiem z dostawa do domu kredyty pozabankowe praca pożyczki bez bik nowogard pożyczki sl kredyt bank warszawa krs kredyty chwilówki parabank gdzie wziac kredyt kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie kredyt chwilówka sosnowiec kredyt bank warszawa marszałkowska umowa pożyczki przedawnienie roszczeń oprocentowanie kredytów w fm banku kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty kredyt bank białobrzegi godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a podatek kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wejherowo kredyty bez bik i krd łódź kredyt bank notowania umorzenie pożyczki dla udziałowca pożyczki typu mezzanine kredyt samochodowy santander opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy nowość pożyczki do domu pożyczki w domu poznań kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd w którym banku najłatwiej o kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank lokaty kwiecień 2012 skarabeusz pożyczki wniosek kredyt bankowy a utrata pracy kredyt studencki spłata forum dyskusyjne praca w bocian pożyczki forum pożyczki pod nieruchomości pożyczki na własny biznes pożyczki prywatne toruń pożyczki prywatnej udzielę pożyczka 20000 w lesznie bez bik kredyt bank w olsztynku kredyt na konto w 15 minut bez bik krd na dowód pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń przez internet pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kraków pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank pso kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim ktory bank da kredyt bez bik pożyczki od wspólników a pcc prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód mariusz tierling pożyczki kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia termin przedawnienia zwrotu pożyczki umowa pożyczki gotówki podatek szybkie pożyczki toruń pożyczki wolne od podatku kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank zawiercie kontakt kredyty bez bik i krd rybnik pożyczki w cieszynie kredyt bank ostrów wielkopolski kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków umowa pożyczki loan agreement prywatne pożyczki lubań pozyczki z obsluga w domu kredyt bank raty nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe tarnowskie góry kredyt bank w lubartowie kredyt bank rybnik wolności pożyczki provident kontakt najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank leszno telefon kredyt bank zawiercie telefon przedawnienie pożyczki w skok kredyt bank łódz piotrkowska kredyty w banku pocztowym forum udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat pożyczki na dowód w skoku pożyczki pozabankowe rumia banki pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa pożyczki przez internet bez biku i krd umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs emerytowi pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd pożyczki śląskie kredyt bankowy istota pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz opinie kredyt bank winogrady bocian pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank bialystok zwyciestwa koszty pożyczki bankowej bankomaty kredyt banku kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli kredyt bank nowa huta ewidencja wpłat pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank lomza kredyt bank ranking kredyt bank oddział warszawa centrum kredyt studencki pko poręczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku forum kredyty bez bik kraków pożyczki społecznościowe poznań kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski wzór potwierdzenia zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki prodomo kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 kredyt bank iii oddział poznań pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe zfśs kredyt bank centrala lublin kontakt nowe pozyczki kredyty chwilówki opinie windykacja natychmiastowe pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank abrahama kredyt bank mokotów kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kredyt bank węgry charakter prawny umowy pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2011 kredyt bank wałbrzych ul słowackiego pożyczki kwota wolna pożyczki kruk istota kredytu pożyczki bez bik i krd wałbrzych pożyczki pod zastaw forum pożyczki chwilówki dla każdego kredyt samochodowy dla firm mbank odsetki od pożyczki angielski kredyt bank tarnów lwowska telefon kredyt na start w idea banku opinie umowa pożyczki forum kredyt bank w rumi kredyt bank w sieradzu bank światowy pożyczki dla polski odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty kredyt bank grunwaldzka gdańsk roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt studencki pko kalkulator jaki kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki pozabankowe dla bezrobotnych pożyczki prywatne olkusz umowa pożyczki treść forum dobrej pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez biku dwie pożyczki w provident druk udzielenia pożyczki idea bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyty pozabankowe marka jak dostac kredyt bez biku pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody z zagranicy szybkie kredyty przez internet kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska nowy bytom pożyczki w planie kont nowe pozyczki odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo pożyczki prywatne nowa sól numer finan pozyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kalkulator my banq pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości kredyt bank krakow oddzialy pożyczki dla zadłużonych bytom kredyt bank w rybniku kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank forum kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt bank centrala lublin kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe dla emigrantów kredyt w uk forum kredyt bank sa warszawa kasprzaka pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo bez bik pożyczki bez podatku pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie banków kredyt bank gdańsk pożyczki skok wesoła kredyt bank rzeszow godziny otwarcia kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik opłaty manipulacyjne kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki chwilówki bez bik włocławek pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości filia w koszalinie ranking kredytów banków bocian pożyczki lubań kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej doradcy24 pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik warszawa partner pozyczki naklo nad notecia

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad