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bilansie oddziały kredyt banku białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny długoterminowy pszczółka pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulatory kredyt konsolidacyjny gminy kredyt bank gdansk kolobrzeska pożyczki bez bik łódz potrzebuję pożyczki 2014 ekspert pożyczki w jakim banku wziąć kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt studencki bank bz wbk pożyczki regita kredyt studencki forum 2013 pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez prowizji pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg gdzie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik szukam osoby do wziecia kredytu ostrow wlkp kredyt bank merger kredyt bankowy pojęcie umowa pożyczki pcc wzór szybkie pożyczki chorzów pożyczki odnawialne advice financial pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt bank 1500 pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bez bik optima pożyczki umowa cywilno prawna uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe forum pt wygodne pożyczki opinie szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie mikropożyczki opole zwrot pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank zwrot za paliwo kredyt bank w radlinie szybkie pożyczki bez bik opinie bank pekao sa kredyt opinie kredyt odnawialny w banku pekao sa wzór na oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyty w pko opinie kredyt bez bik częstochowa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w bik umowa pożyczki przez udziałowca bocian pożyczki zawiercie umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank leasing kredyty chwilówki legionowo pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt pożyczki bez bik lubelskie spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bank siedlce kontakt kredyt bank problem z logowaniem kredyt bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank konsolidacja kredyt bank warszawa wilanów kredyt bank krakowskie lublin pożyczki prywatne olsztyn odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup kredyt samochodowy w getin banku kredyt bank w slupsku pożyczki bez sprawdzania w krd udziele prywatnej pozyczki swidnica pożyczki chwilówki 5000 umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych pokwitowanie odbioru spłaty pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy eurobank reklama ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt telefo umowa pożyczki w ratach pożyczki całkowicie prywatne reklamacja pożyczki kredyt bez bik 200 tys pożyczki koszalin szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo opodatkowanie pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki na dowód toruń pożyczki bez bik elbląg kredyt bank sa lokaty pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód pożyczki gotówkowe dla studentów pożyczki na pit zielona góra kredyt bank iii oddział gdańsk natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki z zfśs kredyty chwilówki poznań praca bocian pożyczki pasłęk ubezpieczenie kredytu w fm banku kredyty chwilówki racibórz kredyt bank białobrzegi kontakt kredyty przez internet bez bik wycena udzielonej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank bierz co chcesz mikropożyczki mazowieckie kredyty chwilówki piekary śląskie kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik sieradz pożyczka 15000 podatek od pożyczki pieniędzy umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową kredyt bank paypal ekspert pożyczki kredyty bez bik w kielcach pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi jak wziąć kredyt w banku kod orange na pozyczenie pieniedzy na konto pożyczki dla zadłużonych gorzów wlkp pożyczki nakło nad notecią szybkie pożyczki bez bik szczecin kredyt bank jana pawła warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 kredyt bank sa inowrocław kredyt bank puławska 303 w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt kredyt bank polkowice praca kredyt chwilówka ranking pożyczki bez bik trójmiasto kredyt mieszkaniowy kielce pożyczki bez zaświadczeń rzeszów bank pko sa kredyt na samochód kredyt bank lodz kosciuszki pożyczki społecznościowe z komornikiem kredyt bank zmiana danych kredyty bez biku toruń kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych rynek kredyt samochodowy na firme forum kredyt bank rumia janowo prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku waloryzacja kwoty pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na konto kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator credit agricole kredyt bank lubin kontakt pożyczki bez bik bielsko pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie kredyty chwilówki włocławek pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc kredyt chwilówki kalkulator prywatne pożyczki w gdańsku wzór pokwitowania zwrotu pożyczki pieniężnej umowa pożyczki komputera pożyczki bez bik amber gold kredyty chwilówki nobiles najtańszy kredyt samochodowy ranking gwarant pożyczki chwilówki kredyt samochodowy w santander consumer alior bank kredyt na oświadczenie czestochowa pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna czy chwilówki dają pożyczki dla bezrobotnym żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe kasa branickiego pożyczki czy pożyczki w skoku są ubezpieczone kredyt bank katowice uniwersytecka godziny otwarcia pcc od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt bank sa kariera pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow jaki podatek od pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank oddział w zamościu pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny bocian pożyczki szczecinek kredyt bank łaczy sie spłata kredytu studenckiego pko kredyt na orange jaki numer kredyty bez bik włocławek pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw kredyt bank rawicz telefon kredyt bank żywiec godziny pracy pożyczki bez przelewu niespłacenie pożyczki w providencie kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta forma prawna pożyczki pozyczki prywatne na weksel pożyczki pieniężne umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli wałbrzych jaki procent kredytu w vivus kredyt bank sa żyrardów kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyty bez bik gorzow umorzenie pożyczki w walucie obcej bocian pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyty chwilowki blachnickiego pożyczki bocian wałcz umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki gąbin kredyt w banku santander kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko dyplom kredyt bank kraków ul wielicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank krolewska krakow prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu nobilon pożyczki gdansk pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice kredyt bank ul żytnia pożyczki wałcz kredyt bez bik do 50 tys umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyty chwilówki kutno pożyczki amber gold opinie kredyt przez internet bez biku i krd kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2013 kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków kredyt bank marki kontakt kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy pozyczki na dowod dzierzoniow pożyczki gdańsk kredyty bez bik dla emerytów umowa pożyczki gofin umowa pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank polan poznań szybkie pożyczki od 19 lat gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt bez bik wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie kredyt w rachunku bieżącym bank spółdzielczy pożyczki pozabankowe na już najtańsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank wniosek kredytowy wzór do ewidencja spłat pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez biku radlin kredyt bez bik myszkow kredyt bank darmowe bankomaty kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie kredyt bank sa legnica kredyt bank giełda pożyczki w 15 min bez bik pożyczka dla zadłużonych z komornikiem w koszalinie kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kredyt online eurobank opinie kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa kredyt z idea bank opinie kredyty chwilówki tychy dmowskiego szybka pozyczka w uk bez formalnosci do 2000f w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt open finance pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bocian wągrowiec kredyty chwilówki piła kredyt bank sa w warszawie oddział w lublinie pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat promesa pożyczki wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki uzyskania kredyt w banku żagiel kredyt samochodowy dla firm porównanie kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku forum kredyt bank lokata negocjowana koszt przelewu z karty kredytowej pko bp pożyczki w domu zawiercie pożyczki bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt bank obotrycka pożyczki społecznościowe szczecin kredyt bank białystok radzymińska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy ing forum kredyty nordea bank kredyt bank kupiony sezam pożyczki milicz kredyt studencki pko miesiące pożyczki gotówkowe dla młodych kredyt bank dług pożyczki na nowy biznes kredyt w alior banku forum pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt studencki forum szybkie pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz szukam szybkiej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny fm bank kredyty chwilówki skierniewice pożyczki gotówkowe rzeszów kredyt bank w zabrzu kredyt bank bolesławiec godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw opole kredyty pozabankowe bytom kredyty studenckie jakie banki kredyty bez bik kutno rozdzielność majątkowa a kredyt w banku wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej pożyczki na długi okres spłaty kredyty bez biku wloclawek kredyt bank filia w piasecznie kredyt mieszkaniowy w kasie stefczyka pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2013 kredyt w get in bank forum kredyt bez bik kielce firma optima pożyczki pożyczki agh kredyt konsolidacyjny co to takiego kredyt bez biku sanok pożyczki żabka cała polska kredyt bez biku bielsko biala umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny kredyty chwilówki siemianowice slaskie orange kod na kredyt kredyty bez bik kwidzyn szybkie pożyczki z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt konsolidacyjny karta kredytowa kredyt bank 6 5 kredyt na oświadczenie w banku pocztowym ei global pożyczki kredyty chwilówki praca warszawa kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa oddziały kredyt banku w białymstoku umowa pożyczki pkzp w jakim banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilowki lomza kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2012 umowa pożyczki wzór osoby fizyczne pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin kredyty chwilówki chrzanów praca pożyczki chwilówki piotrków trybunalski prodomo pożyczki starogard ustna umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony umorzenie pożyczki z zfron jak zaksięgować kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank pl powstańców warszawy kredyt bank liczba akcji kredyty bez bik w tczewie kredyt bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank strzelce opolskie kontakt kredyt bank biskupiec kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt gotowkowy w getin banku opinie pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa pozyczki bez bik ktore mozna wyplacic na poczcie kredyt termomodernizacyjny banki kredyty bez bik wroclaw pożyczki dla firm pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank międzyzdroje godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner kredyt w banku bz wbk kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kalkulator pożyczki bez bik zachodniopomorskie optima pożyczki praca opinie kredyt bez bik big krd komornik gwarant pożyczki opinie umorzenie pożyczki w księgach kredyt bank niedziela kredyt bank warszawa powstańców kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator postea pożyczki pożyczki bez bik jarosław pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych warszawa kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyty bez bik prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczki na oświadczenie ogłoszenia kredyt bank warszawa chełmska godziny otwarcia jaki numer na kredyt orange kredyt bank w częstochowie spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp na jakie konto kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota pko kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank opole kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja udzielenie pożyczki akcjonariuszowi kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkładu własnego pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice kredyt bank warszawa rondo onz kredyt za kredyt w getin banku pod jaki numer się bierze kredyt orange finan pożyczki kłodzko skarabeusz pożyczki wielkopolska kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie kredyty chwilówki wieluń adresy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez nieruchomości otwock pozyczki chwilowki kredyty chwilówki warszawa grójecka godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach bank pko kredyt kalkulator pożyczki bez bik w czestochowie w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej odsetki od pożyczki kurs kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki w uk okam pożyczki kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dochodach kredyt bank międzyrzecz pożyczki skok wesoła bocian pożyczki bolesławiec optima pożyczki do domu forum pozyczka bez bik wabrzezno kredyt bank placowki katowice kredyt bankowy pdf kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel kredyt bank w warszawa kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank praktyki opinie swift adres kredyt bank koszalin pilsudskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy ponad 100 pożyczki dla firm z unii kredyt konsolidacyjny online pożyczki chwilówki przemyśl pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyty bez biku toruń pożyczki społecznościowe opinie kredyt bank placówki partnerskie kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny gdańsk pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych rawicz profit pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik na telefon kredyt bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach forum pożyczki aasa easy cash pożyczki opinie kredyty bez bik slupsk umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki bez bik do domu umowa pożyczki bez odsetek warunki kredytu w eurobanku w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez bik kredyt bank brodno kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty objawy pożyczki wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki na czas określony kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta kredyt bank chrobrego kredyt w banku millenium opinie kredyty chwilowki zywiec kredyt dla firm bez bik kredyt bank zabrze kontakt kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników poczty chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie pożyczki feniks kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa bocian pożyczki inowrocław kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bikiem kredyty chwilówki złodzieje pożyczki porównanie pożyczki bez weryfikacji wniosku oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego szczecin kredyty bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt orange 2zl optima pozyczki kredyty grudziadz kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet umowa pożyczki prywatnej firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank warszawa śliska pożyczki typu incredi pożyczki bez bik 2000 zł getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny boś

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad