pożyczki skok piast bip pożyczki forum kredyt z idea banku opinie wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki kredyt bank racibórz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia pożyczki przez internet getin bank pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk pożyczki dla nowych przedsiębiorców mbank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową kredyt w getin banku bez bik kredyt samochodowy dla młodych kredyt bez bik i krd katowice tukan pożyczki podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia kredyt bank płock pożyczki dla firm śląsk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet kredyt bank płock kontakt kredyt bank grajewo kredyt bank puławy godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki chrzanów praca bank spółdzielczy oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki czechowice odsetki od pożyczki pkwiu kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń axcess pozyczki pomorskie pożyczki chwilówki łask pożyczki nordea skarbiec pożyczki infolinia szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki pozabankowe nysa kredyt bank wschowa umowa pożyczki jakie opłaty szybkie pożyczki w olsztynie kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking kredyt bank warszawa książkowa odzyskanie pożyczki bez umowy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli forum pożyczki społecznościowe ryzyko pożyczki decyzja online pożyczki ultimo pożyczki prywatne oferty 2013 pożyczka pozabankowa kredyty chwilówki skoczów pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie kredyty mieszkaniowe raport pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki w vivus forum udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie kredyty chwilówki wolbrom pozyczka bez bik wabrzezno getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe umowa pożyczki mezzanine pożyczki koło umowa pożyczki cesja kredyty bez biki krd kredyt bankowy ppt getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt bank nr kontaktowy kredyt mieszkaniowy mbank kalkulator bankomaty kredyt banku w kielcach kredyt bank warszawa radość pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki pożyczki gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu bez bik kredyt w pko bp forum kredyty chwilówki gorlice kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku forum umowa pożyczki matka córka kredyty chwilówki 2000 kredyt bank lublin windykacja pozyczka od zaraz na dowit w poznaniu kredyty chwilówki dyrektor kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace korzyści pożyczki kredyt bank lublin zana 38 kredyt w banku dla studenta tanie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe oświęcim pożyczki gryfino odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 udzielanie pożyczki pożyczki bez biku lublin kredyt banku infolinia szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik czy chwilówki dają pożyczki dla bezrobotnym kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka pozyczki pozabankowe infolinia termin przedawnienia spłaty pożyczki rejestracja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy podczas rozwodu kredyt bank węgry zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki mikropożyczki lubuskie pożyczki dla ludzi bez pracy pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta kredyt bank jarosław kredyt bankowy wiem oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt samochodowy lukas bank pożyczki pracownicze oprocentowanie jak wziasc kredyt do domu klienta na dowód lokata jesienna w kredyt banku pożyczki optima bydgoszcz szybkie mikropożyczki kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń pozyczki w lodzim z dojazdem do klienta pożyczki finansowe pożyczki nieopodatkowane kredyt bank giełdowa kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie 2013 kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c pożyczki preferencyjne małopolska kredyt bank ken warszawa na czym polega kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole pożyczki na dowód w lesznie pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa kredyt w boś banku opinie kredyt bank santander kredyt bank opłata za listę haseł pożyczki chwilówki buk kredyt bank czestochowa al nmp kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie bilans pożyczki udzielone pożyczki dla zadłużonych radom kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank bank pko bp kredyt firmowy kredyty samochodowe alior bank optima pożyczki reklama szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie mariusz patrowicz pożyczki kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys księgowanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank dewizy kredyt bank kondycja finansowa kredyt bank 10 prywatne pożyczki gorzów wlkp edir pożyczki optima pożyczki kutno pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe alior bank kredyt na mieszkanie odsetki ustawowe umowa pożyczki ing bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt studencki zmiana banku kredyt bank ostroleka godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe bartoszyce pożyczki bez bik przasnysz kredyt bank liczba oddziałów umowa pożyczki vat kredyt studencki mbank kredyt na start w idea banku forum księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej szybkie pożyczki przez internet w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy kredyt bez biku lubin kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie pożyczki polskie pożyczki rodzaje kredyty bez bik i krd slask kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek online umowa pożyczki na konto kredyt bank bez prowizji kredyt bank gdańśk ubezpieczenie spłaty pożyczki mbank katalog firm pożyczki niebankowe pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdańsk oświadczenie pożyczki wzór kredyt w banku a utrata pracy kredyt bez bik zgierz czy idea bank daje kredyt pod zastaw godziny przelewów w kredyt banku pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe prowidenta kredyty pozabankowe slupsk umowa pożyczki gotówkowej doc pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź alior bank kredyt gotówkowy na dowód kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2013 pożyczki dla firm poznań pożyczki ze złą historią w bik auti na kredyt bez bik pomorskie kredyt bez bik mława pożyczki dla bezrobotnych olsztyn pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum dobry bank belgia kredyt forum pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank lomianki kredyt bank pszczyna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa kredyt w banku eurobank kredyt bank warszawa chmielna kredyt bank szczecin wojska polskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking pozyczki kronos kredyt pozabankowy dla nowych firm getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki dla nauczycieli kredyt konsolidacyjny komornik kredyt pozabankowe online kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt chwilówka kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator 2014 kredyt bez biku przez internet bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw akcji jsw gdańsk pożyczki prywatne bocian pożyczki inowrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pko sa pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica kredyt bank dzierżoniów godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie kredyty bez bik łomża credit agricole pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki z kruka kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenie pozyczki i kredyty bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki wzór aktywny kredyt bank w białymstoku pożyczki gotówkowe w bankach pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych nowe pożyczki online pożyczki wejherowo kredyt bank luboń szybkie pożyczki bez bik ostrów wlkp kredyt bez biku zabrze szybkie pożyczki ełk kredyty chwilówki jak założyć kredyt chwilówka 15 minut w jakim banku brać kredyt umowa pożyczki dla roidziny umorzenie pożyczki zmarłemu pracownikowi kredyt on line pozabankowy pożyczki prywatne łowicz kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank lublin zana godziny otwarcia kredyt bank opłata za sms kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyty bez bik szczecin abis pożyczki dla każdego kredyty chwilowki zywiec potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie pro domo pożyczki kołobrzeg nr tel kredyty bez bik czestochowa w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt kredyt bez bik 25000 optima pożyczki września pożyczki do 1200 kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granicą kredyt bank wrocław gliniana godziny otwarcia potwierdzenie zawarcia umowy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik na 10 lat kredyt bank ostrów maz pożyczki bez krd szczecin internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe lokata swobodna umarzanie pozyczek w parabankach kredyt bank zamknięcie konta getin bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank łask w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki pleszew kredyty chwilówki szczecin opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści umowa pożyczki z członkiem zarządu wzór kredyt bank warszawa otwarty w sobotę kredyt bank warszawa grójecka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank konto studenckie pożyczki prywatne wyszków pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt w eurobanku na dowód idea bank kredyt online opinie pozyczki mikrokasa opinie pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najlepiej duże pożyczki bez bik pieniądze do domu pożyczki kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf chomikuj kredyt bank kurs akcji pożyczki żory pozyczki września kredyty chwilówki bielsko kredyt bank nr swift podatek od umowa pożyczki pożyczki golden kredyt bank sa białystok kredyty chwilówki otwock kredyty w niemieckim banku getin noble bank kredyty firmowe umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus i us kredyt bank platforma walutowa kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci kredyt bank toruń fosa kredyt odnawialny w eurobank prowident krakow pozyczk kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki w domu wągrowiec kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa pożyczki online bez bik pożyczki dla firm na start kredyt w banku od 18 lat kredyt bank w częstochowie pożyczka bez bik infomonitor kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych skarabeusz kalkulator pozyczek kredyt bank piekary śląskie kredyt bank wola warszawa jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank forum pracowników kredyt bank wyniki finansowe pożyczki na weksel śląskie kredyt bank konsolidacyjny brak zwrotu pożyczki przestępstwo pożyczki wg msr pożyczki bez bik praca opodatkowanie umów pożyczki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej lublin kredyty na samochod bez biku pożyczki gross toruń kredyt bank łódż szybkie pożyczki piła umowa pożyczki ile podatku kredyt bankowy raty nowość pożyczki do domu umowa pożyczki wzór w rodzinie vivus pożyczki kredyt bank witkiewicza szczecin kredyt na mieszkanie getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank opinie kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście 37 kredyt bank warszawa puławska pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum getin bank kredyt opinie klientów spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bank w nowej hucie kredyt bez bik grojec kredyt bank w pszczynie umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór kredyt bank chorwacja kredyt bank godziny otwarcia leszno kredyt banki mikołów pożyczki chwilówki głogów pożyczki prywatne racibórz pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv warszawa kredyt bank lokata progres oświadczenie zwrotu pożyczki asper pożyczki sprzedaż wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz neobank pożyczka bez bik doradca klienta kredyty chwilówki zarobki kredyt bez biku świdnica millenium bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax bocian pożyczki numer telefonu kredyt bank nip regon kredyt bankowy jako forma finansowania pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki chwilówki limanowa kredyt konsolidacyjny podstawa prawna pożyczki dla nowych firm na start pozyczki augustow przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki o charakterze inwestycyjnym warunki pracy w kredyt banku pożyczki w domu klienta inowrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki umowa pożyczki forma kredyty chwilówki jak założyć kredyt konsolidacyjny zdunska wola kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym forum kredyt samochodowy oferty banków dpg pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny mieszkaniowy pożyczki na rok przez internet pozyczka online dla bezrobotnych umorzenie pożyczki walutowej kredyt studencki pko bp powtarzanie roku umowa pożyczki podatek 2011 kredyty chwilowki zywiec kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millennium dpg pożyczki jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka godziny otwarcia prosper pożyczki alior bank kredyt 5000 pozyczki konin kredyty na dowod kredyt bank reda kredyt konsolidacyjny warto largo pożyczki pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen nowy sacz kredyt bank warszawa nowy świat kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank notowania akcji kredyt bank kasprzaka kontakt kredyty chwilówki bochnia warunki pożyczki w provident pozyczki dla kazdego 48 pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach bank pko bp kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt za 5 zł w orange kredyt bank ul abrahama kredyt bank wrocław powstańców śląskich kredyt bank kościuszki kielce wzór umowy pożyczki lombardowej kredyty pozabankowe dla firm bez bik kredyt bank lublin zana 39a eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki chwilówki płońsk tanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy opinie umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki praca opinie mikropożyczki lublin dyskontowanie pożyczki pożyczki na dowód gdańsk umowa pożyczki od siostry pozyczka bez big i krs pożyczki od właścicieli w bilansie pożyczki partycypacyjne kredyty bankowe krakow kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2012 kredyt bank zielona góra kontakt na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt pozabankowy bytom kredyt bez bik do 30 tys kredyt chwilówka czerwionka pożyczki pod zastaw opole kredyt bank w biłgoraju kredyt mieszkaniowy z umową na czas określony kredyty bez biku toruń pożyczki internautów umowa o kredyt prosty wzór pożyczki chwilówki turek kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bank pocztowy umowa pożyczki wzór doc kredyt bank chodzież kredyt bank marża pożyczki na które trzeba uważać osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki pożyczki novum opinie pożyczki dla firm skok najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredyt bank prowizja za granicą kod do kredytu w orange mikropożyczki toruń pożyczki przez internet vivus pożyczki prywatnie warszawa konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór podatek od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilówki mikołów prywatna pożyczka komornik warszawa pożyczki od prywatnych firm kredyt w przeźmierowie pożyczki 30 dniowe kredyt bez bik pomorskie kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą państwa promocja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bez bik w koninie szybkie pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyty chwilowki legnica opinie kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin kredyt bank piła dąbrowskiego kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyt bank polan poznań pożyczki bez rejestrów kalkulator pożyczki citibank szybki kredyt bez biku przez internet kredyt studencki pko do kiedy

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad