pożyczki u klienta w domu kredyt bez bik nowy sącz kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd pożyczki bez biku online umowa pożyczki z cudzoziemcem kredyt bank biłgoraj praca pożyczki pozabankowe w bełchatowie pożyczki bez bik kętrzyn kredyty chwilówki środa wlkp pożyczki atiz kredyt bankowy na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki zawarta przez jednego z małżonków kredyt bank oddział w toruniu kredyt bank relacje inwestorskie pożyczki dla małych firm kredyt bez biku kredyt na mieszkanie mbank jak wziąć kredyt w orange za 5 zł kredyt studencki pekao sa wniosek kredyt bank bialystok sklodowskiej pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości zielona góra kredyt banku pko pożyczki do domu legnica pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik kredyt bez bik leszno szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych pożyczki w kutnie kredyt bez bik bytom wzór faktury na odsetki od pożyczki kredyt bank janów łódź prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra pożyczki novum kruk s a umowa pożyczki między ojcem a synem pozyczki walcz bez bik pożyczki łódzkie pożyczki w domu klienta bocian kredyt bez bik bochnia koszty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank ostrów wlkp kredyt bez bik dla rolników kredyt bez biku legnica kredyty mieszkaniowe blog kredyt bank prowizja opłat rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym czy umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości 2013 szybkie pożyczki toruń kredyty pozabankowe konin pożyczki z niskimi dochodami umowa o spłatę pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartosci optima pożyczki zasady pożyczki bez bik ełk cesja pożyczki księgowanie pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank firmy splacajace pozyczki niebankowe jastrzebie zdroj kredyt bank pszczyna godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi wzór odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bank wypłaty za granicą pożyczki najtaniej kredyty konsolidacyjne jakie oprocentowanie kredyt w mbanku forum pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank radom traugutta pożyczki umowa co lubuskie bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia pozyczki do domu radomsko kredyty chwilowki bez bik kredyty chwilowki zyrardow pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik wzór wniosku o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp kredyt w bank of ireland pożyczki na oświadczenia kredyt konsolidacyjny co to znaczy pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom pożyczki w cieszynie pożyczki ostrzeszów udzielając pożyczki pokwitowanie pożyczki jessica kredyty bez bik w domu klienta kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia pożyczki alior sync kredyty banków komercyjnych kredyty chwilówki reklama optima pożyczki kalisz getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki pożyczki bez bik lublin pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok kredyty bez biku radom kredyt chwilówka międzyrzecz pożyczki prywatne bez bik szczecin zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc rola kredytów w działalności banku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki chwilówki toruń przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej kredyt ing bocian pożyczki kontakt kredyt w banku pożyczki gotówkowe sezam sp z oo duże kwoty kredytu bez bik dla firm kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik i krd szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec optima pożyczki grudziądz expres pożyczki umowa pożyczki podpisana za granicą mikropożyczki starachowice kredyt wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyt chwilówka kłobuck gdzie kredyt bez bik i krd banki ktore udzielaja kredytu bez biku kredyt bank w ząbkach pozyczki pozabankowe pszczyna od 18 lat kredyt bank olesno optima pożyczki online kredyt bank 224 pożyczki na dowód wieluń pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bez bik 50000 księgowanie przelewów w kredyt bank bank pekao sa kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank s a i oddział w warszawie pożyczki na założenie własnej firmy eurobank ubezpieczenie pożyczki bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod pożyczki online bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie kredyt bank w gdańsku godziny otwarcia kredyt na mieszkanie w banku millenium kredyty chwilówki łaziska górne optima pożyczki przez internet pożyczki chwilówki kluczbork pożyczki dla bezrobotnych olsztyn kredyt bankowy a faktoring kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm bez bik kredyt pozabankowy inowrocław pożyczki koszalin kredyt bez bik na już kredyt w ulster banku uk pożyczki bez bik w kielcach w którym banku kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie pożyczki prado kredyty chwilówki zabrze wolności optima pozyczki ciechanów pożyczki chwilówki ostrowiec wycena pożyczki na dzień bilansowy umowa pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw poznań kontrakt pożyczki pożyczki do domu wielkopolska kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego tel kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator zdolności kredytowej pożyczki dla firm bez bik i krd kredyty bankowe ściąga kredyt orange 5 zl kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku santander consumer bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki optima piła kredyt bank wielicka kraków kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata kredyt ze złą historią umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy kredyt studencki w bz wbk bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński pożyczki bocian płock pożyczki bez bik i krd głogów szybkie pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz definicja pożyczki podporządkowanej ewidencja księgowa umowy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik olsztyn kredyt bank sa kursy walut szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez biku obligacja tymczasowa pożyczki ogólnej narodowej pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko pożyczki bez bik big erif zwrot pożyczki urząd skarbowy szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bocian pożyczki bik pożyczki w wojsku kredyty chwilówki kadry pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować kredyt bank 224 kredyt chwilówka warunki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik kalisz korzyści pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez big pożyczki do 50000 umowa o zwrot pożyczki chojnice pozyczki kwota pożyczki bez zgody małżonka kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 kredyty pozabankowe gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2013 kredyt bank zawieszenie kredyt w banku norweskim pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew najtańsze pożyczki na rynku pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz kredyt bankowy na samochód kredyt bank rachunek spłat pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa gdzie najłatwiej uzyskać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt w banku na dowód kredyt bez biku nowy sącz kredyt bank obecna nazwa pozyczki prywatne kielce pożyczki bez bik zus us kredyt samochodowy ge money bank kredyty pozabankowe koszalin kredyty chwilówki jak założyć kredyty pozabankowe na zakup domu umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem pcc kredyt bank 1 maja płock pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała kredyt bank dębica godziny otwarcia pożyczki z obsługą w domu podkarpacie pożyczki pod zastaw kielce getin bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt pożyczki dla polaków w londynie pożyczki balonowe kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2013 odsetki od pożyczki obliczenie konsolidacja kredytu w wbk kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka kredyt bankowy na mieszkanie alior bank kredyt bez zgody współmałżonka solidny kredyt oddłużeniowy skarżysko pożyczki prywatne dla nowych firm pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard pożyczki kredyty bez historii kredyt bank gdansk kolobrzeska kredyt bez biku dla firmy kredyt bank kalkulator oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko natychmiastowe pożyczki przez internet skok wesoła pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank forum money umowy pożyczki gotówki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli forum kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki program partner kredyt bank gora kalwaria kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw cała polska pożyczki bez bik i krd czestochowa kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki pożyczki pabianice kredyt bank wrocław legnicka kredyt bank częstochowa pożyczki współpraca odmowa pożyczki w vivus kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią w bik pożyczki door pożyczki w internecie bankomaty kredyt banku kraków kredyt chwilówka krakow lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank w sokółce podatek odsetek pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny czy się opłaca pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 opinie dobrej pożyczki pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta szamotuly umowa pożyczki celowej kredyt bank bankomaty za darmo pożyczki 0 procent kredyty lublin kredyt studencki w banku pko sa czarnecki pożyczki pożyczki chwilówka od ręki orange jaki jest kod na kredyt oprocentowanie kredytów fm bank pozyczki na raty pożyczki pozabankowe duże kwoty umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać good cash pożyczki pozyczka na dowod osobisty numer tel chełm pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet na dowód pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie pożyczki dla firm bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa 24h pożyczki unijne na rozpoczęcie działalności pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe kredyt pozabankowy opinie kredyt z banku ochrony środowiska prywatne pozyczki na weksel kredyt bank kb pożyczki unijne bezzwrotne kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd jaki numer na kredyt w orange wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyt ratalny pozabankowy szybkie pożyczki do domu umowa pożyczki spółka jawna pożyczki oddłużeniowo komornicze umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy vw bank opinie kredyt bank łódź niemcewicza godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego deutsche bank kredyt bank na 120 miesiecy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik 30000 renta wojskowa a kredyt gotówkowy pko bp praca pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki cieszyn kredyt bank lódź pożyczki unijne dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki bez bik w ełku pozyczki z obsluga w domu poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank w gdyni kredyt remontowy w getin banku nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników kredyt w bank zachodni wbk opinie bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem przez internet kredyt odnawialny w banku pekao sa bocian pożyczki oborniki kredyt konsolidacyjny wikipedia umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi pożyczki w skoku stefczyka opinie kredyt bank polkowice oprocentowanie debetu w kredyt banku kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bph kredyt bez bik alior bank pożyczki z nfoś prywatne pożyczki dla nieletnich olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki zachodniopomorskie pożyczki chwilówki zakopane bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla kredyt banku sa pożyczki bez krd i bez bik kredyt bank polaczenie pożyczki bez bik big krd online rybnik pozyczki do raciborza prywatne kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od brata umowa pożyczki cechy kto płaci podatek od udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra pozyczka dla zadłuzonych kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku pożyczki lubartowska lublin blue media pożyczki pozyczki w domu klienta slask biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników promesa pożyczki wzór czy pożyczki są opodatkowane bank żubr gliwice pożyczka kredyt bank centrala lublin alior bank kredyt na samochód kalkulator kredyt bank zambrów kontakt pożyczki na zakup samochodu bez bik pożyczki udzielone przez polskę kredyt pozabankowy lublin pożyczki bez dochodów i bik pożyczki bez bik chojnice szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód abis pożyczki kontakt żyrafa pożyczki podobne kredyty studenckie jakie banki udzielają kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki a zwolnienie z pcc kredyt na oświadczenie kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek podatek od pożyczki dla najbliższej rodziny kredyt bank konferencja termin przedawnienia z umowy pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe od reki kredyty chwilówki bełchatów kredyt bez biku torun jakie kredyty sa bezpieczne pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny najtańszy udzielać pożyczki ang kredyt bank twardzickiego bydgoszcz kredyt bank opinia kto brał kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w inowroclawiu bocian pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt bank ciołka godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód turek kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska 1 kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu za granica kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko kredyt bank warszawa ul marszałkowska szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki mail opinie dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie król pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik warszawa cechy pożyczki pożyczki z dostawą do domu warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego poznań pożyczki bez bik i krd kielce pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu bocian pożyczki myślibórz pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko kredyt techniczny banku centralnego pożyczki gotówkowe starachowice kredyt bank aktywowanie karty kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny kredyt konsolidacyjny 100 wartości nieruchomości pożyczki prywatne tczew kredyt samochodowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt studencki w banku polskiej spółdzielczości udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę karty kredytowej w ktorym banku oplaca sie wziasc kredyt we wroclawiu pożyczki chwilówki słupsk wojska polskiego kredyt prywatny z komornikiem pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki przez internet pozyczki kredyt 24 pko bank polski kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki rywal pożyczki bez big kredyty na samochod bez biku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami kredyt bank garbary godziny otwarcia pożyczki aasa opinie umowa pożyczki angielski kredyt bankowy po rozwodzie kredyt samochodowy credit agricole opinie kredyt bank nr iban kredyt bank adres mailowy pożyczki profi credit opinie pożyczki amber kredyt bank krucza warszawa kredyt bank wloclawek kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat kredyt bank warszawa arkadia kredyt bank w dabrowie tarnowskiej kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy pracuje za granica pożyczki pozabankowe wawa kredyt samochodowy dla młodych ludzi kredyt bank iphone pożyczki całą dobę umowa pożyczki bez podatku kredyt bank www kredyt getin bank oprocentowanie kredyty pozabankowe lubuskie pożyczki dla budżetówki kredyty chwilówki oferty kredyt bank świecie pożyczki kaśka umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy kredyt bank dywidenda kredyt pozabankowy 3000 szybkie pożyczki białystok allekasa pożyczki kredyt bank racibórz mickiewicza pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorców pożyczki prywatne na procent szybki kredyt bez bik z komornikiem pożyczki finansowo umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki gdzie daja kredyt bez biku kredyt bank warszawa ken kredyt chwilowka starogard gdanski kredyty bez bik i krd tychy splaty ratalne pozyczki zdunska wola szybki kredyt 2014r :l pożyczki bez weryfikacji wniosku umowa pożyczki gotówki pdf

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad