kredyt chwilówka kraków nowa huta kredyt mieszkaniowy bez marży kredyt mieszkaniowy nadpłacanie kredyt bank płock kolegialna kredyty chwilówki czy warto pożyczki chwilówki płońsk kredyt dla firm bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk 2014 pożyczki pod zastaw rtv oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bank kalwaryjska kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku z bikiem kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola okulickiego pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt kredyt w działalności banku bocian pożyczki bielsko biała tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt dorota król pożyczki kredyt bez bik współpraca bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik na kilka miesiecy pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet kredyt bank oferta konta pożyczki do domu puławy księgowanie przelewów w kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy oblicz zdolność numery tel pozyczki gliwice kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole opinie proste pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki unijne 2014 pożyczki dla pracujących w czechach kredyt bank oferta ror bocian pożyczki ostróda kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt jakie dokumenty kredyty chwilówki ranking kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt bank pobierz token pożyczki ranking 2013 pożyczki chwilówki bełchatów pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości pożyczka 6000 bez infomonitora kredyty pozabankowe współpraca pożyczki na telefon bez bik kredyt samochodowy bez bik 2013 wzór druku pożyczki zarobki w kredyt banku forum kredyt preferencyjny bank spółdzielczy banki kredyt online eurobank kredyt w 15 minut kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 kredyt bank należy do pożyczki bez bik krd kraków windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyty chwilówki warszawa pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych kredyt w bilansie banku kredyt bank call center forum kredyt bank nysa szopena pozyczki na procent pila kredyt bank rumia gdańska kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk pożyczki do domu włocławek kredyty bez bik mysłowice access pożyczki piaseczno kredyt bez bik na pit kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 27 poznań pożyczki bez bik zawiercie pożyczki tak to kredyt wzor podatek kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno kredyty chwilówki biznes pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank piłsudskiego łódź drugi kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki na zakup samochodu kredyt bank piaseczno tel kredyt bank rumia gdańska prywatne pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny legnica kredyty chwilowki dabrowa gornicza kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator optima pożyczki do domu opinie pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź preferencyjny kredyt studencki forum wzór umowy pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyt samochodowy bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy dla firm oprocentowanie czy duza jest przyznawalnosc pozyczki optima kredyt bank ostrów wlkp pożyczki złotów ale po za bankowe pożyczki pozabankowe mogilno kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy umowa pożyczki proz kredyty gotówkowe bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank w swarzędzu kredyt bank sa wikipedia oferta kredytową firmy optima pożyczki prywatne oświęcim kredyt w credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach kredyt bez big krakow szybkie pożyczki bez bik szczecin pożyczki londyn kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy alior bank kredyt bank chorzów wolności kredyt bank msp kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w tyszowcach kredyty chwilówki tvn kredyt bank foksal godziny allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank pożyczki bez biku dla rolników kredyt pozabankowy na dowód pożyczki ręki prywatne firmy pozyczkowe gliwice kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt w santander bank opinie pozyczki od osob prywatnych bialystok kredyt bank rejtana rzeszów kredyt bank w wołominie bocian pożyczki opinie pracowników umowa pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku pożyczki bez bik żagań kredyt bank jędrzejów kredyty w idea banku forum kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kalkulator pożyczki parabank jakie banki udzielają kredytów bez bik pożyczki w skoku chmielewskiego kredyt bez bik cieszyn przejęcie pożyczki kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja pożyczki brzesko kredyt bank sa lublin ul zana 39a kredyt bank pyrzyce kredyt dla zadłużonych opole, brzeg mikropożyczki dla firm kredyt bank wyniki kredyt idea bank online el global pożyczki getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyty bez bik pozabankowe kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bank nostro pożyczki na nową firmę kredyt bank 7 kredyt bank katowice ul szafranka kredyt bank kantor przekonwertowanie pożyczki na kapitał kredyt bank program praktyk wakacyjnych bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty kredyt studencki pko wniosek pożyczki w firmie bocian kredyt bankowy millenium pożyczki z dostawą do domu warszawa ślimak pożyczki kontakt ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok kredyt konsolidacyjny najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bank sa iv oddział warszawa promocyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank centrala w warszawie kredyt bank junior pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek pożyczki pit alior bank kredyt firmowy umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej pożyczki mielec w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód pożyczki w czechach pożyczki chwilówki śrem pokwitowanie pożyczki pieniędzy policyjne pożyczki kredyt bank olsztynek kredyt bank zaswiadczenia pozyczki bez bik ciechanow pozyczki torun tablica kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobote umowa pożyczki charakter kredyt bank wypowiada ubezpieczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych forum umowa pożyczki bez pcc kredyt bank bialobrzegi bezzwrotne pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bez bik jaworzno pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdynia polecane pożyczki pozabankowe warunki otrzymania kredytu konsolidacyjnego wbk pożyczki i kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łomża szukam pożyczki na weksel rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński pożyczki kwidzyn na telefon pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz kredyt bank lokata warta konsolidacja kredytu w bz wbk kredyt bank przelewy online pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra bocian pożyczki wniosek online kredyt w banku z komornikiem krzysztof pawiński pożyczki pożyczki do 15000 umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pcc pożyczka w domu klijęta elbląg kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś banku wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt bez bik slupsk kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zarobkach kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec 3 maja szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big radom pożyczki na dowód kredyt w uk lloyds kredyt bank giełda przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki prywatne pod weksel wrocław kredyty bez bik kraków pożyczki w ostrołęce kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą 2013 kredyty mieszkaniowe 2010 pożyczki gotówkowe bank pożyczki chełmno kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja pożyczki dictionary pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kredyt bank bok kredyty chwilówki częstochowa pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyty i pożyczki dla gmin kredyt bank poznan morawskiego pragma pożyczki przeznaczenie pożyczki kredyt bank litwa gdzie najszybciej kredyt online na koncie pożyczki na konto bankowe kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyty bez bik malbork alior bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziny bocian pożyczki opinie skutki umowa pożyczki od spółki optima pożyczki jelenia góra kredyt bank twardzickiego bydgoszcz kredyt bank kradzież karty pożyczki długoterminowe dla zadłużonych najtańszy kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt bank zgierz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lubin nfośigw pożyczki kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński pożyczki typu incredi umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyt na start w idea banku forum pożyczki online bez biku pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa kredyt bank poland jak zgłosić umowę pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego druk umowy pożyczki gotówki pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 umowa pożyczki między wspólnikami pożyczki w czechach kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie pozyczki od osob prywatnych lodz kredyt bank olsztynek godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń międzyrzecz tel pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy mafi pożyczki pod zastaw rtv tarnów opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk kredyty chwilówki wonga pożyczki bez bik dobra pożyczka kredyt bank oświęcim kontakt chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki gąbin pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt studencki pko bp poręczyciele bocian pożyczki przedstawiciel udzielić pożyczki po ang pożyczki bez bik starachowice pożyczki na założenie firmy mikropożyczki przez internet kredyty chwilówka knurów symulacja kredytu w credit agricole najszybsze pożyczki online kredyt konsolidacyjny boś pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat kredyt pozabankowy na zakup mieszkania pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi kredyt orange pod nr konsolidacja kredytów w wbk pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań pożyczki bez przelewu kredyty chwilówki wolbrom kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem pożyczki bocian świdnica kredyt gotówkowy w idea bank opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt samochodowy bank pekao sa kredyty pozabankowe i prywatne kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skierniewice pożyczki gotówkowe siedlce pro domo pożyczki szczecin kredyt bez bik i krd przez internet jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku kredyt bank lubartów pożyczki online bez grosza kredyt bankowy i jego cechy pożyczki prywatne kalisz kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł pożyczki płock bez bik pożyczki w różnych bankach pożyczki prywatne w płocku czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu vat kredyt bank obligacje kredyty bez bik plock kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kredyt bank poznań adres pożyczki na dowód chorzów pożyczki gotówkowe wikipedia czy pożyczki pozabankowe są bezpieczne kredyty chwilówki jarosław kredyt bank oddziały warszawa ursynów kredyty bez bik będzin pożyczki chwilówki bez meldunku bocian stargard pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt pozyczka w uk na benefity kredyty chwilówki słupsk deotymy kredyt samochodowy santander forum kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd pismo pożyczki oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych forum kredyt bank sanok kredyt bank święty marcin pożyczki katowice pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny kredyt bank sa oddział łódź kredyt bank nysa kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe 24h kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki kredyt ratalny przez internet bez bik pożyczki chwilówki cała polska kredyt bank infolinia czynna rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank mikropożyczki w polsce kredyt bank w polsce pozyczka w domu bialystok pożyczki provident oprocentowanie pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową uk kiedy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank gazele biznesu kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona kredyt bank logo eps udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów umorzenie pożyczki w księgach pożyczki na dowód kielce najtańsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank bonifacego umowa pożyczki weksel pożyczki na start działalności kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka pożyczki na dowód online bez bik pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk pożyczki na dowód złotoryja czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kalkulator kredyt bank biała podlaska praca promotor pożyczki kredyt na start w idea bank opinie kredyt banki grudziądz naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki bez bik big krd bydgoszcz kredyt bank w ostrowcu św umowa pożyczki ojciec syn kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka pożyczka bez bik i krd mława umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 kredyt na mieszkanie bank pekao pożyczki pozabankowe w piotrkowie trybunalskim pozyczka jarocin bez bik szybko w domu pożyczki na dowód od ręki capital pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny ustawa kredyt bank debet na koncie pożyczki atiz kredyt technologiczny banki współpracujące pożyczki domowe na dowód sandomierz pożyczki gotówkowe sosnowiec pożyczki chwilówki bez oprocentowania wzór umowy pożyczki dla pracownika umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej pożyczki chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyt pozabankowy 30000 zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank wzór umowy pożyczki między firmami kredyt bank rondo onz godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod kontrakt kredyt bank bankomaty szczecin kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2013 umowa pożyczki bez weksla windykacja pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki dla zadłużonych skok kredyty gotówkowe bez bik piła kredyt studencki w pko opinie najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredyt w jakim banku 2013 kredyt bank sa jarosław pożyczki pozabankowe vivus pożyczka na dowód w credit agricole co sprawdzają kredyt w banku na dowód umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi kredyt bank złotów pożyczki pozabankowe kluczbork pożyczki pod weksel prywatne spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pcc kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino kredyt pozabankowy kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych kredyty pożyczki bankowe umowa pożyczki przedawnienie podatku kredyty bez bik jaworzno kredyt bank wibor kredyt na dowod w niemczech bocian pożyczki mława umowa zwrot pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe w ciechanowie kredyt bank sa kokos pożyczki kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku bocian pozyczki bez biku oświecim pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet bocian pożyczki gniezno kredyt bez bik do 150 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bankowy wady i zalety uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki kredyt w banku uk kredyt bank dług szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe w toruniu kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór kredyt bank przelicznik rat bocian pożyczki wniosek nowe pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet zwrot pożyczki angielski pożyczki jeremie łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym kredyty bez bik opole bank pko kredyt 20000zł kredyt studencki lista banków umowa pożyczki o czym pamiętać kredyty bez bik lub prywatne w nowym sączu jaki jest numer na kredyt orange alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństw kredyty w banku pko bp pożyczki lublin kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód umowa pożyczki w providencie provident wysokość pożyczki pożyczki żary szukam pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt chwilówki płock wszystkie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank raszyn godz otwarcia pozyczki dla emerytow legnica kredyt bankowy wbk kredyt samochod irlandii pożyczki prywatne pabianice kredyt bank sa olsztyn kredyt bank puls rynku kredyt bank aukcje ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bikiem kredyt bank poznań garbary godziny otwarcia pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad