kredyt bank starachowice telefon białystok pożyczki bez bik symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt konsolidacyjny obliczenia kredyt bank w łodzi odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki prywatne bez bik szczecin kredyty studenckie jakie banki kredyt w banku komercyjnym praca licencjacka pożyczki gniezno kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin pożyczki sezam wieluń kredyt bank gora kalwaria pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto multibank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki online bez bik big krd kredyt bank kwidzyn godziny otwarcia abis pozyczka głogów szukam pożyczki prywatnej forum kredyt bank rudnickiego czy można umorzyć pożyczkę cywilną kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator kredyt bank żagiel nr telefonu w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości rzeszów kredyt bank w szczecinku wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych szczecin kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyt w banku w anglii kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w alior banku kredyt bank małopolska kredyt bank lokaty bez podatku belki preferencyjny kredyt studencki banki pożyczki i poręczenia pożyczki piła getin bank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań kredyt bez bik żary kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt 150tys bez bik kredyty pozyczki bez biku kredyt bez bik braniewo preferencyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki po niemiecku wniosek o kredyt bankowy wzór kredyt bank ipad kredyt pozabankowy poznań wysokie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki janosik kredyt bez bik dla emeryta kredyty pozabankowe do 10000 kredyt w paribas bank opinie objawy pożyczki kredyt bank lubaczów pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyt bank dworna łomża pożyczki bocian gniezno optima pożyczki przez internet pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz nowe pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank dluga kredyty chwilówki andrychów kredytypożyczki oddłużenia ze złm w bik śląskie pożyczki chwilówki turek prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyty chwilowki klodzko wzór umowy pożyczki finansowej kredyty mieszkaniowe wrzesień 2012 pożyczki online 0 odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2011 dułet pożyczki rzeszów kredyt studencki pekao dokumenty kredyt samochodowy w banku pko bp kredyt bez bik w płocku zwrot pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe pożyczki prywatne podatek kredyt bank oddziały warszawa pożyczki prywatne lubliniec kredyty bankowe dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik kredyt bank pocztowy kredyt studencki forum opinie regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej konsolidacja kredytów w mbanku keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik kredyt gotówkowy bez bik krd umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie pożyczki prywatne wałcz kredyt bank biłgoraj praca lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań asper pożyczki pozyczki od reki na dowod bez zadnych oswiadczes kielce kredyt bank giełdowa kredyty chwilówki opole pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią kredytową kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 godziny otwarcia kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego bank pocztowy pożyczki bez poręczycieli bez bik kredyt bank w kościanie pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań udzielę pożyczki prywatnej gdańsk pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód kredyty w aktywach banku umowa pożyczki od spółki dla wspólnika kredyt bank mazowieckie firmy oferujące pożyczki kredyt bank wiek kredytobiorcy kredyt bank szuwarowa godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm spłata pożyczki nieruchomością kredyt bez bik na raty pożyczki milicz kredyt samochodowy dla 20 latka kredyt bank sa lublin orange kod kredytu pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz kredyt konsolidacyjny bank kredyt bank ul abrahama pożyczki pozabankowe piła kredyt bank lokaty pożyczki bez bik 20 000 kredyt samochodowy ranking kalkulator mega pożyczki ing kredyt konsolidacyjny 15000 bankomat kredyt banku wrocław adam nowakowski pożyczki kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia ceny transferowe umowa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw kościan umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej mbank kredyt bank w czestochowie pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica pożyczki bez krd i big kredyty zamość bez bik windykacja pożyczki z zfśs bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl kredyty do firm parabanki kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty kredyt bank chrzanów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank notowania szukam pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki wzór pcc pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyty pozabankowe lubin kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństw szybkie pożyczki bez bik kielce kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyt bank sa opole udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki skok wesoła getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm jak otrzymac kredyt bez biku szybkie pożyczki chwilówki online pożyczki inteligo umorzenie pożyczki walutowej pożyczki za 1 gr szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik jak dostac kredyt w uk kredyt bank sanok telefon pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pup pożyczki prywatne krosno kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 kredyt bank rachunek dla firm pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice druk umowy pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank poznan krauthofera kredyt na start w idea banku opinie fundusze unijne pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen o dochodach pożyczki 24 na dobe kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum bip pożyczki warszawa kredyt bankowy obrotowy szybki kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank sa oddział bydgoszcz pożyczki społecznościowe wiki prodomo pożyczki opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnów pożyczki dla emerytów bez ograniczeń wiekowych kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza kredyt bez bik żywiec pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty zmiany w kredyt banku pożyczki od rodziny i znajomych opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic kredyt bez biku ełk kredyt w banku a komornik getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny sprawdzone kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv łódź kredyty chwilówki lublin kredyt z banku centralnego asper pozyczki lodz najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 pożyczki bez bik lublin pożyczki bocian gorzow wlkp kredyt samochodowy jaki bank kredyt w banku na dowód kredyt bankowy a faktoring pożyczki wołów umowa pożyczki zasady kredyt bank rybnik kontakt kredyt bank w szczecinie druk udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank dabrowa tarnowska kredyt gotówkowy w meritum bank pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk czy kredyty chwilówki sprawdzają bik pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium pożyczki dla rolników 2012 pozyczka bez sprawdzania bank pekao sa kredyt opinie kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki dla pracujących w czechach kredyty mieszkaniowe dopłaty państwa pożyczki jak księgować umowa pożyczki ustawa kredyt mieszkaniowy w kasie stefczyka kredyty w niemieckim banku kredyt bank żagiel wrocław pożyczki bez bik zgorzelec kredyty chwilówki wniosek kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim singiel wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie pożyczki na weksel lublin pożyczki limanowa kredyt bank złotów pożyczki prywatne krotoszyn pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli wałbrzych kredyt bez bik i krd na samochod kredyt bank liczba akcji kredyt bank zabezpieczenie żyrafa pożyczki kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt samochodowy bez bik krd pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2013 pożyczki 20000 zł kredyt bank poznań winogrady pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św kredyt bez biku częstochowa kredyt bank ciechanów telefon alior bank kredyt dla emeryta pożyczki na założenie własnej firmy adam nowakowski pożyczki podatek od pożyczki termin kredyt bank komornik kredyt bank w pruszczu gdańskim santander bank kredyty gotówkowe umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania pewne pożyczki dla każdego gdzie wziasc pozyczke vivus w galeri krakow pozyczka podobna do okam uk przepisy regulujące pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pocztowy pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza pozyczki kredyt 24 kredyt alior bank forum pożyczki bezzwrotne dla młodych rolników wonga pożyczki pożyczki prywatne kielce kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bgz kredyt bank warszawa zeromskiego kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala pożyczki typu incredi kredyt w banku a zgon pożyczki mennica jelenia góra alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki bez dochodów i bik kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank forum pożyczki kredyty bez historii poznan kredyt bank luboń kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu pożyczka bez bik abis kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń bez bik spłata pożyczki z amber gold kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja kredyt bank matejki szczecin pożyczki prywatne płock pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan praca w bocianie pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach olsztyn udzielanie pożyczki a vat kredyt w eurobanku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki praca opinie pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych kredyt bank likwidacja pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt przez internet w idea bank 10000 jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange pożyczki chojnice pożyczki gryf pozyczki w domu żnin pozyczki na nowa firme kredyt bank lomza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank adres do korespondencji kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie kredyt bank w piszu umorzenie pożyczki a vat preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp regulamin uczciwe pożyczki bez bik kredyt w bank pko sa kredyt bank nowy targ kontakt w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt na mieszkanie odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek pożyczki dla zadłużonych zielona góra kredyt bankowy po angielsku dobranie w takto pozyczka pożyczki w domu klienta legnica pozyczkibez weryfikacji bz prywatne kredyty hipoteczne lodz pożyczki optima kalkulator kredyt bank toruń godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie kredyt bank zielona góra pożyczka bez bik na dowód kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn pożyczki provident kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank w polsce profi credit pożyczki mini pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank oddziały warszawa mokotów zwrot pożyczki podstawa prawna pozyczka prywatna czechowice szybki kredyt bez bik i big pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat kredyt bez bik ostrowiec promesa udzielenia pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki spółka jawna pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów bocian pożyczki ełk udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem online kredyt na mieszkanie w banku bph kredyt bank radosc uznanie pożyczki pożyczki i darowizny w rodzinie kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania bank pbh kredyt kolobrzeg kredyt bank kupon 5 getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie kredyty bez bik w lodzi kredyt konsolidacyjny dla działalności gospodarczej twój kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp banki kredyty na mieszkanie turbo express pożyczki kredyt bank oddział w bełchatowie kredyt w uk na rok pozyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik pożyczki bocian mogilno pożyczki ze złą historią w biku pożyczki pod zastaw cała polska bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt na pit bez biku pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt bank krucza warszawa kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól bezpieczny kredyt bez bik forum kredyty bez bik lub prywatne w nowym sączu udzielę pożyczki bez przedpłat pożyczki umowa o dzieło gwarant pożyczki opinie pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat pozyczka na umowe zlecenie bez bik tychy provident zwrot pożyczki w ciągu 28 dni kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia pozyczki tczew kredyt getin bank oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik biała podlaska kredyt bank ciechocinek telefon kredyt pozabankowy kontakt umowa pożyczki poświadczona notarialnie kredyt studencki który bank wybrać kredyt z komornikiem ruda slaska pożyczki bocian chodzież pożyczki accord kredyt bank gryfino godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki w łomży skok wołomin pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki bocian pożyczki ostróda umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rafał kania pożyczki wykop kredyt bank świdnica kontakt dobranie pożyczki w providencie kredyt mieszkaniowy marża banku kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pod warunkiem zawieszającym kredyt bank kod kredyt bank zambrów telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce kredyt bank kontakt kredyty bez biku konin kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kontakt kredyt bank konstantynów pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku optima pożyczki dokumenty kredyty dla bezrobotnych kredyty pozabankowe warszawa pożyczki na firmę bez bik pożyczki od osób prywatnych opinie pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyty bez bik wodzisław śl kredyt w banku barclays pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty pożyczki siemianowice śląskie pożyczki w bilansie szybkie pożyczki rybnik feniks słupsk kredyty kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor kredyt bank twardzickiego bydgoszcz pożyczki bez biku legnica kredyt bank dss pożyczki na agroturystykę kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania msp bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie pożyczki pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości udzielenie pożyczki gofin umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach danych otwock pozyczki chwilowki pożyczki bez bik na dowód kraków pożyczki dla mających komornika kredyt bank zabrze 3 maja kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary pożyczki 5 tys oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia kredyt bank depozyty kredyt samochodowy dla nowo otwartych firm kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany pożyczki konsolidacyjne z komornikiem kredyt bank płock kolegialna kredyty chwilówki sanok beta pożyczki oblicz koszt pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki pcc prodomo pożyczki starogard pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na procent pożyczki bez biku na dowód księgowanie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank karty kredytowe kredyt bankowy bibliografia pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo pożyczki społecznościowe smava oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej w ing pożyczki chwilówki wałcz pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa sobota umowa pożyczki ile podatku kredyt bank częstochowa lokaty kredyt mieszkaniowy bps pożyczki kraków szlak kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych za granica pożyczki w walucie pożyczki na dowód szczecinek łukta pożyczki kredyt bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyt bankowy jako żródło finansowania pożyczki pod zastaw działki rolnej kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel kredyty chwilówki praca opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zdolności kredyt bank w nidzicy kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia kredyty bez bik w gorzowie wlkp adler pożyczki

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad