pko bp lublin kredyt studencki kredyt bank poznań pożyczki bocian gubin pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń bik kredyt bez bik pszczyna umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulacja pożyczki prywatne nowa sól skok wielkopolska pożyczki kredyt bank żyrardów godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód częstochowa kredyt bank bankomaty kredyt bank wspiera żeglarzy kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia pożyczki kc idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym forum kredyt konsolidacyjny forum opinie kredyt na mieszkanie bank pocztowy promax pożyczki pożyczki kołobrzeg kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank sa warszawa kasprzaka lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka umowa pożyczki dobrowolne poddanie się egzekucji symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing pożyczki dom finansowy kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kalkulator pożyczki dla każdego pozyczki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki końskie pożyczka bez krd forum kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki zawarta przez internet kredyt samochodowy ing bank kredyty chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka łukasz woźniak pożyczki kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia banki udzielające pożyczki pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową kredyt bank sa nowy sącz kredyt bank lubliniec kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych oddziały kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole opinie kredyt pozabankowy dla firm bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie czy odsetki od pożyczki są opodatkowane kredyty mieszkaniowe kwiecień 2013 opodatkowanie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy najtańsze pożyczki na rynku oddziały kredyt banku szczecin pożyczki jaworzno naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe bank pekao sa pożyczki z ue kredyt bank białystok radzymińska telefon kredyt bank sa z siedzibą w warszawie kredyt bankowy wiem konsolidacja kredytu wbk obliczanie odsetek pożyczki kredyty bez zaswiadczen bez biku kredyt bank komornik umowa pożyczki co powinna zawierać pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz finan pożyczki panda kredyty kedzierzyn pozyczki bocian kontakt sroda wlkp kredyt bez biku koszalin kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 27 poznań warunki pożyczki rodzina na swoim pożyczki z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia slimak pozyczki kontakt pożyczki pomysł na biznes kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku kredyt bez bik wejherowo kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika kupiec pożyczki podatek od pożyczki darowizny ltwe kredyty poznan pozyczki prywatne wejherowo pożyczki trzebinia pożyczki bocian w kaliszu bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki milicz kredyt bank adres warszawa kredyt bank konstancińska kredyt studencki w wbk przelew w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk kredyty mieszkaniowe bank spółdzielczy kredyt inwestycyjny eurobank kredyty bankowe to pasywa czy aktywa kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt orange pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe sms bank pko kredyt kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin ekspert pożyczki umowa dotycząca pożyczki pozyczki dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank warszawa rondo onz kredyty bez bik bolesławiec kredyt chwilówka zaświadczenie centrum finansowe pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki księgowanie wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki na czas określony kredyty w banku pocztowym forum wiarygodne pożyczki bez bik kredyt na dowod od reki bank pekao sa kredyt inwestycyjny pożyczki bez bik jawor warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo kredyt mieszkaniowy przy umowie na czas określony pożyczki w amber gold kredyt świąteczny w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki chwilówki bochnia kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa na czas określony szybkie pożyczki bez bik do domu dolny śląsk alior bank kredyt na samochód pozyczka chwilowka elk kredyt samochodowy online mbank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny anglia pożyczki z funduszu rozwoju przedsiębiorczości pożyczki chwilówki na dowód gdańsk kredyt w alior banku a bik pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów nieruchomości kredyty bez bik big krd warunki kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyty pozabankowe bez biku białystoj przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być tanie pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki na dowód kredyty szybkie pozyczki mprywatne na procent warszawa kredyt bez bik i krd wrocław kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt bank fundacja warty kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny godziny otwarcia spłata pożyczki w amber gold kredyt bank żuromin kredyt bank strzegomska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki opis kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki w domu myszkow kredyt bank godziny księgowania getin bank kredyt online kredyty chwilówki czebotar kredyt bank investor relations w którym banku jest najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bez bik do 7000 kredyt bank wrocław sikorskiego konin pozyczka bez bik i krd kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kredyty gotówkowe bez bik poznań udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki konsularne windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank bocian pożyczki tczew ckg pożyczki bocian pożyczki youtube pożyczki bez bik legnica kredyt bank kody jednorazowe pożyczki internetowe chwilówki kredyt bez bik walbrzych kredyty chwilówki zdjęcia kredyty chwilówki numer konta jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie kredyt bankowy krótkoterminowy pożyczki vivus opinie forum pożyczki na weksel śląskie kredyt bank suwałki kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy rynek pierwotny kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank 2012 kredyt bank warszawa targowa skarabeusz pożyczki opole pożyczki typu provident pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt bank w krakowie ul kalwaryjska kredyt bank przeźmierowo pożyczki bez bik szamotuły optima pożyczki na konto kredyt bez bik do 30000 kredyt bank przemyśl godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu w fm banku bezpłatne pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 kredyt do orange kod banki udzielające kredytów bez zdolności kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów kredyt pozabankowy z zajęciem komorniczym tanie pożyczki na dowód pożyczki bocian opinie kredyt bank piła tel kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku pożyczki bez biku kraków pożyczki chwilówki mogilno umowa pożyczki między firmami a vat najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne jakie oprocentowanie kredyt orange jaki nr kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c kredyt pozabankowy na auto pożyczki chwilówki chełmno kredyt bank szczecin felczaka godziny otwarcia kredyt online bank pocztowy kredyt bank wielicka pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki w kc kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska pozyczka pod weksel bialystok umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bardzo zadłużonych pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice kredyt samochodowy alior bank opinie bankomaty kredyt bank stargard bocian jakie wymagania kredytowe oblicz kredyt w alior banku pożyczki typu bocian kredyt bank lokata terminowa pożyczki z nfośigw kredyty bankowe ewidencja szybkie pożyczki przez internet uk tfad pożyczki maksymalne koszty pożyczki jak wziąć kredyt bez bik niespłacanie pożyczki w provident kredyty konsolidacyjne kalisz gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik pożyczki skok wesoła kredyt mieszkaniowy kielce opodatkowanie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa pożyczki pod zastaw srem kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bez bik w łodzi prywatne pożyczki na weksel skok kredyty oddłużeniowe cresco group pożyczki kredyt w lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki bez bik krd i zaświadczeń kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników banki kredyty chwilówki bez bik krd pożyczki pod zastaw agd ile kosztuje umowa pożyczki u notariusza kredyty pozabankowe slupsk umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej podatek finan pożyczki kłodzko kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kontakt bezpieczne pożyczki przez internet kredyt w ror bank pocztowy kredyt bank zespół zajęć komorniczych kredyt bank kluczbork godziny otwarcia czy podatek pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd umorzenie pożyczki księgowanie kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyt studencki pko aneks oprocentowanie kredytu na start fm bank pozyczkh chwilowki lodz w domu kliemta pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik lublin umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku pozyczki bez bik przez internet umowy pożyczki a podatek pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska alior bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank polen najgorsze pożyczki te pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt bank zapomniałem pin pożyczki dla bezrobotnych w zgierzu pożyczki z komornikiem ruda śląska pożyczki na projekty unijne kredyt mieszkaniowy dublin kredyty chwilówki kęty pożyczki pozabankowe kontakt telefoniczny kredyt w lukas banku kredyt bank viii oddział warszawa ostrobramska kredyt w banku pocztowym dokumenty kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety kredyt dla pracujących w czechach umowa pożyczki dla siostry podatek pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty chwilówka rybnik kredyt bank kursy walut pożyczki a kasa fiskalna kredyt bank luboń pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd pożyczki na raty tygodniowe kredyt bez bik częstochowa pożyczki chwilówki chorzów centrum pożyczki bez bik cały kraj pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz podatek od odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki od osob prywatnych tychy kredyt bank kantor kredyt bankowy a pożyczka różnice kredyty chwilówki pińczów kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2014 kredyt samochodowy mbank dokumenty opodatkowanie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank sa investor relations kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku getin noble bank dział kredytów samochodowych umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w biku getin bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank poleasingowe kredyt bank rzeszów umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem wzór regulamin pożyczki provident oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego getin bank kredyty chwilówki ełk kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki weksel pożyczki wzór kredyt odnawialny w banku pko bp pozyczks bez erif bik krd wrocław pożyczki z inicjatywy jeremie kredyt studencki pko legitymacja kredyt bank zabrze godziny otwarcia easy cash pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin kredyt bank znin kredyt w banku bps kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki online opinie podanie o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy pożyczki 1000 pożyczki bez bik działdowo pożyczki dla nauczycieli profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank kredyt bank w mielcu kredyt bank sa w ostrołęce przewalutowanie kredytu w banku millennium umowa pożyczki bankowej przedawnienie pożyczki pozabankowe lębork pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt bank swift adres pożyczki alior sync pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo kredyt bez bik lublin pożyczka pożyczki z rejonowych urzędów pracy alior bank kredyt dokumenty kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku opinie umowa pożyczki ratalnej jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki mikropożyczki olsztyn umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór umowy pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo pozyczka na umowe 24 h kielce umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej pożyczki w domu klienta piła pożyczka bez banku kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank krosno lewakowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyt stargard szczecinski podanie o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik czy łatwo o kredyt w getin banku pożyczki 5000 bez bik kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole odsetki od pożyczki obliczanie pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa wzór umow fm bank kredyt inwestycyjny kredyty pozyczki bez biku pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt bank ken 98 kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a pożyczki dfg pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości śląskie umowa pożyczki rzeczy spłata pożyczki pismo kredyt bank założenie konta kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk pożyczki millenium pożyczki pierwsza pożyczka za darmo jak zaksięgować kredyt na rachunku bankowym kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu kredyt bez bik szamotuły umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór bocian pożyczki bez bik kredyt samochodowy raiffeisen bank kredyt bank w kluczborku pożyczki bez bik lubelskie kredyt bank krosno kredyty bez bijk poznan wilda pożyczki gumtree pożyczki online w 15 minut pożyczki na święta forum pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów radom pożyczki bez krd lublin kredyt 2000 zł bez zaświadczeń jelenia gora kredyty chwilówki inowrocław kredyt bank praca lublin jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyt bank warszawa centrum kredyt bank 224 pożyczki bocian online pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania pożyczki chwilówki jarocin kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat pożyczki w domu klienta bocian kredyt bank w skoczowie pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw szybkie pożyczki bez bik forum pożyczki bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank w lubinie pożyczki zfśs w bilansie kredyt bank lublin opinie optima pożyczki warunki kredyt bank 24 lokaty pożyczki chwilówki jędrzejów pozyczki kredyt 24 pożyczki bez bik na rok pożyczki pozabankowe w uk pożyczki domowe grudziądz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko pożyczki online bez dochodów kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny przy niskich zarobkach rodzaje kredytów w banku komercyjnym oblicz oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku proste pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli kredyt na start w idea banku opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie centrala kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych wałbrzych kredyt samochodowy dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bikiem kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyty w działalności banku dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum dotacje unijne pożyczki lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank sa iii oddział we wrocławiu pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń od 18 lat kredyty bez bik chełm kredyt w aig bank polska umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt chwilowka gdansk pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole kalkulator kredyty chwilówki inwestor opinie kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 kredyt bank sobota kasprzaka obligacje 4 pożyczki konsolidacyjnej ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 kredyt bank busko godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki na konto bez bik pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki a oprocentowanie pożyczki online bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa 24 pożyczki kalkulator rat ekasa pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad