ubezpieczenie do pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank w białymstoku ul warszawska kredyt bank sa oddział rybnik podatek od pożyczki dla firmy kredyt bank cennik opłat kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław kredyt bank wrocław bielany wrocławskie kredyt bank bfg kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bank pożyczki dla firm bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki pozabankowe w gdańsku żyrafa pożyczki praca pożyczki jessica umowa pożyczki z siostrą niskooprocentowane pożyczki dla firm kredyt bez bik na umowe zlecenie jaki kod na kredyt orange kiedy przedawnia sie kredyt w banku pożyczki prywatne cała polska aig kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty bankowe na rozpoczęcie działalności camperia pożyczki bez big kredyt bank warszawa wesoła kredyt bank lwowska chełm optima pozyczki na dowod chwilowki kredyt w niemieckim banku dla polaka pożyczki barcin pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku wziąć kredyt konsumpcyjny warunki pożyczki chwilówki kredyt studencki bank pocztowy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bez bik finan pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank ii oddział katowice pożyczki bez bik skok gdzie dostane pozyczke bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt bank zagiel adres kredyt bank mickiewicza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank międzyrzecz pożyczki z windykacją potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank prowizja od wpłaty kredyt bank piła kredyt gotówkowy bank pko sa pożyczki finanse konsolidacja kredytu gdzie kredyt bank ketlinga 21 umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo lublin mafia pozyczki kredyt bez biku krakow kredyt bank lokaty bez podatku belki pożyczki chwili pożyczki online bez wpłaty pozyczka w domu wołów forum pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank puls biznesu kredyt bank garbary 71 pozyczki tczew oferty pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki notarialne firma kronos pożyczki kontakt bocian pożyczki środa wlkp forma umowy pożyczki pewny kredyt bez biku kredyt ratalny banki kredyty bez bik big krd kredyt bank w lezajsku opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny radom pożyczki bez bik świebodzin kredyt bez bik optima kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk kredyt pozabankowy dla firm umorzenie pożyczki dla udziałowca getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt bez biku olsztyn kredyt studencki lukas bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator online szybkie pożyczki śląskie kredyt bank ełk słowackiego pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt bez bik na zaswiadczenie opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 umowa pożyczki wzór kredyt bank poznan oddzialy kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku kredyt bank grodzka szczecin pożyczki prywatne radom kredytypożyczki oddłużenia ze złm w bik śląskie pożyczki optima bydgoszcz szybkie pożyczki bytom kredyt bank przejmuje kredyty dla zadluzonych w biku poznan kredyt konsolidacyjny pko warunki ei global pożyczki pożyczki prywatne rybnik kredyt samochodowy banki pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe prowidenta wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki częstochowa transfery w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki w toruniu kredyt bank cennik przelewów optima pożyczki warunki kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie kredyt bank w bochni kredyt bank w lublinie ul narutowicza ustna umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek kredyt w banku za granicą pożyczki lubin kredyty chwilówki katowice szopienice kredyt bank żagiel szczecin kredyt bank władze pożyczki bez krd szczecin kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska godziny otwarcia kredyt w nordea bank opinie pożyczki prywatne w gorzowie wlkp kredyt bank koszt przelewu kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank warszawa kabaty kredyt bez bik kielce kredyt chwilówka bochnia kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin pko bp kredyt studencki aneks pożyczki bez biku pożyczki bez banku rata pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bez bik dębica jak dostać 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sącz aleje pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach odmowa pożyczki eurocent pożyczki forum eden finance pożyczki pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń kredyt w orange kod wizja lokalna w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw złota warszawa kredyt bank opłata za prowadzenie konta pożyczki gumtree jak wziasc kredyt do domu klienta na dowód idea bank kredyt na start opinie kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank pożyczki bez bik dla prowadzących działalność kredyt w banku na dowod małe pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki internetowe gotówkowa kredyty pko bp kalkulator kredyty chwilówki jasło kredyty chwilówki katowice szopienice kredyt bank plock tel kredyt pozabankowy kalisz kredyt bez bik dla zadluzonych ile zarabiaja w kredyt banku ewidencja pożyczki w walucie obcej pożyczki bez bik zielona góra pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki gotówkowe w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki obowiązki stron kredyt mieszkaniowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock kredyty chwilówki zielona góra kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce kalkulator kredyty w eurobanku opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk kalkulator kredyt bank kupiony przez santander kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank nip regon pożyczki dolnośląskie pożyczki polska wschodnia usługi pożyczki poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny dla lekarzy kredyt bank zabrze wolności pożyczki lendon opinie kredyt bank w krotoszynie kredyt w wbk kalkulator umorzenie pożyczki walutowej kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie kredyt chwilowka w przeźmierowie kredyt na dowod w niemczech pożyczki takto forum kredyt z komornikiem kamienna gora getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyty chwilowki opole kredyt bank limit wypłat kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie 2013 obsługa pożyczki w domu finan pożyczki legnica kredyty mieszkaniowe jaki bank pożyczki bez bik żnin kredyt bank głęboka lublin oprocentowanie kredytów w fm banku getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax kredyt bank w starachowicach pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec pożyczki bez krd na dowód pożyczki łowicz pożyczki chwilówki kalisz kredyt bank direct pożyczki bialystok pożyczki w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku ing najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask bocian pożyczki chełm kredyt bank gdynia bławatna 11 pożyczki na renty socjalne gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik forum kredyty bankowe ewidencja kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank zakopane bankomat kredyty chwilowki starogard gdanski pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki lombardowe lodz pomocne pożyczki pozyczka na dowod inowroclaw pożyczki w bankach ranking pożyczki ze złą historią w biku pożyczki od gangsterów kredyt chwilówka praca forum kredyt bank warszawa targowa pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt kredyt studencki bank bgż duze pozyczki pod weksel pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg pożyczki komercyjne umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt kredyt gotówkowy eurobank forum obligacje 4 pożyczki konsolidacyjnej kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 pożyczki od brata pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredyt bank gpw umowa pożyczki cywilnej wzór pożyczki społecznościowe blog kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw polkowice kredyt bank kontakt centrala pozyczki społecznościowe pozabankowe kredyt bank litwa kredyt gotówkowy bez bik lublin druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator szybkie pożyczki warszawa kredyt bank wejherowo tel kredyt bank zaloguj kredyt bankowy podsumowanie pożyczki świnoujście kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala umowa pożyczki przedawnienie podatku oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank warszawa praga kredyty 24 h kredyt bank zagiel kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie 2013 kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe wrocław kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt bank świebodzin godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik w lesznie umowa pożyczki dla roidziny udzielę pożyczki prywatnej toruń umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki cywilnej pozyczki dla zadluzonych boleslawiec kredyt studencki pko 2013 zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang kredyt bez biku bydgoszcz kredyty bez biku forum jak odmówić pożyczki kredyt bank chuck norris umowa pożyczki potwierdzona notarialnie kredyty chwilówki garwolin udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2012 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd online pożyczki pod zastaw śląsk fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs kredyt bank w sokółce optima s a kredyty pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zabezpieczeniem pożyczki z funduszu jeremie kredyt bank filia w piasecznie pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych pożyczki na weksel szczecin wzor umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą pożyczki bocian biała podlaska umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pdf pożyczki bez bik nidzica kredyt studencki bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki akt notarialny pożyczki bocian w kaliszu w 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mbank kredyty chwilówki turek pożyczki gotówkowe bezrobotnych credit pożyczki pożyczki bez bik ratalne pożyczki pod zastaw siedlce pożyczki dla firm łódź kredyt bank w mławie pożyczki na dowód giżycko kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia emilion pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe pit pożyczki pozabankowe do 50000 szybkie pozyczki luban pożyczki na dowód lubań promocja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkladem wlasnym kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt w getin bank opinie 2012 kredyt bank leszno tel pozyczki bez biku poznan kredyty chwilówki partner banknot pozyczki ostatni przelew w kredyt banku kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki bez bik dobra pożyczka kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów pożyczki lubuskie skok rafineria pożyczki pożyczki na renty pożyczki w 15 minut na koncie udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2012 najnowsze kredyty chwilówki pożyczki w domu klienta lubin umowa pożyczki prowizja pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków pożyczka przez internet bez sprawdzania pożyczki dla firm zadłużonych kredyty konsolidacyjne zielona góra bocian pożyczki jakie raty kredyt idea bank opinie kredyty bez bik w gdyni koszty zawarcia umowy pożyczki pożyczki ultimo pożyczki chwilówki kołobrzeg pożyczki pozabankowe w śremie umowa pożyczki od akcjonariusza adam lorek pożyczki czy od pożyczki płacimy podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt bank poland address pożyczki prywatne całą polska formulaz część pożyczki państwowej kredyty pozabankowe krakow bez posrednikow kredyt bank wyciągi kredyty konsolidacyjne mbank kredyt samochodowy a firma kredyt na 5 zl orange pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowód nie zgłosiłem pożyczki od rodziny kredyt chwilówka sosnowiec umowa pożyczki pomiędzy członkami rodziny oprocentowanie kredytu obrotowego idea bank pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem pożyczki w walucie kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia o zarobkach w którym banku kredyt na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź luk pożyczki bocian kredyt wloclawek kontakt kredyt bez bik i krd forum kredyty w skok bez bik partner pożyczki piła kredyt w banku bez sprawdzania bik bezzwrotne pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyty w idea bank kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa ślimak pożyczki kraków kredyt bank konto osobiste opinie pożyczki kalisz kredyty chwilówki dębica nowakka pożyczki wyłudzenie pożyczki kk pożyczki chwilówki suwałki kredyt bank zmienia właściciela kredyt online idea bank kredyt bank warszawa praca kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola okulickiego pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank w uk księgowanie pożyczki z wfośigw jaki jest kod na kredyt orange pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny nowy sacz kredyt bank karwiny godziny otwarcia kredyt prowizja banku pożyczki na dowód mbank kredyt bank linia kredytowa kredyt bank 6 kredyt bank reuters kredyty chwilówki program partnerski pożyczki od osób prywatnych słupsk szybkie pożyczki bez weryfikacji kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja credit agricole pożyczki cash flow pożyczki umowa pożyczki paliwa parabanki pożyczki online kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd pożyczki chwilówki dzierżoniów kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia kredyty chwilówki net pożyczki na spłatę komornika pożyczki chwilówki wieliczka poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej umowa pożyczki maksymalne odsetki kredyty dla firm bez bik forum umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca kredyty mieszkaniowe 1992 pozyczki bez pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt studencki pko bp żyranci kredyt w działalności banku umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika pożyczki fora kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm czy dostanę kredyt w profi z komornikiem kredyt bank w jastrowiu pożyczki bez biku zielona góra gwarantuje zwrot pożyczki krzyżówka wycena pożyczki w walucie obcej na dzień bilansowy warunki dobrej pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki buk kredyt dla 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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad