kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego godziny otwarcia zgłoszenie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki bez bik bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank bytom godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy na start jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe dolnyslsask kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa umowa pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi kredyt bank garibaldiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank otwarcie konta pożyczki chwilówki dla studentów pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wlkp easy cash pożyczki opinie pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola santander kredyt ratalny a bik pożyczki pod zastaw lombard tarnów umowa pożyczki dla spółki kredyt konsolidacyjny zielona góra kredyt w banku a przedawnienie kalkulator rat pożyczki kredyt bankowy aktywa czy pasywa pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik orange jaki jest kod na kredyt kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody kredyt bez bik rawicz eurolan pozyczki kredyty chwilówki pit interpretacje podatkowe pożyczki gdzie najlatwiej o pozyczke pod zastaw domu lojalka w kredyt banku pożyczki na firmę kredyt bank nordea pożyczki do 5000 bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla córki kredyty bez biku inowrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny najtańszy łukasz chlebicki pożyczki pożyczki na dowód śrem kredyt samochodowy oferty banków kredyt studencki pko pierwsza transza kredyt bez zus us gdańsk kredyt bank oddział w krakowie pożyczki dla prawników pożyczki bez bik olsztyn pozyczki od 18lat dla zadluzonych w bik pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik i big kredyt bank nowy świat kredyt bez bik 5000 kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum kod orange na kredyt kredyt bank nowy targ kredyt w banku pko kalkulator kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kredyt mieszkaniowy w millenium bank kredyt samochodowy w vw bank opinie kredyt samochodowy na firmę korzyści kredyt bank kostrzyn zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank kredyt bank legnica bankomat pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk maz pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości forum pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto pożyczki 365 umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat pożyczki bez bik 20000 zł pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz niespłacanie pożyczki w provident kredyt bez bik ciechanów odsetki od pozyczki z zfss pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko pożyczka na dowód bocian wroclaw umowa pożyczki gotówkowej od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik gdańsk te pożyczki kredyt studencki warunki uzyskania pożyczki nauczycielskie pożyczki w domu klienta wrocław pożyczki dla nowo powstałych firm kredyt bez bik i krd online kredyt bank leszno godz otwarcia provident pożyczki online pożyczki prywatne forum pokwitowanie zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyt bank konto internetowe kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez udziałowca poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bez historii bik kredyt bank reklama adamczyk kredyt bank warszawa praga pożyczki od 20 lat novum finance pożyczki forum przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej pożyczki przez internet bez przelewania grosza kredyt bank długa kraków pożyczki online bez bik i krd pożyczki białogard kredyt w banku slaskim umorzone odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyty mieszkaniowe tanie kredyt bez bik do 20 tys odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór kredyt bank kraków godz otwarcia szybki kredyt dla firm online banki kredyty gotówkowe oprocentowanie cechy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego kredyt bank żniwna poznań godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla nauczycieli kredyt bank kraków szuwarowa godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko bp sa pożyczki od osób prywatnych w uk pożyczki gotówkowe w pko pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik kredyt dla spółki zoo bez bik kredyty chwilowki srem kredyt bank plac solny wrocław kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym forum oprocentowanie pożyczki w credit agricole alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki bez bik w kielcach kredyty bez bik oferty umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt na firmę obrotowy bez poreczycieli kredyt gotówkowy z bik pożyczki pozabankowe płońsk uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki kredyt studencki w banku credit agricole umowa pożyczki przedmiot umowy sieradz pożyczka 15000 mini pożyczki bez bik pro domo pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki zasady lloyds kredyt gotowkowy kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku pożyczki internetowe bez bik pożyczki bez bik przeworsk ekspres kasa spłata pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe pko sa kredyt bank patriotów 150 pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz lukas plus pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 forum pożyczki pozabankowe grudziądz pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pomorskie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm bez bik kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta pożyczki gotówkowe dla każdego eurocent pożyczki praca podrobiona umowa pożyczki czy umowa pożyczki musi być zawarta na piśmie sprawdzone kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż opinie pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek pożyczki gwarant opinie kredyt odnawialny pekao konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty do kapitału kredyt bank nowy swiat warszawa pożyczki poza systemem bankowym kredyty bez bik na dowód oblicz ratę pożyczki w pko bp kredyty chwilówki partner opinie pożyczki prywatne lębork kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec pożyczki długoterminowe ing bank online kredyty z komornikiem pożyczki gotówkowe do 20000 kredyt bank rybnik godziny kredyt pozabankowy gdynia pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank kredyt samochodowy w banku spółdzielczym kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko oprocentowanie kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy legitymacja pożyczki kapitałowe kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz ratę kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank lokata impet pożyczki bez bik w puławach provident pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczka dla pracujacym w czechach kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik pożyczka w walucie obcej przez internet kredyt bankowy przedawnienie pożyczki pozabankowe łódź kościuszki pożyczki alior sync pożyczki prywatne nowy targ pożyczki unijne na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych panda pożyczka nysa pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie pożyczki kokos kredyty chwilówki 24 umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego wonga pożyczka od reki kredyt bank lokaty dla firm pozyczka na dowod bex biku zary telefon pożyczki na pół roku kredyt bank warszawa dział windykacji kredyt bez biku bielsko kredyt bank prowizja od wypłaty kredyty chwilówki definicja kredyt bank ciechocinek godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe toruń kredyt w banku pocztowym bez historii w bik prodomo pożyczki gdańsk kredyt bank zwolnienia 2013 pożyczki prywatne chorzów pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem 2013 pożyczki wyszków kredyt na dom bez biku kredyt studencki pko odroczenie spłaty kredyty chwilówki piekary kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy opinie kredyty bez bik jarosław kredyt bank 24 demo kredyty bez biku toruń kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyt bank kupon 1 kredyt bez biku inowrocław pożyczki w internecie pożyczki bez bik dla emerytów kredyt bank restrukturyzacja pożyczki na dowód vivus pożyczki na rentę socjalną kredyt bank w gdańsku godziny otwarcia nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu pozyczki bez umowy o prace w człuchowie pożyczki pod weksel warszawa umowa pożyczki charakter kredyt bank w lipnie pożyczki bez bik 5000 kredyt bankowy pod zastaw pożyczki bankowe pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki licytacja kredyt w godzine uk pożyczki pozabankowe lublin kredyt bez bik co to znaczy kredyt bank a santander umowa pożyczki pieniędzy po angielsku lukas bank kredyt przez internet kredyty bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki pod zastaw łapy kredyt bank puławska pożyczki chwilówki tychy pożyczki pozabankowe w anglii kredyt bez bik białystok kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator kredyt bank bankomat euronet polecane pożyczki pozabankowe pozyczki poza bankowe typu provident alior bank kredyt refinansowy kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych pożyczki prominent kredyt odnawialny w banku bgż wzór pokwitowania zwrotu pożyczki pieniężnej umowa pożyczki pkzp w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości w bank bgż pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 umowa pożyczki gotówkowej wzór pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki pozabankowe w śremie kredyt na dowod pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach danych odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit skarabeusz pożyczki kościan kredyty duże na dowód wrocław prywatne pozyczki pod zastaw szczecin pożyczki takto forum kredyt lombardowy banku centralnego kredyt w banku alior udziele pozyczki w bydgoszczy na jaki numer kredyt orange kredyty chwilówki mysłowice kredyt bank warszawa polna 11 pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat pożyczki w inowrocławiu pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław pozyczki w swiebodzinie bez sprawdzania biku alior bank kredyt jakie dokumenty bocian pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki na dowód bez poręczycieli kredyt w pko opinie kredyt bez bik 200 tys amortyzacja pożyczki podporządkowanej gdzie pożyczki bez biku pożyczki bez bik w bydgoszczy w jakim banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw kredyt bez bik dla firmy kredyt pocztowy na dowód kredyt w alior bank forum szybkie pożyczki panda szybkie pożyczki grudziądz pożyczki na dowód bez bik kredyty i pożyczki cesja firma bocian pożyczki pożyczki referat pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet umowa pożyczki bez terminu zwrotu pożyczki cent pożyczki gotówkowe boś skarabeusz pożyczki bełchatów umowa pożyczki jaki podatek kredyt bank zumi obsługa pożyczki w domu kredyt bank tarnobrzeg telefon pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik forum pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet w ktorym banku oplaca sie wziasc kredyt we wroclawiu bocian pożyczki jaki procent pożyczki chwilówki białystok lipowa konfuzja pożyczki kredyt bank rawa mazowiecka kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyt w boś banku globals pożyczki kredyt bank żary telefon pożyczki bez biku białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa marża konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy vat kredyt bank w wieluniu umowa pożyczki rejestracja w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki bez wykazywania dochodu pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy alior bank kalkulator odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód pko bp zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego jaki procent kredytu w vivus pożyczki mysłowice kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego w jakim banku najkorzystniej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy bank bgż kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki nakło kredyt bank biznes kredyt bez bik piaseczno vivus odmowa pożyczki obligacja pożyczki dolarowej awans pożyczki pożyczki na dowód chełmno intercom pożyczki pożyczki kredyty w domu klienta pożyczki pod weksel kraków prywatne kredyty hipoteczne lodz umowa pożyczki stawka podatku kredyt w deutsche banku opinie pozyczki w domu klijeta pożyczki alior bank kredyty chwilówki chorzów kredyt bank głogów pożyczki na dowód 2013 pożyczki bez biku przez internet pożyczki na dowód ing kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie bnp paribas kredyt samochodowy forum bocian pożyczki nakło nad notecią kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp dokumenty rejestracja umowy pożyczki w us pożyczki bez bik zakopane pcc od pożyczki kosztem pożyczki pozabankowe oświęcim kredyty i pożyczki dla jst kredyty na samochód bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy kredyt bank warszawa abrahama bocian pożyczki oddziały jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyty chwilowki piekary slaskie kredyt bez bik na 20 lat druk wezwanie do zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe 10000 zł konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 kredyty chwilówki trzebinia profile w kredyt banku kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra kredyt bank zwrot ubezpieczenia w jakim banku brac kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank pożyczka konsolidacyjna pożyczki prywatnie poznań kredyt bank kraków długa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lipno tel kredyt bank lidzbark warm kredyty gdańska 69 roznoszenie ulotek bydgoszcz zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt bank departament administracji kredyty chwilówki 35 kredyt w eurobanku na pit pożyczki ekspresowe przez internet pożyczki na renty socjalne pożyczki bez bik pożyczki dla pracujących za granicą kredyt bank w rankingach pożyczki chwilówki leszno lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań kredyt bez bik widruszow pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania millenium kredyty konsolidacyjne w getin banku kredyt bank ożarów pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc szybkie pożyczki wałbrzych kredyt bank w bzwbk oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej szybki kredyt 5 tys niski procent opolskie umowa pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki prywatne legnica kredyty chwilówki szczecinek pożyczki provident forum kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres karencja w spłacie pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big kredyt bank w lomiankach kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus udzielić pożyczki tłumaczenie pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra umowa pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami wzór kredyt bank ciechocinek pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk kredyt bank umowa pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca wzór wzór umowy pożyczki do druku kredyt bez bankowego rejestru umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych pozyczki na dowód bez dochodów kredyt bank olsztyn telefon kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator agricole umowa pożyczki a użyczenia kredyt bank wrocław bolesława chrobrego kredyt bank długa kraków kredyt studencki bank bph cechy pożyczki i kredytu przedmiot umowy czarnecki pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw piotrkow kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis bank kredyt bankowy na otwarcie firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny pbs szybkie pożyczki pleszew morgis pożyczki opinie pozyczki pozabankowe kasa do reki kredyt mieszkaniowy emeryt kredyt bank sprzedaż umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bph getin bank kredyt samochodowy infolinia pożyczki jak w provident pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec kredyty chwilówki katowice giszowiec warunki kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny toruń kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt bank łódż zgierska pożyczki bez rejestru dłużników kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator kalkulator dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank karta kredytowa multima kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej 2012 kredyt bank legionów wrocław bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum czy trudno o kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp bsribas opinie pożyczki prywatne bocian udziele szybkiej pozyczki prywatnej zywiec pożyczki darlowo kredyty mieszkaniowe z 1992 roku pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat pożyczki w bankach bez bik kredyt bank zielonka kolejowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód gdynia kredyt studencki pekao opinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad