pożyczki bez bik i krd opinie sync bank kredyt na dowod firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki pracownicy kredyty w fm bank pożyczki pewne pożyczki bez bik ełk warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank częstochowa bankomaty kredyt bank program partnerski udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego szczecin opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki bez oprocentowania bankomaty kredyt bank łomża wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank lubin kredyt pozabankowy na zaswiadczenieno zarobkach kredyt bank radomsko kontakt leszno pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez bik 10000 pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem pożyczki parabanki kredyt bank mateusze kredyt chwilowki lubin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska pożyczki chwilówki chełmno cechy pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium pożyczki gotówkowe w santander kredyt bank warszawa rudnickiego kredyt pozabankowy kielce kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank w radlinie kredyt bank włocławek kościuszki udzielenie pożyczki osobie prywatnej opinie dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt kredyt bank legnica telefon pożyczki online bez bik i krd prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw działki pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta druk wezwanie do zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa wilanów pożyczki chwilówki łódź pożyczki z parabanków kronos pozyczki szukam pożyczki warszawa pożyczki tygodniowki elbląg pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo kredyt bez bik dla firm forum podanie o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy kredyt bank kielce praca bankomat kredyt bank sieradz zwrot pożyczki wspólnikowi umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczka dla pracownika wzór umowy kredyt mieszkaniowy abc kredyt bez bik ciechanów ostatni przelew w kredyt banku kredyt bank gotówkowy kredyt bank mediamikser pożyczki społecznościowe statystyki ranking kredytów banków vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona kredyt studencki pko do kiedy pro domo pożyczki toruń wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank włocławek najdluzsze kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczka bez baz 2014 kredyt w banku warunki kredyt bank częstochowa oddziały kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bgz udzielę pożyczki prywatnej łódź kredyt bank dm pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 kredyt bank w sieradzu kredyty bez bik katowice chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula umowa podporządkowania pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki z zfss kredyt chwilówka pyskowice pożyczki bez bik i z komornikiem kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd kredyt chwilowka w markach szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt bank piła tel pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach i bik pożyczki oprogramowanie pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski duo pożyczki chwilówki kredyt lombardowy w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla każdego kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta kredyt bank janów pożyczki prywatne w bogatyni wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw alior bank kredyt bez zgody współmałżonka pożyczki bez biku dla rolników kredyty chwilówki forum pracowników prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki podobne do provident kredyty bez bik pomorskie pożyczki dom finansowy kredyt konsolidacyjny ca pożyczki dla zadłużonych w zus ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowania kredyty chwilówki kęty kredyty chwilowki klodzko szybkie pożyczki rybnik pożyczki od osób prywatnych siedlce kredyt bank oddział w toruniu idea bank kredyt online opinie prywatna pożyczka do ręki bez dochodu warszawa kredyt bank busko zdrój kontakt pożyczki alter pożyczki pozabankowe na 30 lat udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę osobie fizycznej gdzie wziac kredyt kielce kredyt bank 3 oddział gdańsk kredyt bez bik mielec pożyczki tak to pożyczki w banku śląskim kredyt bank warszawa zoliborz pożyczki bez badania zdolności odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt pozabankowy poznań lukas bank kredyt bez biku kredyt bank kostrzyn nad odrą kredyt bank warszawa garibaldiego konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie umowa pożyczki bez potwierdzenia odbioru kwoty kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyt bank kod kredyt bank call center forum kredyt bank reklama ojciec chrzestny kredyty chwilówki tychy dmowskiego kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy pożyczki pozabankowe środa wlkp umowa pożyczki kwoty kredyt bankowy aktywo czy pasywo kredyt bank abrahama telefon pożyczki na oświadczenie czas oczekiwania na kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki w domu klienta pabianice pożyczki online bez bik alior bank kredyt firmowy regulamin pożyczki provident kredyt bank sa logowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk 2014 istota kredytu i pożyczki dyskretne pożyczki w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego kredyt bank poznań winogrady szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyty bez komornika biku pożyczki udzielone i należności własne warta pozyczki pożyczki na dowód przez internet skarabeusz pożyczki w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz niespłacony kredyt a bik pożyczki oława kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp kredyt bank chf polisa pożyczki kredyt bank nowogard pożyczki w amber gold umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności provident zasady pożyczki kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania niedzielne pożyczki prywatne szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez formalności pożyczki pozabankowe 50000 kredyt bank oddział warszawa kasprzaka kredyt konsolidacyjny w open finance opinie pożyczki na pit zielona góra oprocentowanie kredytu w idea banku kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilowki pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut kredyt bank konta oszczędnościowe kredyty mieszkaniowe bankier kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia o zarobkach kredyt samochodowy bank spółdzielczy jakie oprocentowanie pozyczki gotowkowej w pekao bp kredyt bez bik gdzie najlepiej pożyczki na dowód krosno pożyczki minicredit kredyty bez zdolności kredytowej szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki z unii oświadczenie udzielenia pożyczki karta kredytowa deutsche a bik kredyt bank chodzież kredyt bank rybnik godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki program partner prywatna pozyczka na zakup mieszkania pożyczka meritum stargard kredyt bank elixir sesje pożyczki ekonomia społeczna kredyt bank aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki plan kont kredyty mieszkaniowe w pko bp opinie kredyty bez bik leszno potwierdzenie zwrotu pożyczki wzór pożyczki internetowe ranking czy można wziąć kredyt w zagranicznym banku kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk kredyt bez bik legionowo kredyty chwilowki na oswiadczenie kredyt bankowy wstęp pożyczki wieloratalne bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd helikon pozyczki opinie kredyt bank czas przelewu kredyt bank warszawa bemowo godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki przez internet opinie pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt bocian pożyczki śrem praca kredyt studencki pko sa regulamin pożyczki pułtusk pożyczki refinansowe pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe najtanszy kredyt pozabankowy czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank piaseczno kontakt kredyt bank plac legionów wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kraków pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej udokumentowanie pożyczki kredyt bez bik ranking adresy kredyt banku warszawa umowa pożyczki od rodziny a pcc pożyczki bezzwrotne na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank fuzja forum kredyty konsolidacyjne wrocław gdzie kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank w kraśniku kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia kredyt bank piekary kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku spółdzielczym pozyczka w pko praca zagranica solidny kredyt oddłużeniowy skarżysko pożyczki od właścicieli w bilansie pozyczki dla zadluzonych od lat 19 przez internet umowa pożyczki konsumenckiej kredyty bez biku bytom kredyty chwilówki gliwice opinie alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny pożyczki zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot ubezpieczenia w którym banku jest najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie pożyczki nobiles bank pko kredyt 20000zł pekao sa kredyty studenckie umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan tfad pożyczki pożyczki na lichwe pożyczki chwilówki 24 istota kredytu bankowego kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa kredyt bank w skawinie umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek kredyty i pożyczki bez bik bank brodnicki kredyt forum pożyczki bez bik ślimak pożyczki prywatne grudziądz kredyt bank wspiera polskich żeglarzy kredyt bank szuwarowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bielsko biała paulina dabrowska pozyczki wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs najkorzystniejsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa kredyt bank 24 pl kredyt bank prowizja od wpłaty pożyczki do 4000 zł udzielenie pożyczki spółce cywilnej przez wspólnika kredyt chwilówka na telefon kredyty pozabankowe warszawa kredyt bank w szczecinku kredyty chwilówki numer konta bank pko sa kredyt kalkulator kredyt chwilówki płock kredyt konsolidacyjny rata pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator kredyt bank oplaty i prowizje kredyt mieszkaniowy wczesniejsza splata gdzie dostane pozyczke bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki plan kont pożyczki tarnobrzeg pożyczki na kilka dni kredyt studencki pko bp umorzenie oświadczenie o wypowiedzeniu umowy pożyczki getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty w banku skok kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku kredyt z bik kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk 2014 kredyt w banku wbk pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm kredyt pozabankowe online umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pcc kredyt bez biku krosno panda pozyczki opole kredyty chwilówki jaworzno grunwaldzka kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank zagiel lodz kredyt bank wyniki 2011 kredyty oddłużeniowe bez bik forum kredyt bank lwowska tarnów kredyty bez bik opinie santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie jakie zarobki w kredyt banku kredyt bank zabrze prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód pożyczki udzielane przez jst pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2012 kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bez bik na konto pożyczki gotówkowe włocławek kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyt w banku ze złą historią bank bgż pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta wzór umowy umorzenia pożyczki kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie kredyt bank kłodzko tel umowa pożyczki z osobą fizyczną wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pdf kredyt bank dluga pożyczki pod aktywa pozyczks bez erif bik krd wrocław kredyty chwilówki zabrze 3 maja najtańsze pożyczki bankowe kredyt bank oferta szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw kielce umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi szybkie kredyty minimum formalnosci umowa pożyczki ang kredyt techniczny banku centralnego pożyczki fasadowe definicja druk pcc od umowy pożyczki kredyt na nowa firme bez bik pożyczka na uwowa zlecenie czwa pożyczki prywatne świętokrzyskie kredyt na orange jaki numer kredyt bank powstańców wrocław atiz przykłady pożyczki kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lipowa 4 białystok getin bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt studencki getin bank pożyczki typu bocian kredyt bank lidzbark warm kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt biznes kredyt pozabankowy w banku pożyczki ekspresowe bocian kredyty pozabankowe chełm kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia księgowanie pożyczki z zfśs przedawnienie roszczeń z umowy pożyczki bankowej jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów pod weksel kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla firm kwota pożyczki bez podatku kredyt w euro lista banków pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia kredyt preferencyjny banki pożyczki w cieszynie kredyt bank sa oddział bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank opinie potrzebuje pożyczki bez bik prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki typu vivus pożyczki pod zastaw oświęcim jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki wysoki kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki kto płaci pcc gdzie dostać kredyt bez bik pozyczka 50 000 przez internet warunki kredytu w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bez biku kraków pozyczka bez sprawdzania bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński prezentacja pożyczki w bilansie wzór umowy dobrej pożyczki umowa pożyczki doc pożyczki inowrocław niski procent kredyt bank założenie konta zawieszenie działalności a kredyt w banku mikropożyczki 2013 kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank kredyt bank zabezpieczenie kredyt na mieszkanie a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik z mini ratą łukasz fornela pozyczki jak wziąć kredyt w orange za 5 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pekao sa kredyty i pożyczki trójmiasto zamknięcie rachunku w kredyt banku pożyczki bez biku gdańsk pożyczki z małym dochodem kredyt bank radomsko godziny otwarcia nielegalne pozyczki online pożyczki natychmiast kredyty chwilówki łomża kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku mikropożyczki ue akropol pożyczki bocian pożyczki centrala euromax pożyczki kredyt bank w gryfinie kredyt bank sa iban pożyczki bocian lubelskie kredyt bank biała podlaska godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań kredyt na samochód bez sprawdzania w biku cechy pozyczki kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim kredyty samochodiwe uk pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 kredyt bez bik ciechanów kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek umowa pożyczki jest pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyty bez biku ikrd pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock kredyt w banku pocztowym opinie szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank firma kredyty chwilówki praca kraków prodomo pożyczki opinie pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego kredyt bank lista haseł jednorazowych kredyt bank ken 98 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze ratalne szybkie pozyczki przez internet agar kredyt online bez biku ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2013 kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf kredyt bank godz otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie kredyty chwilówki reportaż bocian pożyczki kielce forum kredyt bez bik grójec alior bank kredyt kalkulator kredyt bank definicja skarabeusz pożyczki tomaszów maz pożyczki chwilówki słupca kredyt bank łuków praca

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad