umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyt bank mediamikser kredyt bank w częstochowie rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych kredyt mieszkaniowy dla 60 latka bocian pożyczki gowork kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie umowa pożyczki w rodzinie wzór podatek od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki w wałbrzychu konsolidacja bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki dla osób które ukończyły 18 lat kredyt bank wysokie mazowieckie pozyczka na dzialalnosc bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank piotrków kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin pożyczka dla skok pozyczki do reki ketrzyn kredyty bez bik chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe 6000 udzielam pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe slask kredyt bank radlin tel kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych 25000zl kredyt studencki 2012 pko sa kredyt w banku bgż opinie umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca wzór kredyt bank sa w warszawie oddział w lublinie pożyczki bez bik zus us druk pcc od umowy pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki osoby fizycznej pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2013 kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę pożyczki internetowe kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia pożyczki 10000 zł kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zagan kredyt w banku przelicznik getin noble bank kredyty ratalne kredyt bank ustka umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pekao umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny bocian pożyczki bytów kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt bank w rzeszowie pożyczki bez wizyty w banku kredyt bank toruń fosa pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo pożyczki dictionary pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa są pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko umowa pożyczki pod warunkiem kredyt bez bik długoterminowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez podpisu małżonka pożyczki gotówkowe umowa zlecenie kredyty chwilówka rybnik kredyty bocian zywiec pożyczki bez bik żory pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw kredyt bez bik i krd wroclaw kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator kredyty chwilowki laziska gorne banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe statystyka mikropożyczki unijne kredyt bank różana kontakt kredyt w anglii forum pożyczki dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt bank śliska telefon odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe pożyczki konsolidacyjne kredyt w ge money bank opinie umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 pozyczka typu provident euro cen bocian kredyty chwilówki radom prażmowskiego pożyczki dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz kredyt dziesiatka pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie pożyczki chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka szybkie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki bez bik białystok pbs pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank nowa sól pożyczki provident przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo pozyczki od reki na dowod bez zadnych oswiadczes kielce pożyczki chwilówki bez biku kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 kredyt konsolidacyjny w ing pozyczki krosno umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bez bik raty miesięczne kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka opinie kredyt bank ojciec chrzestny kredyt bank lokata constans pozyczki bez bik wegrow księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pożyczki na procent bydgoszcz kredyt pozabankowy bez krd umowa pożyczki między małżonkami kredyt bank obsługa kart kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie ofert kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia wzór na obliczenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata wzór umowy pożyczki spłata w ratach umowa pożyczki z jedynym wspólnikiem pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu bez bik kredyty bez bik jaworzno pożyczki finan częstochowa pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki na chwilę kredyty chwilówki konsolidacyjny oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki placówki kredyt banku wrocław pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem bocian pożyczki włocławek pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe kalkulator rat pożyczki ekspresowej umowa pożyczki lichwa pożyczki na dowód szybko kredyt konsolidacyjny na 8 lat kredyt bankowy dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyty chwilówki kraków os teatralne wzór na obliczenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt na swieta bez biku raty pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy kredyt w ror bank pocztowy pożyczki z biedronki kredyt bank witkiewicza szczecin kredyt na kupno samochodu bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe lębork szybkie pozyczki luban pożyczki bez bik krotoszyn umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi pozyczka z komornikiem lublin pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi szczecin pożyczki na pesel lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki online finan pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez osobę fizyczną pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa umowa pożyczki od wspólnika pcc pożyczki dla firm suwałki kredyt w pekao sa kalkulator kredyt technologiczny banki współpracujące kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli kredyty chwilówki debica szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik pożyczki firmowe na start umowa pożyczki rodzeństwo mariusz dudziński pożyczki pożyczki dla firm wrocław kredyty chwilówki konto pożyczki prywatne w gorzowie wlkp kredyt lombardowy banku centralnego kredyt bank karty visa kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny dla jst pożyczki forum pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp aktywny druk umowy pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów warszawa kredyt bank sa iv oddział warszawa umowa pożyczki a darowizna radom pożyczki na dowód pożyczki sms bez bik opinie przedawnienie umowy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp pozyczki na procent pila pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik i krd pozyczki dla bezrobotnych niebankowe szamotuly kredyt bank warszawa ursynów kredyt bank london wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki umorzenie pracownikowi pożyczki z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy w irlandii forum kredyt bank polanica zdrój kredyt bank 24 infolinia skarabeusz pożyczki gliwice pożyczki w kilka minut kredyty chwilówki opinie forum uni cash pożyczki pożyczki z komornikiem śląskie kredyt bank w łomiankach kredyty lub pozyczki bez bik kredyt bank oddziały w warszawie godziny graniczne w kredyt banku prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz umowy pożyczki gotówki umowa pożyczki na odległość kredyt studencki forum wizaz kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowy pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp forum kredyty pożyczki legionowo kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod pożyczki dla pracowników biedronki mikropożyczki z efs pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej kredyt pozabankowy gdynia wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy czy każda umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank opinie kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd szybki kredyt bez bik krd forma prawna pożyczki pożyczki providus pozyczki dla rencistow bez bik torun pożyczki pelikan pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód kredyt bank adres siedziby wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt w paribas bank opinie kredyty bez bik mława kredyt bank mastercard world kredyt bez historii w bik umowe zlecenie warszawa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim w pko sa pożyczki prywatne wałbrzych w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie umowa pożyczki od pracodawcy pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan kredyt bank zakopane godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku na oświadczenie kasy stefczyka przeterminowany kredyt konsumencki kredyt konsolidacyjny oddłużeniowy pożyczki bez bik radom wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej orange jaki numer na kredyt pożyczki pod zastaw cieszyn kto płaci podatek od pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka kredyty chwilówki leszno getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie kredyt chwilówka jaworzno kredyt expert w uk forum pożyczki do 15000 bez bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych pod zastaw feniks pożyczki białystok wycena pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki eurolan kredyt bankowy ppt kredyty chwilówki siemianowice slaskie kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyty forum dyskusyjne w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim bankomaty kredyt bank gliwice kredyt bez bik olsztyn pożyczki nieruchomości pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk pożyczki bez poręczyciela umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank finan pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank bełchatów błyskawiczne pożyczki przez internet umowa pożyczki podporządkowanej pozyczki konin kredyty na dowod kredyt bank polna warszawa kredyt bank oddziały kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki na procent w ndm skok kujawiak pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko pozyczki pozabankowe w domu klijenta ostrow wlkp czy ustna umowa pożyczki jest ważna odmowa pożyczki w vivus pożyczki przez internet oszustwa umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe świdnica kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator księgowanie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku śląskim kredyt bank krakowskie lublin kredyt bank adresy w warszawie kredyt bez bik warszawa umowa pożyczki akt notarialny pożyczki chwilówki nakło pożyczki bez biku w lublinie kredyt bank mokotów umowa pożyczki z zastawem wzór parabanki pożyczki online provident wysokość pożyczki pożyczki lubin armii krajowej przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bez biku szamotuły pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow pożyczki dla małych firm z unii kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik i krd pożyczki bez bik kutno kredyt bank lokata internetowa kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowe czy pozyczki marka sprwdzaja bik big czy krd obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank giżycko telefon pozyczki dla polakow w londynie bez bik i umowy o prace kredyt bank konto ekstra oszczędnościowe kredyty bez bik dla rolników kalkulator pożyczki provident pożyczki przez internet 15 minut kredyt mieszkaniowy 350 tys kredyt dla firm bez bik big szybkie pożyczki bytom umowa pożyczki bez weksla kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce kredyt bez bik plock kredyt bank sa niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu pożyczki dla nauczycieli umowa pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kredyty pozabankowe chorzów windykator kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi wzór kredyty bez bik częstochowa pożyczki dla windykowanych pożyczki bzwbk kredyty chwilówki piaseczno pożyczki gotówkowe dla małych firm pożyczki pod weksel poznań kredyty bankowe bilans kredyty chwilowki lebork wzor umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny kredyt bank gocław udzielenie pożyczki wspólnikowi przez spółkę pożyczki akcent kredyt bank w ostrowcu świętokrzyskim pożyczki natychmiast kredyty chwilówki wiki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na działalność opodatkowanie umowy pożyczki 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum pożyczki na procent kielce pozyczki łodz kontakt udziele pożyczki prywatnej szybko bez sprawdzania kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty pożyczki a pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku mikropożyczki 2014 pożyczki na dowód rybnik bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie postea pożyczki pożyczki w rachunkowości kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie banki udzielające kredyt bez bik pcc od pożyczki dla firmy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bgz udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2014 kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacja rat pożyczki do domu warszawa umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu pozyczki od reki gdynia citi handlowy pożyczki kredyt bank sochaczew godziny otwarcia pożyczki bocian gryfice bezzwrotne pożyczki dla policjantów dobre pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank z bz wbk kredyt bank średni kurs walut pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw wierzyciel pożyczki opinie szybki kredyt bez biku pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny a rozwód dobry kredyt pozabankowy banki dające kredyt studencki kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt bank popularna telefon lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych bez bik kwota pożyczki angielski kredyt bank autodealing kredyt bank online 24 kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 lat provident zasady pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik alior bank pozyczka jaki procent pożyczki filemon kredyt bank money pożyczki krapkowice kredyty bez biku gorzow pożyczki bez bik radom umowa pożyczki formularz pożyczki payu kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka pożyczki i kredyty kredyt konsolidacyjny kto może dostać kredyt bank płock ul kolegialna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank białobrzegi kontakt pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat pożyczki bez bik w toruniu kredyt bank karier szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie pożyczki na dowód kontakt spłata pożyczki po niemiecku poznań pożyczki prywatne pożyczki prywatne suwałki pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi prawo kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp kredyt bank krdbplpw promotor pożyczki pożyczki do 5000 bez bik kredyty chwilówki w kaliszu pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt samochodowy w santanderze pożyczki w 24 godziny kredyt bank w zywcu kredyt bank szczecin starzyńskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt bez bik inowrocław pożyczki na własną działalność kredyt samochodowy multibank forum kredyt studencki pko żyrant kredyt bank minsk mazowiecki oprocentowanie kredytów w banku śląskim pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje kredyt bez biku w jakim banku kredyty mieszkaniowe w wielkiej brytanii kredyty konsolidacyjne na oświadczenie kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona kredyty bez biku jelenia góra kalkulator pożyczki w pko bp kompensata pożyczki z należnościami pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min kredyty bez bik jelenia gora kredyt bank w zywcu kredyt bank godziny przelewów przychodzących provident umowa pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe credit agricole kredyt studencki bank bph prowident krakow pozyczk pożyczki online od 19 lat pożyczki na biznes pozyczki bocian leszno pożyczki chwilówki białystok lipowa kredyt bank sa bankowość elektroniczna pożyczki internetowe bez bik bartek pozyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bezrobotnych pożyczki bocian rzeszów bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyt bank bielsko tel kredyt bank bielany warszawa kredyt bez bik dla rolnika pożyczki pod zastaw motocykla kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki atiz pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow eurobank kredyt bez biku kredyt w lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki za 1 gr alior bank kredyt gotówkowy ubezpieczenie kredyt bank pakiet aktywny umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia pożyczki starogard gdański włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana pozyczki bocian kontakt sroda wlkp pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom kredyt samochodowy w kosztach firmy kredyty mieszkaniowe starego portfela pożyczki gotówkowe dla firm money now pożyczki jak zaksięgować kredyt bankowy mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki skutki podatkowe czy vivus udziela pożyczek zadluzonym

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad