pożyczki ranking 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe brodnica kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń bik kredyt bank likwidacja pożyczki społecznościowe 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum kredyty chwilówki opinie gowork kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok kredyt bank długie ogrody kredyt bank żeromskiego 41 kredyt bank sa ul narutowicza 55b lublin kredyty w wbk forum pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych kredyty santander fundusze europejskie pożyczki kredyt bank zielona gora kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt opinie bocian pożyczki mielec tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyt chwilówka dla studenta optima s a kredyty pożyczki kredyt w banku na spłatę komornika kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki żary kredyt bank rakowicka kraków bocian pożyczki milicz krecik pożyczki opinie kredyt idea bank opinie kredyt bez biku szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe przepisy bocian pożyczki białystok kredyt bank 3 oddział gdańsk udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie pożyczki prywatne śląskie pożyczki online od 19 lat kredyt online idea bank kredyt bank kondratowicza godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku opinie pożyczki społecznościowe kokos forum pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie pożyczki gotówkowe udzielane w domu ekspres kasa pożyczki microfinance pożyczki polecane pożyczki opinie gdzie uzyskać kredyt bez bik bank pko bp kredyt dla pracujacych za granica fundusz korona pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw działki rolnej pożyczki millenium pożyczki przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyty pozabankowe ciechanów kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia pozyczka z up dla pracujacych pożyczki bez bik w czestochowie kredyt bank sokółka kontakt pożyczka chwilówka konin forest pożyczki wysokość pożyczki bez podatku pozyczka na dowod osobisty, chełm pożyczki społecznościowe w anglii pożyczki na dowód credit agricole oddziały kredyt banku w polsce pożyczki bez bik konin jak księgować pożyczki kredyt bez bik online optima pożyczki tczew kredyt mieszkaniowy w ing forum bocian pożyczki puławy kredyt bank routing number szukam pożyczki warszawa niezgłoszenie pożyczki potwierdzenie zwrotu pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez bik wrocław pożyczki do domu białystok wzór umowy pożyczki raty pozyczka na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie kredyt bank biskupiec pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu warszawa wycena pożyczki na koniec roku kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bank racibórz mickiewicza pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik pożyczki chwilówki od 20 lat szybki kredyt bez bik z komornikiem pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki jawnej kredyt bank zgierska 42 kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph open finance pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w noble bank kredyt bank grojec jowisz pożyczki kredyty bez bik gryfice pożyczki lukas kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt studencki pko jakie dokumenty umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną kredyty banki spółdzielcze bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum kredyt w citibank kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą 2013 pożyczki natychmiastowe pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku pożyczki pojęcie kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza godziny otwarcia pożyczki w domu wrocław identyfikator w kredyt banku usługa udzielenia pożyczki bocian pożyczki numer tel kredyt bank ranking pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki pożyczki z nfoś kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław kredyt w ing bank śląski forum kredyty bez bik pruszków umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki kredyt samochodowy meritum bank formularz pożyczki wzór pożyczki pod zastaw pruszków zabezpieczenie pożyczki wekslem eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs unilinkpożyczka toruń pożyczki bez bik kontakt kredyty w banku millennium pożyczki unijne na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt bank w stargardzie szczecińskim pożyczki gotówkowe sezam oleśnica odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej umowa pożyczki opłata pcc abis slask pozyczki kredyt bez bik legnica udziele pożyczki prywatnie kraków kredyt bank zachodni wbk oświadczenie o otrzymaniu pożyczki umowa pożyczki jakie pcc bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele pożyczki chwilówki nakło kredyt bank notowania pozyczka bez bik z obsluga w domu warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw akcji jsw pożyczki prywatne opodatkowanie warunki pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia pozyczki prywatne w bialymstoku umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyty bez bik piotrkow tryb pozyczka bez bik z obsluga w domu warszawa wzór na oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki na weksel kredyt bank zgłoszenie zagubienia karty kredyty bez bik na 12 miesięcy kredyt konsolidacyjny reklama pozyczka długoterminowa bez bik i krd dla bezrobotnych pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa kredyt bank łódź bednarska godziny otwarcia big apple pożyczki kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie gowork kredyty chwilówki kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracownikiem a pracodawcą bank pekao sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt bank wrocław legnicka pożyczki notarialne promocja pożyczki pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw w łodzi pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowych kredyty chwilówki jaworzno kredyty przez internet bez biku kredyt bank pocztowy online kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji pożyczki dla firm skok kredyt bank kalwaryjska kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości zielona góra kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 pożyczki domówki grudziądz oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pekao sa pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kredyt bank bankomaty pozyczki dla bezrobotnych bialystok kredyty bez bik jelenia gora istota umowy pożyczki pożyczki na rentę socjalną kredyt bank leżajsk kredyty chwilówki pabianice pożyczki społecznościowe pit pożyczki ratalne online kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyty sms bez bik przedłużenie pożyczki w sms kredyt kredyt bank vi oddział w warszawie kredyty chwilówki wniosek kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny pracy alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym dla firm kredyt bank pomorskie umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 procent kredyt bank sa regon umowa pożyczki obowiązki stron kredyt na start bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny na czym polega najbardziej korzystne pożyczki kredyt bez bik braniewo bank pko sa kredyt na samochód kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek prowident krakow pozyczk kredyt bank zabrze godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie otrzymanych odsetek od pożyczki 2012 wzór umowy pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyty pozabankowe bez bik siedlce adresy i nr tel kredyty w meritum bank oprocentowanie kredytu gotowkowego w santander bank pożyczki chwilówki jana pawła getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny konsolidacja kredytów gdzie najlepiej bocian pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt bank sa iban pożyczki gotówkowe konin kredyt bank gdańsk kontakt pożyczki i chwilówki bez bik umowa pożyczki walutowej umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp wałbrzych piaskowa góra kredyty na oddłużenie pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra kredyt bank bankomaty poznań cesja pożyczki a cienka kapitalizacja kredyt bank mielec telefon kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat kredyt studencki umorzenie forum kredyt bank w kępnie kredyty bez bik raciborz pożyczki pozabankowe kętrzyn w ktorym banku wziasc kredyt kredyt bank blonie umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór kara za niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r umowa pożyczki osoby prywatne pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bez bik gryfice kredyt bank w gorzowie roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik kredyt bank euribor kredyt bank warszawa kabaty banki kredyty dla firm symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank winogrady pożyczki lombard skarabeusz pożyczki kościan pozyczka w lukas swiebodzin kredyt bank mikołów godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank garbary poznań godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw krosno kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg z konta kredyt studencki bankier pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum bartuś pożyczki rumia szybkie pożyczki piła kredyt w banku czy raty w sklepie kredyt bank sa siedziba kredyty chwilówki ulotki parabanki kredyty chwilówki pozyczki bez bik przez internet pożyczki dla rolników wymagalność pożyczki dobre kredyty bez biku pożyczki obliczanie rat kredyt bank warszawa grójecka godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki kraków nowa huta kredyt bank jelenia góra wysoki kredyt a wiek kredyt bocian umowa pożyczki stwierdzona pismem kredyt konsolidacyjny aig kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi księgowanie prodomo pożyczki nowe mia kredyt bez bik tarnów pożyczki ii rp kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki pożyczki hybrydowe umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o rata kredytu pożyczki pożyczki bocian międzyrzecz chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach pożyczki bez bik i krd jelenia góra kredyt bank filie kredyt bank placówki wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu gros pożyczki opinie pożyczki abc pożyczki sł margonem cashout pożyczki kredyt na 15 lat odsetki karne pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys kredyt bank lomza kredyt banki tarnów pożyczki najtaniej szukam pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty pozabankowe zawiercie kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank giżycko tel kredyt do orange jaki numer pożyczki prywatne 2012 gwarantowane pożyczki osobiste pożyczki bez bik mielec pożyczki kredyty kredyty konsolidacyjne porównywarka kredyt w uk na dom kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum pożyczki chwilówki lębork umowa poręczenia spłaty pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet kredyt bez bik 5000 online pożyczki bez bik oferty szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie kredyt bankowy i jego funkcje kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe kredyt mieszkaniowy rynek pierwotny pozyczki bez big kredyt bank w kielcach kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczka bez bik kredyt w db bank opinie kredyt bank zamykanie konta kredyt bank polska 2012 prywatne pożyczki lubań kredyt bank w żywcu pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań pożyczki bez bik słubice lub pożyczki bez bik rzeszów pożyczki bocian zgorzelec kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik kredyt pleszew bez biku kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie optima pożyczki zielona góra afera o kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica kredyt pozabankowy na weksel ewidencja umorzenia pożyczki kredyt w banku eurobank hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki firmy leasingowe pożyczki odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota pożyczki ostrołęka pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik kredyt bez bik w czestochowie bocian pożyczka nr tele kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia pożyczki w bolesławcu pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg pożyczki parabank oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie jak działają pożyczki społecznościowe pożyczki chwilówki radom kredyt bank franciszkańska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank windykacja praca pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik bocian pożyczki youtube pożyczki radom kredyt bank wiek kredytobiorcy pożyczki bez bik 20000 pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyt bank autoryzacja kredyt samochodowy lukas bank transze w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe przepisy kredyt bank junior pozyczki do domu podkarpacie pożyczki w domu klienta bydgoszcz pożyczka bez biku lublin kredyt bank niskie oprocentowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe spółdzielcze kredyty chwilówki reklama kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator ing wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank kierownik filii pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota umowa pożyczki 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank konsolidacja unilink cash pożyczki pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadczen elk szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyty chwilówki grodzisk mazowiecki kredyt bankowy bez bik szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet kredyt bank matejki gorzów wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2012 umowa pożyczki z rodzicami kredyt bank rabka pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach pożyczki od ręki kredyty kredyt bank centrum warszawa kredyt bank sa kursy walut kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2011 pożyczki gotówkowe grudziądz kredyt bank nordea wroclaw profi kredyt przedstawiciel pani bozena kredyt studencki pko zasady kredyty chwilówki inowrocław pożyczki pieniężne poza systemem bankowym kredyt bank warszawa bankomaty pożyczki preferencyjne małopolska spłata pożyczki tłumaczenie zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole kredyt samochodowy w firmie ile kosztuje kredyt w banku pożyczki na spłatę komornika pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe pożyczki barlinek szybki kredyt bez bik katowice pożyczki na dowód inowrocław kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt kredyt bank wpłatomaty poznań w jakim banku wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego w pko bp jaki nr na kredyt w orange kredyt bank łuków praca kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking kredyt bank wrocław plac solny kredyt bank piaskowa góra wałbrzych umowa pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank włocławek telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny santander bank pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident kredyt chwilówki żary umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe kredyty chwilówki tychy windykacja przedłużenie pożyczki w vivus pożyczki do 15000 pożyczki z komornikiem udzielane w domu everest finanse pożyczki kredyt bez bik braniewo kredyt bank tarnów kontakt kredyt bank warecka warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme kredyt studencki pko czy warto umowa pożyczki bank kredyt bank bialystok warszawska kredyt bank w mińsku maz kredyt samochodowy bre bank pożyczki chwilówki kluczbork adresy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyty mieszkaniowe po nowym roku obliczanie pożyczki kredyt bez bik jaki bank bankowe pozyczki bez bik kredyt bank sa iban pozyczki w uk po polsku zopa czym uzasadnic pozyczke na remont szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt prywatny świdnica forum kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen alior bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki społecznościowe strategie inwestycyjne prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt pożyczka od zaraz chełm ewidencja kredytów w banku komercyjnym pożyczki skok wołomin kredyty chwilówki radom poniatowskiego prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyty online bez bik kredyt bez bik w łodzi wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin jak zaksięgować udzielone pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad