pożyczki chwilówki bocian podatek od pożyczki kara kredyt bank w wałczu pożyczki interes lloyds kredyt gotowkowy transfery w kredyt banku kredyt bank historia powstania alior bank kredyt oddłużeniowy forest pożyczki przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk kredyt bank gliniana wrocław kupon 1 kredyt bank kredyt bank w olecku kredyt bank oferty kredytowe kredyt mieszkaniowy pko czas oczekiwania pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej warszawa alior bank kredyt dla studenta pożyczki dla firm forum kredyt pozabankowy na auto kredyt konsolidacyjny bez małżonka pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bik ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank depozyty pożyczki puławy kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 cesja z umowy pożyczki kredyt bank niepodległości warszawa flisak pożyczki opinie pożyczki gotówkowe bytom kredyty poza bankowe bez big siedlce adresy i nr tel kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum deutsche bank kursy walut kredyt euro pożyczki limanowa pożyczki bez bik sieradz pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc alior bank kredyty online bank żubr gliwice pożyczka millenium kredyt na start kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kredyt bez bik skarbiec pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank kraków kapelanka godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik krd i big kredyt bank slupsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wielicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki provident gdańsk kredyt bank prowadzenie konta pozyczki bocian leszno kredyty chwilówki kierowca gliwice pożyczki prywatne pożyczki przez internet plus szybkie pożyczki 24h szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa szybki kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen pożyczki internetowe gotówkowa kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia szybkie kredyty minimum formalnosci oprocentowanie rynkowe pożyczki szybkie pozyczki lublin bez bik pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank prezentacja kredyt bank radom tel gdzie w zgorzelcu prywatna pozyczka pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik pożyczka chwilówka konin kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra pbs pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń zus us umowa pożyczki osób fizycznych raty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank wielkopolska kredyt bank czestochowa al nmp kredyt bank sa kursy walut prywatne pożyczki kościan kredyt bank wilanów kredyt konsolidacyjny wikipedia szybkie pożyczki online opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyt bank pierwsze logowanie pożyczki bgk kredyty bez bik pruszków kredyt bank belgia pożyczki do domu białystok kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 kredyt z banku w uk kredyty mieszkaniowe millenium kalkulator www wbkpożyczki srem kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator multibank kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku pozyczki od osob rywatnych w zorach elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego pożyczki nidzica kredyty pozabankowe wałbrzych przedłużenie pożyczki w vivus umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór pożyczki przez internet 30000 kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatami kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w chwilówkach opinie kredyt dla firmy bez biku umowa pożyczki z synem pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki chwilówki kasprowicza kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim umowa przyrzeczenia pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pracujacych w norwegii pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy na 120 wartości kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca pożyczki dla firm bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław pozyczka dla zadłuzonych kredyt orange 2zl wierzyciel pożyczki opinie pozyczki milenium szamotuly pożyczki do domu warszawa kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód kredyt budowlany w jakim banku kredyt studencki w którym banku najlepiej kredyt bank piotrków tryb godziny otwarcia optima pożyczki gliwice kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe koszt kredyt bank w legionowie kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 najszybszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bankowy a utrata pracy szybki kredyt bez bik katowice kruk pozyczki bielsko b global pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki bez odsetek kredyty bez bik pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki infolinia bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik online konwersja pożyczki na akcje pożyczki domu pozyczki pocztowe kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych forum umowa pożyczki na odległość pożyczki bez rejestrów najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 skarabeusz pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyty chwilówki krosno pożyczki chwilówki ranking kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana kredytobiorcy kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku credit agricole pożyczki w chf atrakcyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt bank krasnystaw kontakt kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin kredyt bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt bank regulamin kredyt bez biku koszalin kredyt bez bik optima pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki optima pożyczki do domu łódź pożyczki oddłużeniowe z komornikiem kredyt pozabankowy poznań kredyty chwilówki kedzierzyn pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank średni kurs walut kredyty chwilówki 24h kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 gdańsk pożyczki pozabankowe forum wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank częstochowa piłsudskiego kontakt kredyt bankowy rodzaje niski kredyt w banku pożyczki 15 minut kredyt bank windykacja warszawa ing bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pozyczki z komornikiem miedzyrzec podlaski czy ubezpieczenie pożyczki jest obowiązkowe umowa cesji pożyczki wzór pożyczki z dostawą do domu warszawa pożyczki bez bik 4000 pożyczki rodzina na swoim żyrant pożyczki pozyczka na procent opole skarabeusz pozyczki zamość pożyczki pajęczno kredyt bank plac solny wrocław kontakt pożyczki prywatne piotrków tryb kredyt santander bank 3x33 pożyczki agroreg umowa pożyczki lichwa blog pożyczki prywatne pozyczki na dowod wloclawek godziny otwarcia renegocjacja pożyczki kredyty bez biku sosnowiec umowa pożyczki historia pożyczki z komornikiem kraków kredyt bank konto junior kredyty chwilówki kierowca kredyt bank sa ul narutowicza 55b lublin pożyczki na dowód credit agricole pożyczki chwilówki od 18 credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys kredyt mieszkaniowy śmierć kredytobiorcy w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank gniezno godziny otwarcia kredyt bank powstancow slaskich warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe firmy zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe bocian pożyczki wniosek online kredyt pod zastaw samochodu w banku kredyt mieszkaniowy polbank kalkulator zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2013 kredyty bez bik katowice kredyt bez bik na rok kredyt bank w starachowicach kredyty chwilówki w kielcach pożyczki lublin kredyty umowa pożyczki między firmami a vat getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pożyczki gliwice bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank kredyt bank pożyczka na dowód pozyczki pozabankowe katowice bez meldunku kredyt bank zana kredyt bez biku szczecinek kredyt bank raszyn telefon kredyt pozabankowy zielona góra pożyczki społecznościowe co to pożyczki od rodziny a podatek kredyt chwilówka praca forum pożyczki prywatne udzielę pożyczki chwilówki kościerzyna ratalne szybkie pozyczki przez internet agar kredyt santander bank 3x33 kredyty gotówkowe bank pko sa szybkie pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyty chwilówki windykacja tychy pożyczki na oddłużenie pożyczki bez poręczyciela kredyt bank warszawa ul fieldorfa pożyczki na niski dochód kredyt bank numer telefonu obliczanie oprocentowania pożyczki prodomo pozyczki kredyty bez bik kraków pożyczki prywatne busko zdrój kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński pożyczki chwilówki chorzów kredyt bank częstochowa bankomaty kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bank polski ranking banków na kredyt bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne prominent pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank w poznaniu kredyt orange nr pożyczki do ręki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw forum umowa pożyczki 2013 kredyt odnawialny w millenium bank wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pekao sa kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna kredyty chwilówki namysłów oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w santander kredyt studencki bz wbk pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów alfa kredyty chwilówki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłego pracownika kredyty gotówkowe bez bik przez internet pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław medicover kredyt bank warszawa kredyt bank gdańsk suchanino godziny otwarcia pożyczki z pfron 2013 pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bank biuro prasowe refinansowanie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie eurocent pożyczki kredyt bank ii oddział wrocław bocian pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt bank okrąglak kredyty gotówkowe w banku millennium pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków kwota pożyczki netto kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk kalkulator kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd reklamacja pożyczki umowa pożyczki skok leasing a kredyt bankowy chomikuj kredyt bank czarne złoto pozyczki prywatne wejherowo kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock kredyt bank nowa dęba kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie na swoim kredyt bez bik 10 000 w bielsku białej kredyt bank zachodni wbk kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń postea pożyczki kredyty chwilówki gryfino kredyt bez bik krakow odsetki od pożyczki cienka kapitalizacja kredyt bez bik poznań kredyty bez bik big wycena bilansowa otrzymanej pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt samochodowy ing kredyt bank powstancow slaskich szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez biku kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia kredyt bank lublin narutowicza tel kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku wbk umowa pożyczki kpc kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata pożyczki gotówkowe bez big kredyt bank mokotowska 49 kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie czy kredyt bankowy jest przychodem instrumenty finansowe pożyczki kredyty lublin kredyt 4000 bez bik online pożyczki kościerzyna kredyt w lukas bank kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki ekspresowe kredyt bank numery kont kredyt bez bik 70000 umowa ugody pożyczki charakter prawny umowy pożyczki kredyt bank częstochowa kontakt idea bank kredyt na start forum pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski kredyty chwilówki knf kredyt banku infolinia vivus odmowa pożyczki pozyczka z funduszu bez baz kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki z zagranicy pożyczki bez bik ranking pożyczki chwilówki legnica pożyczki społecznościowe ryzyko pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych pożyczki w domu klienta lubin kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń i bez biku pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny w instytucjach pozabankowych pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany kredyt samochodowy w getin bank opinie pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon pożyczki gotówkowe leszno kredyt bez historii w bik umowe zlecenie warszawa kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich kredyty chwilówki windykacja żyrafa pożyczki poznań kredyt pozabankowy bez bik i krd pożyczka bez sprawdzania w krd i bik pożyczki z urzędu pracy 2013 pożyczki finan pożyczki chwilówki via kredyty chwilówka online profi kredyt kontakt klodzko kredyt w uk na rok skarabeusz pożyczki opole pożyczki pozabankowe udzielane w domu kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja umowa pożyczki rodzaje umowa pożyczki realna najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin umowa pożyczki zawarta w dniu pożyczki chwilówki jędrzejów pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik i krd pożyczka pozabankowa do 20000 kredyt bank rzeszów 3 maja pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn pożyczki bez biku rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyty santander consumer bank pożyczki w domu zawiercie bocian pożyczki praca zarobki kredyt studencki bank pocztowy pożyczki pod zastaw umowa pożyczki paliwa pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat bank pekao sa kredyty dla firm kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie pożyczki na wakacje bocian pożyczki bolesławiec kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica kredyt studencki pko aneks kredyt bez bik otwock kredyty bankowe księgarnia kasomat pożyczki opinie kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bialystok mickiewicza prodomo pożyczki podlaskie pożyczki prometeusz wrocław pożyczki bocian łódź przez internet pożyczki dla pracujących za granicą kredyty pozabankowe kredyty bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank email kredyt bank w kluczborku bankomaty kredyt banku białystok global pożyczki świdnica umorzenie pożyczki a vat kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników banki bgż pożyczki dla rolników pożyczki w domu klienta bytom pożyczka 20000 w lesznie bez bik fundusze unijne pożyczki optima pożyczki tel kredyty chwilówki bieruń kredyt bez bik dla firm pożyczki z funduszu jeremie pożyczki bez krd bik pożyczki bochnia kredyt bank online logowanie kredyt bank pabianice ul zamkowa kredyty pożyczki gwarancje bankowe pożyczki 0 udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyty konsolidacyjne oddłużanie opodatkowanie umowy pożyczki 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki na pit zielona góra umowa pożyczki do spółki udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 idea bank kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie pożyczki publiczne umowa pożyczki działalność gospodarcza kredyt bank sa adres siedziby kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2013 szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pko bp kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa kredyty w fm banku kredyt bank hajnówka w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke koszt przelewu kredyt bank kredyty bez biku tarnów koszt umowy pożyczki kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyty bez bik pod zastaw kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyty w anglii forum helikon pozyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredytowy kredyt bank gdynia karwiny pożyczki chwilówki ranking kredyt w banku pocztowym a bik kredyt bez bik dla firm alior bank kredyt oferta kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i zabezpieczeń w jakim banku wziac kredyt na samochod pożyczki chwilówki bez bik przez internet kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim pożyczki bankowe kalkulator podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs helikon pożyczki opinie wzór umowy pożyczki dla spółki maciej ciechomski pożyczki akropol pożyczki kredyt bank mielno optima pożyczki gniezno pożyczki bez bik kalkulator szybkie pożyczki olsztyn kredyt bez bik jasło kredyt bank polisolokata kancelaria finansowa pożyczki kod do kredytu w orange kredyt samochodowy bez bik szczecin kredyty chwilówki praca tychy wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs alior bank kredyt gotówkowy symulacja umowa pożyczki spółka z oo wycena pożyczki w walucie kredyty studenckie w pko bp kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowe umowa pożyczki eurobank

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad