kredyt bez bik 20 000 plus prowidus pozyczki firma kronos pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank centrala tel szybka pozyczka duza kwota pożyczki na procent śląskie darmowe anonse pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki kontakt pożyczki 10000zł kredyt samochodowy getin bank kalkulator vivus odmowa pożyczki banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik meritum bank kredyt firmowy opinie pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki kredyt bez bik do 3000 kredyty chwilówka żywiec pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt studencki w banku wbk kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce pożyczki na pierwszy biznes kredyt na pit w getin banku forum czy kredyt bank ma problemy kredyt bank hajnówka kredyt bank mieszkanie kredyt bank mikołów telefon pożyczki społecznościowe online pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank łaczy sie kredyt mieszkaniowy bez umowy na czas nieokreślony kredyt bank kursy walut kredyt eurobank online abis pożyczki infolinia pożyczki na dowód chwilówki umowa pozyczki ze wsteczna data kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt studencki pko bp legitymacja idea bank opinie kredyt na start bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat umowa pożyczki członka zarządu udzielenie pożyczki a pcc podatek pcc od pożyczki między firmami kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyt bank wawelska kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 pod jaki numer kredyt do orange kredyt bank połączony z kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez bik kredyty chwilówki gredan kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia chwilowka tczew czy dostane pozyczke na dowod kredyt bez bik prywatny kredyty bez bik gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny banki kredyt bank karty visa pożyczka do domu płock kredyt bank zarobki 2012 pożyczki pabianice pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online kredyt bank lokata internetowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu śląsk udzielanie pożyczki kredyt bank infolinia numer potrącenie z wynagrodzenia pożyczki z zfśs centrala kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 min kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac optima pożyczki jakie raty kredyt bank rzeszów adres umowa pożyczki przelew uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki kredyt raz dwa trzy w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bik kredyt bank radzymińska pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu forum współpraca pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia pożyczki ślimak opinie kredyt chwilówka bochnia kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank kredyty chwilówki łódź piotrkowska pożyczki busko zdrój umowa pożyczki a darowizna kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie o bankach pożyczki bez bik wodzisław śląski kredyt w alior banku forum jak obliczyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku umowa pożyczki akcji kredyt w lloyds bank w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kredyt samochodowy w idea banku pożyczki dla nieletnich grudziadz parkmar pozyczki bip pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki provident forum kredyt bank w pszczynie kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw lubuskie kredyt bank konstancinska kredyt mieszkaniowy w noble bank pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik żywiec pożyczki chwilówki forum 2013 umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a prawną w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowod pożyczki pyrzyce kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander kredyty chwilówki bez dochodu kredyty chwilówki pruszcz gdański kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku odsetki od pożyczki kalkulator gofin getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy max kredyt bank oferta dla firm pożyczki pozabankowe tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki daiglob finance kredyt bez bik debica pożyczki dla zadłużonych olsztyn pożyczki bez bik do 10 000 alior bank kredyty online kredyt bank polonia kredyt bank godziny otwarcia olsztyn szybkie pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki leszno kredyty chwilówki krzeszowice bocian jakie wymagania kredytowe kredyt bank rezygnacja z konta kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 gdańsk pożyczki 50 zł pożyczki w banku pekao sa open finance pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt studencki bz wbk 2012 optima pożyczki współpraca kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku magdalena lis pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas pożyczki ratunkowe opole kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole pożyczki do domu piła pożyczki ala provident kredyt bank kolegialna płock kredyt bank międzyzdroje praca pożyczki online kredyt bankowy księgowanie pożyczki bez biku przemyśl kredyt chwilówka rawicz pożyczki świąteczne prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt orange kod kredyt bez bik ostrowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny z bikiem pożyczki na renty kredyt inwestycyjny getin bank opinie pożyczki bez bik gliwice kredyty mieszkaniowe 2010 pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto pożyczki bez bik na 2 lata kredyt bank lubin wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt w bos banku kredyt konsolidacyjny karta kredytowa pożyczki prywatne września pożyczki ratunkowe poznań kredyt bank jelenia góra wolności kredyt bank elbląg godziny otwarcia kredyt w uk jak dostac umowa pożyczki od rodziców kredyty bez bik koszalin kredyty chwilówki debica kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk kalkulator pożyczki kielce szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd pożyczki na pit zielona góra umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe umowa pożyczki przelewem wzór warunki dostania pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe na konto korzystny kredyt w banku prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz optima pożyczki do domu opinie kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik wierzyciel kredyt bank centrum handlowe warszawa kredyt chwilówka ulotki kredyt bank lokata negocjowana umowa pożyczki i poręczenia wzór umowy pozyczki w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi szczecin kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf pożyczki gotówkowe sezam kredyt bank pendrive kredyt bankowy na zakup mieszkania umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw pożyczki 5000 zł kredyt bank radomsko telefon pożyczki chwilówki online nowe kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie kredyt bank białobrzegi radomskie kredyt studencki ing bank śląski kredyty bez bik lodz kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel dukat pożyczki czestochowa kredyt bank targowa warszawa pożyczki bez big kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy 110 procent płock pożyczki bez bik pozyczki w domu warszawa pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka szybkie pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet wykop pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla kogo kredyt chwilówka co to jest konto dewizowe w kredyt banku kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów godziny otwarcia kredyty dla firm bez bik zus us kredyt bank akademia lidera kredyt mieszkaniowy stały fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs kredyt w banku a przedawnienie łukta pożyczki kredyty bez bik w kielcach kredyt bank matejki gorzów pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt bank kierownik filii kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu kredyt bank w giżycku pożyczki namysłów szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe online ak group pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet kredyt bank warszawa chełmska oprocentowanie pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu kredyt bank koło pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna kredyt bank zmiana adresu optima pożyczki praca kredyt chwilówka ranking pożyczki starogard gdański spłata pożyczki z amber gold kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp opinie pożyczki od ręki opinie kredyt bank kondratowicza umowa pożyczki osobie prywatnej banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet pożyczki przez internet bez biku bocian pozyczki warunki udzielenia polecana pozyczka w systemie ratalnym bez bik kredyt odnawialny w banku śląskim prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa dobra umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu czy warto brać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank placowki katowice kredyt w banku aib irlandia kredyt bank sa oddział leszno pożyczki bez bik w kielcach najbardziej opłacalne pożyczki kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany przez państwo pszczółka pożyczki chwilówki kredyt 1000 pożyczki na dowód kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen czy istnieje jeszcze mennica pozyczki w jeleniej gorze getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczenia kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki wzór kredyt w banku a urzad skarbowy kredyty chwilówki blog pożyczki online od 18 lat bankomaty kredyt banku kielce kredyt bank wychodzące pożyczki providus kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach kredyt bank polski pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny a rodzina na swoim pożyczki bez bik zabrze firma uzyskała kredyt w banku 12 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zamość kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd kraków pożyczki bez bik oświęcim pożyczki ue kredyt bank lipno godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt bez biku przez internet szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat walbrzych pozyczka w domu pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz pożyczki na dowód credit agricole kredyt bez bik toruń kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska pożyczki od osób prywatnych rzeszów kredyty pozabankowe inowrocław wbk bank zachodni leszno kredyt porzyczka kredyt pozabankowy toruń pożyczki dla gmin pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki wzór pożyczki bez bik malbork kredyt bank kraków godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 kredyt pozabankowy słupsk kredyty bez bik starachowice kredyt bez bik lubuskie kredyty bez biku łódź kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys bez zgody wspolmalzonka kredyt studencki pko umorzenie kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank w przemyślu księgowanie przelewów w kredyt banku pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat umowa pożyczki dla pracownika a pcc kredyt bank ii oddział katowice kredyt bez bik lomza kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big pożyczki unijne małopolska kredyt bank warszawa lokalizacja kredyt bank opłaty za konto pożyczki społecznościowe strategie inwestycyjne kredyty chwilowki krakow umorzenie pożyczki powodziowej kredyty chwilówki śląsk księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bankowy księgowanie umowa pożyczki pieniężnej na raty umorzenie pożyczki z zfśś kredyt bank wielicka kraków pożyczki długoterminowe definicja odsetki od pożyczki koszty pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyt bank warszawa praga umowa pożyczki pkzp skarabeusz pożyczki kalisz pożyczki na dowód bez bik kalkulator kredyty chwilówki przemyśl kredyt bank w olecku kredyt bank lublin zana 38 epef pożyczki jak dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów kredyt bank w ostrolece kredyt studencki pko kiedy spłata kredyty bez bik gorzów 30 tysiecy pozyczki dla zadluzonych w poznaniu czy łatwo o kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank prezes odsetki od pożyczki partycypacyjnej gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa kredyt studencki bank pocztowy kredyt bez bik torun pożyczki na własny biznes zwrot pożyczki bez umowy pisemnej kredyty pod zastaw bez bik kredyty chwilówki czy warto kredyt bank belgia umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla polakow w uk kredyt mieszkaniowy stary portfel kredyt bank żniwna poznań pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód promocja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika umowa pożyczki maksymalne oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki inowrocław pozyczki łodz kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank pożyczki w jakim banku kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt bank wrocław kontakt pożyczki rybnik wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki zarząd kredyt bez biku jaworzno pożyczki raty pożyczki pod zastaw siemianowice śląskie pożyczki gotówkowe suwałki na jaki numer wziasc kredyt w orange pożyczki dla uczniów activa 500 czy bez problemu daja pozyczki kredyt w banku sgb kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole w pewnym banku zaciagamy kredyt kredyt bank wagrowiec bank pko bp kredyt dla pracujacych za granica pozyczki dla zadlzonych bialystok pożyczki pod zastaw toruń umowa pożyczki pieniężnej podatek szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn kredyty prywatne zielona gora kredyty mieszkaniowe dopłaty kredyt bank sulechów kontakt niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego czy latwo dostac kredyt w banku pocztowym które banki dają kredyt w euro kredyt bank lokalizacja warunki kredytu w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank wolska kredyty chwilówki praca ulotki spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank opinie kredyt bez bik online 10 lat kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa kredyt bank sa chojnice getin bank kredyt samochodowy kredyty z komornikiem katowice kredyt bank fundusze notowania kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik kredyt bank warszawa górczewska 200 skarabeusz kalkulator pozyczek kredyt bank bonifraterska kwota pożyczki a pcc pożyczki bez bik 20000 alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt prywatny zagraniczny kredyty chwilowki gdansk kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji lublin kredyt banki tarnów kredyty chwilówki wrocław jedności narodowej arleg pożyczki kredyt bank karta concerto identyfikator w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank opinie kredyty bez banku warszawa pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank nowy sącz kontakt kredyty bez biku zielona gora kredyt bank biała podlaska godziny otwarcia getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona nieruchomością łatwe pożyczki online kredyt w banku spółdzielczym a bik kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa bocian pożyczki i podobne kredyt bank ekstrapremia kredyt bank blz kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin kredyt bankowy millenium pożyczki oddłużeniowe oddziały kredyt banku w kielcach kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ubezpieczenia pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki praca opinie kredyt bank pozycja na rynku kredyt studencki wbk 2014 kredyt bank przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowe rzeszów szybkie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyt bank nowe ogrody gdańsk kredyt bank sprzedany santander pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw nieruchomości odsetki od pożyczki przychodem podatkowym w jakim banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 udziałowiec udziela pożyczki spółce ekspresowe pożyczki świnoujście pożyczki alternatywne konto księgowe pożyczki pożyczki z unii europejskiej pożyczki jeremie łódzkie kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacja bocian pożyczki rzeszów kontakt kredyt bank departament windykacji consumer finance kredyty bez bik w rzeszowie kredyt bank warszawa telefon tanie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki przez internet za darmo pożyczki dla firm bez bik umowa pożyczki właściwość sądu mława pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki kodeks odsetki od pożyczki kup kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny na 120 miesięcy kredyt bank warszawa oddział

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad