pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank żagiel warszawa kredyt bank radom telefon umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak sygma bank kredyty online kredyt praca licencjacka podrobiona umowa pożyczki pokwitowanie zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bank łuków pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyty bez biku gdańsk pożyczki pozabankowe kłodzko pożyczki chwilówki wałbrzych kredyt w banku przedawnienie bank pko kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty chwilówki opole książąt opolskich kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank opinie kredyt w pko bp kalkulator oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów opole pożyczki na dowód śrem pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt bank kraków długa godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór pożyczki bez bik skierniewice regulamin pożyczki pozabankowy kredyt na otworzenie dzialalnosci pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pko kredyt w lukas banku kalkulator kredyt w banku śląskim kredyt bank kielce bankomaty pozyczki bez bik tel pozyczki bez zdolnosc bydgoszcz pożyczki od osób prywatnych kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka jawor opodatkowanie pożyczek typu kokos forum pożyczki wolne od podatku pożyczki w euroexpert kredyt z chwilówki tempo finanse pożyczki opinie udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań umowa pożyczki z akcjonariuszem kredyt bez bik eurobank kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w świnoujściu chwilowka pożyczka lublin oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku kredyty dla studentów mbank kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie kredyty bez bik piotrkow tryb kredyt bank pyskowice kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet kredyt studencki w banku wbk pożyczki od osób prywatnych lublin umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt bank gdynia godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa leszno kredyt w jakim banku najtaniej czy od pożyczki w banku płaci się podatek kredyt bank forum pożyczki prywatne dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank długa kredyty bez bik białogard pożyczki na dowód wonga giżycko bezpieczny kredyt kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt bankowy raty druk umowy pożyczki pieniędzy kredyty bez bik lubuskie czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowe kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole opinie optima pożyczki zasady przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank nidzica kontakt kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaswiadczen gdzie najszybciej kredyt online na koncie zasady kredytu studenckiego w pko bp skarabeusz pożyczki kościan biuro dobrej pożyczki lokata rentierska w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki jaka forma kredyty w uk po polsku pożyczki katowice pożyczki chwilówki artykuł kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobote pożyczki do domu puławy kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany kredyt gotówkowy bank bph kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenia kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank otwock kontakt kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold pożyczka w domu poznań kredyt studencki jakie banki 2012 kredyt bank warszawska kielce umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór kronos pożyczki opinie kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie pożyczki na weksel kraków pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowej szukam pożyczki pod nieruchomość fines pożyczki opinie kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka pożyczki gotówkowe wikipedia kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej credit agricole pensje w kredyt banku jaki jest kredyt do orange eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem kredyt bez bik warszawa provident zwrot pożyczki kredyty firmowe bez bik rodzaje kredytów w banku pko bp kredyt bank jarosław kredyty chwilówki złotów meritum bank kredyty online co to jest kredyt bez bik szybki kredyt bez biku i krd grudziadz pozyczka bez bik 5000 pożyczki bez bik starogard gdański kredyt bankowy pko pożyczki na dowód kutno kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk telefon kredyt bank polecenie zapłaty kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 umowa pożyczki z datą wsteczną bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego kredyt bank legnicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 kredyty bez bik tomaszow maz pożyczka od rodziny a decyzja kredytowa pożyczki duże kwoty kredyty chwilówki kontakt tani kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki prywatne lublin umowa pożyczki bez zgody małżonka pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum kredyt bez bik big krd bez zabezpieczeń w godzine kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys bez zgody wspolmalzonka wzór na odsetki od pożyczki kredyt bank zgora kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana pracy żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole kredyty bez bik na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank siedlce godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki kc bardzo szybki kredyt bez bik pozyczka wierzyciel niskooprocentowane pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank targowa kredyty chwilówki rozdawanie ulotek umowa pożyczki między firmą a osobą fizyczną bank pko bp kredyt inwestycyjny prywatne pożyczki częstochowa bocian pożyczki chełmża pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2012 niespłacenie pożyczki vivus kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań kredyt orange 1zl mikropożyczki w polsce pożyczki pozabankowe piotrków tryb kredyty bez bik gliwice kredyt bez bik grójec kredyt samochodowy w getin noble banku wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej pożyczki dla młodych pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie skok pszczyna wniosek o kredyt online abis pożyczki telefon natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki pożyczki cashper kredyt bank w rzeszowie godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki w skok stefczyka przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank santander 2012 kredyty chwilówki dla firm pożyczka wieloratalna przez internet kredyty chwilówki na liście knf kredyt bank połączony z kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pekao mikropożyczki w polsce pożyczki bocian rzeszów pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica kredyt bank sa infolinia kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki rzeszów kontakt pożyczki bez bik stalowa wola pożyczki 10000zł pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange kredyt chwilówka 20000 kredyt studencki pko czy pekao kredyt bank dss kredyt bank szczecin adres wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach maksymalny okres pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny co to kredyt bank bankomaty bezprowizyjne oblicz ratę kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bankowy ksiegowanie bezzwrotne pożyczki dla mikrofirm pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko warunki kredytu w kredyt banku umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy praca w kredyty chwilówki opinie pożyczki nieopodatkowane pożyczki bez bik nowa sól pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki bez bik krd online kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób pracujących za granicą kredyt w getin banku 2012 kredyt bank pbs ślimak pożyczki toruń pozyczki bez biku kredyt bank gwarancja bocian pożyczki jarocin formularz umowy pożyczki idea bank kredyt dla firm forum pożyczki kredyty bez biku pozyczka chwilowka bez krdbikbig gdzie po kredyt bez bik kredyt bank w starogardzie gdanskim kredyt bank kolobrzeska 12 gdansk auto kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw ełk pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami powiązanymi umowa pożyczki potwierdzona notarialnie kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń pozyczki na dowod gubin kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank pożyczki żagań konwersja pożyczki na kapitał pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta bankowego od 18lat bank pko bp kredyt rodzina na swoim wyciągi w kredyt banku pożyczki dla firm kielce kredyty chwilowki krs kredyt bez bik krd z komornikiem pożyczki firmowe bez bik kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia cesja pożyczki księgowanie finan pożyczki kwidzyn pożyczki gotówkowe niskooprocentowane kredyt bank lubin jana pawła pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank żywiec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty płock kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum kredyt z komornikiem kamienna gora kredyt chwilowki rzeszow umowa pożyczki sprawa cywilna kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie konsolidacja kredytu gdzie najlepiej kredyt bank wrocław legnicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom pożyczki chwilówki forum pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku pożyczki pozabankowe w poznaniu kredyty prywatne zielona gora pożyczki chwilówki sopot nowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik dla zadluzonych eurofin pożyczki takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek kredyty bez bik wodzisław śląski prywatne pozyczki podkarpacie pozyczki dla zadluzonych od lat 19 przez internet zarobki kredyt bank forum kredyt bank żyrardów siódemka pożyczki pko kwidzyn kredyty studenckie pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą bocian pożyczki braniewo kredyt bank 24 godziny otwarcia bank pko kredyt kalkulator pożyczki lendon pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku pożyczki bez bik radom bocian pożyczki mława pożyczki gotówkowe w skoku kredyty chwilowki plonsk pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń i bez biku kredyt bez bik 5000 online umorzenie pożyczki a darowizna pożyczki pod zastaw łódź pożyczki bez biku w lublinie kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opłaty pożyczki tanie pożyczki pozabankowe 20000 pożyczki uam pozyczka bez bik na oswiadczenie dla zadluzonych pożyczki rybnik pożyczki chwilówki biznes jaki nr na kredyt w orange szybkie pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt samochodowy dla marynarzy kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie konwersja pożyczki na udziały kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą bank pko bp oferty kredytów bocian pożyczki opinie pożyczki dla urzędników szybkie pożyczki 0 pożyczki chrzanów odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyt bank wymiana walut kredyty bez bik w domu kredyt rns getin bank opinie kredyt bank ożarów bez biku kredyty oddłużeniowe konsolidacja kredyt w banku bps kredyt do orange pod jaki numer kredyt lombardowy banku centralnego w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt bank pko kredyt nowość pożyczki do domu marek woch pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bartoszyce pożyczki krótkoterminowe online kredyt konsolidacyjny aig kredyty chwilówki starachowice pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach pożyczki bez bik ruda śląska pożyczki płock pożyczki od 18 lat online umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji szybkie pożyczki opinie fundacja kredyt banku kontakt umowa pożyczki z pracodawcą pożyczki poza bankiem pożyczki kontakt umowa pożyczki firma firmie pożyczka dla zadłużonych na dowód bank kredyt dom lębork kredyty chwilowki zory kredyty chwilówki jakie raty kredyty chwilówki rybnik raciborska szygula kredyt bankowy wydanie pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki od 18 lat przez internet fides pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki art 777 pozyczka bez biku na 20000 finan pożyczki forum kredyt bank oddział jana pawła warszawa szybkie pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki darmowe anonse pożyczki kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie kredyt bank biznes iii oddział kredyt banku w poznaniu pożyczki na dowód mbank kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska 12 kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne poznań pożyczki chwilówki zasady umowa pożyczki oświadczenie o poddaniu się egzekucji kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim pożyczki chwilówki jaki procent kredyty chwilówki starogard meritum bank kredyt opinie kredyt na samochód bez bik poznań pożyczki peer to peer kredyt dla osób z windykacją olkusz pożyczki kwidzyn na telefon pozyczka z komornikiem lublin kredyty chwilówki kraków teatralne konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy a pcc kredyt bank oddział włocławek kredyt bank warka placówki kredyt banku wrocław pożyczki na telefon bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe dla rolników pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój kredyt mielec pożyczki gotówkowe szybkie kredyt bank wolska gdzie wziąć kredyt bez bik kredyt bank wykaz placówek oddziały kredyt banku w polsce pożyczki krótkoterminowe poszukuję pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank wałbrzych godziny otwarcia kredyt bank mońki pożyczki na zasadach de minimis pozyczki gros leszno pozyczki chwilowki konin ul dworcowa kredyt dla firm bez bik i zaswiadczen umorzenie pożyczki konsekwencje podatkowe kredyt bank nr regon bocian pożyczki opinia pożyczki gotówkowe vivus kokosy pożyczki kredyty bez bik zagraniczne kredyt bank kłodzko tel kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt bank sprzedany santander kredyt bez bik i krd chorzow kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank wymiana karty kredyt gotówkowy alior bank opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości ii umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki na dowód online bez bik kredyt bank efs kredyt w banku bzwbk kredyt bank kasprzaka kredyty konsolidacyjne artykuł kredyt konsolidacyjny w lukas banku pożyczka bez baz 2014 umowa zawarcia pożyczki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyt bez bik zamość kredyt bank 24 infolinia bocian pożyczki gniezno ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 pożyczki polbank pozyczki prywatne pożyczki w bankach porównanie pożyczki pozabankowe vivus kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyt bank ceny walut kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator w jakim banku najłatwiej kredyt pozabankowy kredyt na otworzenie dzialalnosci kredyt studencki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kalkulator umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej kredyt bank narutowicza 55b lublin kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny raiffeisen umowa pożyczki ze środków obrotowych alior bank kredyty gotówkowe kalkulator potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór amortyzacja pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki spółce komandytowej skarbiec pożyczki infolinia bocian pożyczki pruszcz gdański kredyt bez bik slupsk kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2013 pożyczki pozabankowe dla nowych firm getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon idea bank kredyt online opinie pożyczki dla jst kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem żagiel kredyt na oświadczenie gdzie szukać pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt na remont mieszkania bank pocztowy faktura za odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt samochodowy który bank księgowanie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bank święty marcin pożyczki online bez bik od 18 lat druk pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca pożyczki pod zastaw śrem kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 kredyty w fm banku kredyt bank vii oddział warszawa kredyt studencki warunki 2013 kredyt bank siedlce godz otwarcia kredyty chwilówki katowice ligota pożyczki pozabankowe duże kwoty kredyty mieszkaniowe szczecin pożyczki na start firmy bez bik pożyczki bez bik big krd online alior bank kredyt symulacja kredyt studencki pko kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie banków kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emerytów

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad