pożyczki dla bankowców pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard pożyczki wikipedia pożyczki trzydziestki pozyczki w domu klijeta pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt w anglii forum pożyczki w domu klienta białystok pożyczki bez bik i krd czestochowa najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki optima bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyty bez bik oława pożyczki wysokooprocentowane podatek od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami kredyt bank mielżyńskiego kredyty bez biku tarnów pożyczki pod zastaw zasady kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia czy chwilówki dają pożyczki dla bezrobotnym polecane pożyczki pozabankowe umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa pożyczki prywatne bez bik kraków kredyt bank nowa dęba asper pożyczki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści kredyt chwilówka krotoszyn pożyczki i kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik mennica pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatne zasady kredyt bank prowizja za przelew zagraniczny chwilowki pozyczki w domu bytom kredyt bank ełk słowackiego pożyczki dla windykowanych kredyt bank sulechów godziny otwarcia kredyty i pożyczki jst pożyczki 5000 bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki bez bik krd kraków el global pożyczki kredyt bank połączony z kredyty chwilówki kutno parabanki pożyczki oferta pożyczki pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 pożyczki kwidzyn na telefon pro domo pożyczki praca chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki bielsk kredyt chwilówka bochnia umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 pożyczki od ręki wrocław kredyty bankowe praca dyplomowa pożyczki wieluń kredyt bank płock godziny otwarcia kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank pożyczki unijne dla nowych firm kredyty bez bik chwilówki kredyt studencki lista banków kredyt studencki w pekao pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bez bik ciechanów umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór pożyczka z komornikiem pożyczki typu incredi kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki pożyczki od rodziny pcc bank kredyt dom lębork pożyczki lubsko pozyczka na umowe o prace z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt bank bonifacego kredyt bez bik zywiec pozyczki chwilowki pod weksel w jaworznie kredyt konsolidacyjny powtórny kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz pożyczki firmowe pożyczki bez bik lubuskie pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pożyczki chwilówki grójecka prywatna pozyczka na zakup mieszkania pożyczki bocian wągrowiec pożyczki dzierżoniów kredyt bank maków mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank królewska 55 kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabankach kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank umowa pożyczki wzór w rodzinie umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt bank 3 maja rzeszów kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim nysa pozyczka online na dowod bez krd i bik kredyt konsolidacyjny a krd kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold kredyt bank lokaty styczeń 2013 wiarygodne pożyczki poza bankowe kalkulator pożyczki money kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko pożyczki pozabankowe długoterminowe poznań pożyczki kredyty kredyt bez bik 2012 kredyt bank warszawa ochota wzór umowy pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bank oddział lubin wierzyciel pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank kalwaria zebrzydowska pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel pożyczki ostrów wlkp usługi finansowe pożyczki bocian pożyczki szczecinek kredyt bank ostroda kredyt bez bik w pile pozyczki bez bik krd umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego pożyczki z budżetu państwa podanie o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty w getin bank opinie kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najlepiej forum orange jaki kod na kredyt praca w bocianie pożyczki pożyczki w bankach na dowód kredyt bank nip regon domowa pożyczka bocian kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata pożyczki bez bik bocian umowa pożyczki w lombardzie pozyczki od osob prywatnych poznan kredyty konsolidacyjne rzeszów pożyczki kartuzy udzielane w domu kredyt studencki pekao kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn spłata pożyczki w innym banku pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt w banku czeskim umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy w santander consumer kredyt gotówkowy w meritum banku kredyt bank regulamin kart kredytowych pozyczki calodobowe lodz kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyt bank w olecku pożyczki prywatne poznań głogowski pożyczki kredyt bank przelewy online promocje w kredyt bank pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wlkp pożyczki bez bik internet kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości provident zwrot pożyczki szybki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt w banku jaki procent kredyt bank grybów kredyt bez biku bielsko biała pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk kredyty bankowe online kredyt studencki bank zachodni kredyt bez bik 200 tys auto kredyt bez bik optima direct pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe abis kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki pożyczki chwilówki rrso kredyt bank kupon 6 pożyczki bez zaświadczeń zus us prestige pozyczki czestochowa kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw kredyt studencki getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet kredyt bank reklama mafia umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank środki zablokowane pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 przedawnienie roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki bankowej cesja wierzytelności z umowy pożyczki kredyt bank adres do korespondencji kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj pożyczki kredyt plus pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu pożyczki lubin armii krajowej umowa pożyczki ze środków obrotowych pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki warszawa pożyczki chwilówki bez bik białystok pożyczki lendon umowa pożyczki komentarz mikropożyczki dla małych firm provident pożyczki na dowód pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyty mieszkaniowe marże getin bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pozyczki prodomo schaer kredyt bankowy umowa pożyczki literatura cesja pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki provident odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód monetia pozyczki warszawa pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik kredyt bankowy prawo bankowe kredyty bez bik walbrzych kredyt na pit w credit agricole pożyczki pozabankowe będzin kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator kredyt bank departament centralnych operacji lublin kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj pożyczki pozabankowe międzyrzecz kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph kalkulator kredyt bank w łowiczu pozyczki bez bik z obsluga w domu kredyt bez bik mysłowice kredyt bank kamienna góra godziny otwarcia koszt przelewu zagranicznego w kredyt banku wszystkie pożyczki internetowe micro finance pożyczki kredyty chwilowki poznan glogowska kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator banknot pozyczki warszawa szybki kredyt bez bik kalisz pożyczki oddłużeniowe dla rolników kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce kalkulator profil aktywny w kredyt banku kalkulator pożyczki pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny na 12 lat umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym wzór w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy pożyczki gotówkowe dla studentów pożyczki dla pracownika meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie argentum capital pożyczki kredyt bankowy pekao pożyczki na dowód bez dochodu kredyt bank dubois pozyczka bez bik w getin banku kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie pożyczki chwilówki swarzędz skok rafineria pożyczki umowa pożyczki czy weksel pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz kredyty mieszkaniowe warszawa kredyt bank rekrutacja szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez biku ewidencja umowy pożyczki pożyczki proszowice oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 dcf pożyczki pożyczki podobne do provident kredyt bank sa dane do przelewu likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku pożyczki bocian braniewo pożyczki gotówkowe lodz odsetki od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy kredyt bank zamknięcie konta oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko kredyty chwilówki elbląg pożyczki umowa co lubuskie kredyt mieszkaniowy dochód kredyt bank 24 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sobota kasprzaka pożyczki otrzymane kredyt bez biku bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank tychy kontakt kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock kredyty chwilówki zarobki kredyty bez bik tczew kredyty dla zadluzonych białogard pożyczki w bankach spółdzielczych kredyt banku sa pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów kredyt bez biku i zdolności kredytowej oddziały kredyt banku w polsce kredyt bank kurs chf kredyt bez bik na pit szybkie pożyczki kielce pozyczki prywatne szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy raty kredyt bank warszawa ursus pozyczki prywatne do reki pożyczki pozabankowe takto pożyczki przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń pbs pożyczki kredyt bank białostoczek pożyczki dla gmin kredyt bank rezygnacja z konta kredyt chwilówka kraków nowa huta premie w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki z klauzulą wykonalności pożyczki przez internet ranking pożyczki z poczty kredyt bank w warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator kredyt bank stargard telefon kredyt studencki w którym banku kredyty chwilówki bez bik pożyczka kielce online pożyczki pro domo płock bocian pożyczki centrala kredyt konsolidacyjny rata szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet pożyczki w domu klienta sosnowiec pożyczki prywatne w luton pozyczka bez dochodu skarabeusz kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki na dowód w 15 min przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki wonga kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal pożyczki najtaniej fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyt bank mielec kontakt umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc wzór umowy pożyczki konsumenckiej pożyczki konsolidacyjne z komornikiem kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki chwilówki racibórz prywatne pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska pożyczki bialystok kredyty bez bik w gdyni kredyt mieszkaniowy bez marży kredyt refinansowy eurobank kredyt w uk dla polakow kredyt bank w bochni nobilon pożyczki gdansk getin bank online kredyt samochodowy pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta ogłoszenia pożyczki pod zastaw pan stanisław wziął kredyt w banku pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt orange kod w orange na kredyt jak wziąć kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości niezgłoszenie pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego banki które daja kredyt bez bik 2000 pozyczki bez dowodu od zaraz kredyt bank karier pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice kredyt bez biku bank pożyczki pozabankowe rawicz kredyt bez bik gostyn kredyt obrotowy w idea bank opinie kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2014 pożyczki w bankach na dowód kredyt samochodowy santander oprocentowanie kredyt bank bialystok bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum kredyt bank łódź ul zgierska godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w rzeszowie pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadczen elk umowa pożyczki na raty wzór pożyczki dla zadłużonych 2013 pożyczki na dowód do domu wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs santander kredyt z kuponem uzasadnienie pożyczki kredyt chwilówka dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki a pcc 2012 kredyt bank warszawa wiatraczna kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli umowa dobrej pożyczki global pożyczki świdnica kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez biku banki pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank warszawa tel pożyczki bocian bielsko biała kredyt bank giełdowa kredyt bank poland chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd pożyczki bez bik żywiec kredyt bank żytnia warszawa kredyt chwilówka 24 kredyt w orange kod kredyty bez bik piotrków trybunalski kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku pożyczki na dowód skierniewice bocian pożyczki piła w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na firmę wzór umowy pożyczki cywilno prawnej kredyt bank lublin zana kontakt pozyczki mikrokasa opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy 70 tys kredyty chwilówki biznes kredyty konsolidacyjne trudne kredyt bank gotówka potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt bank sa lokaty eurocash pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki bezzwrotne kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek online kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gorzów wlkp abis pożyczki infolinia kredyty chwilówki nowy targ pożyczki bez bik małopolska pożyczki pod zastaw augustów mikropożyczki unijne kredyt bank ostrowiec świętokrzyski kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik pożyczki asper pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych pożyczki firmy bocian kredyt w raiffeisen bank kredyt bez bik kielce kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia kredyty bez bik oferty lokaty w kredyt banku opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe łódź kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez dokumentów kredyt bank sa infolinia pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik radom kredyt bank promocje lokat przeniesienie pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe rzeszów pożyczki gotówkowe starogard gdański pożyczki bez bik bochnia kredyt bank fosa staromiejska toruń pożyczki dla pracowników a vat kredyt z banku pocztowego kredyty bez bik krd kredyty bez bik piła pożyczki online od 19 lat kredyt w lukas banku pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice kalkulator pożyczki pko bp kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach pożyczki z funduszu pracy kredyt studencki pko oprocentowanie szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę komandytową kredyty chwilówki żywiec getin bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt bank akcje forum kredyt orange pop kredyt bank s a ul kasprzaka 2 8 umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc kredyt samochodowy nordea bank pożyczki graniczna lublin toyota bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator prywatne pożyczki pod weksel warszawa jaka kwota pożyczki jest wolna od podatku pozyczka bez oplat i krs pozabankowe pożyczki dla firm kredyt bez biku bydgoszcz prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt bank warszawa swift umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp pożyczki śrem kredyt bankowy ppt kredyt bank w koscianie pożyczki bez bik wronki kredyt bankowy a pożyczka umowa pożyczki pozabankowej alior bank kredyt przez internet kredyt bank zniknie pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów wrocław czy idea bank daje kredyt pod zastaw kredyt na firmę idea bank opinie pożyczki z komornikiem nowy sącz potrącenie raty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank pustki cisowskie kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa kredyt bank lubin fikcyjna umowa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe głogów kredyt odnawialny w banku wbk pożyczki mława kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyt samochodowy bez bik krd kredyt bank trzcianka godziny otwarcia kredyt 150tys bez bik pożyczki 4you pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych kredyt bank to wbk kredyty konsolidacyjne plock 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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad