kredyt bank dyrekcja optima pożyczki opole kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty negocjowane kredyt bank kapelanka godziny otwarcia bip pożyczki formularz udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce kredyty chwilówki samochody pożyczki na oświadczenie poznań odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej pożyczki 30000 pko bp kredyt studencki druki kredyt mieszkaniowy wbk forum kredyt bank kościan godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik komornik pożyczki uam kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 kredyt bez bik krd dla firm pożyczki ustawa kredyty chwilówki łodź nieznane pożyczki bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank sa inowrocław kredyt chwilówka starogard gdański kredyt studencki anglia warunki kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki historia kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa pożyczki bocian formularz kredyt bank lokaty terminowe placówki kredyt banku wrocław kredyt bank kondratowicza kredyt bank włochy pozyczki bez sprawdzania w biku kod o kredyt w orange opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy bank legnica pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt bank lublin zana kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie kredyt bank sandomierz pożyczki w domu klienta białystok bocian pożyczki wymagane dokumenty wzór umowy pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs alior bank kredyty studenckie kredyt bankowy dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pożyczki prywatne od rodziny opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce pozyczka dla zadluzonych w biku kredyt konsolidacyjny żyrant kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt koszt przelewu zagranicznego kredyt bank kredyt bank grodzisk wielkopolski kredyt bank wołomin forum dobrej pożyczki pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen nowy sacz kredyt bank stradomska godziny otwarcia pożyczki w profi credit opinie bocian pożyczki pasłęk kredyt w euro które banki keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem pożyczki na raty tygodniowe kredyt bank koszt przelewu udzielone pożyczki aktywa pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski kalkulator pożyczki wibor kredyt bank giełda notowania kredyt bankowy aktywa czy pasywa lukas bank kredyt dla zadluzonych w biku kredyty w getin bank opinie kredyt bank sa oddział rybnik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby niepełnosprawnej pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek kredyt bank karty kredytowe umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw pożyczki dla pracowników kredyt bank polisolokata pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi oblicz koszt pożyczki pożyczki regita kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank opinie kredyt bank warszawa mapa koszt przelewu w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik na sms pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz pożyczki pod zastaw jelenia góra forsa pożyczki kredyt bank sa lokaty kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny prywatna pożyczka do ręki bez dochodu warszawa pożyczki bez dochodu bocian pożyczki świecie pożyczki bielsko kredyt bank w turku kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc pożyczki na dowod mlawa ślimak pożyczki toruń kredyt obrotowy w getin banku kredyt bank żyrardów godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pod zastaw auta wzór kredyt bank warszawa żelazna pożyczki bez zaświadczeń rzeszów kredyt bank pocztowy kalkulator kredyt bank numer kontaktowy kredyt bank warszawa ciołka godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki a podatek vat eurocash pożyczki kraków lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa pożyczki na dowód białystok pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki prywatne online wycena pożyczki na dzień bilansowy kredyt w banku bgż opinie kredyt bank włocławek wolności kredyty chwilówki dokumenty kredyt studencki warunki pożyczki na dowód głogów kredyty bez bik ogłoszenia pożyczki dla małych firm chojnice kalkulator pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym nowe pozyczki szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kod na kredyt w orange pop pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań banki kredyty dla firm kredyty chwilówki lubań wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bez dochodu pożyczki pozabankowe finan kredyt bank kołobrzeg godziny otwarcia kamila ignasiak pożyczki lukas bank kredyt przez internet podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2011 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik do 10000 kredyty mieszkaniowe dla wojskowych kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja kredyty chwilówki skok pożyczki pieniężne definicja kredyty chwilówki windykator kredyt bank z bz wbk bocian pożyczki inowrocław przedawnienie odsetek ustawowych umowa pożyczki umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór kredyty chwilówki złotów w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy bocian pozyczki grojec kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczenie rat pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony pożyczki z providenta wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców kredyt pozabankowy 5000 zl kredyty na firme bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny na 12 lat aneks do umowy kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt w santander bank opinie szybkie pożyczki śląskie kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 wzór umowy spłaty pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce pożyczki na firmę bez bik kredyty bez bik w lodzi kredyty bez bik forum pożyczki pod zastaw jawor kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska kredyt w paribas bank opinie pozyczki pozabankowe ostroda bez sprawdzania baz danych żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie wzór na odsetki od pożyczki kredyt bez biku kielce banki udzielające pożyczki pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo bocian pożyczki opinie skutki kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bzwbk pożyczki gotówkowe anglia kredyt bank dane kredyt bank sa oddział bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik w jakim banku umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy druk pożyczki pod zastaw koszt przelewu zagranicznego w kredyt banku kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy encyklopedia plus prowidus pozyczki kredyt bank oddział warszawa centrum kredyt bank w sochaczewie pożyczki dla podmiotów ekonomii społecznej kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche banku opinie obligacje pożyczki dolarowej kredyt bank obotrycka pożyczki chwilówki jaworzno neobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki bez bik jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online pożyczki kalkulator rat marka pożyczki rzeszów bocian pożyczki zielona góra szukam pożyczki prywatnej 2012 kredyt w uk lloyds mikropożyczki gazeta prawna kredyt samochodowy bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank token problem pcc od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyt chwilówki gliwice pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez bik kredyty chwilówki logowanie microfinance pożyczki wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa kredyt bank w ciechocinku credit agricole klodzko druczek na kredyt kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia pożyczki białogard kredyt banki mikołów pożyczki novum kredyt bez biku dla bezrobotnych pożyczki novum kruk s a kredyt jako podstawowy produkt banku komercyjnego kredyt bank kielce warszawska pożyczki bez bik krd skarabeusz pożyczki olkusz pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie elblag wzór umowy pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie wzór pisma o udzielenie pożyczki kredyt bank koszt przelewu szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 kredyt bank metro imielin skarabeusz pożyczki krosno kredyt bez bik w jakim banku ranking kredytów samochodowych dla firm pożyczki sł margonem kredyt bank świdnik godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki pod zastaw polisy kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta umorzenie pożyczki przez wspólnika pożyczki ekspresowe przez internet pożyczki dla firm pko pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kielce kredyt bank cz kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań pożyczki na telefon opinie dobre pożyczki bez bik forum bocian pożyczki malbork jaki jest kod do orange na kredyt profi credit kalkulator pożyczki kredyt bank ciechocinek telefon kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy pozyczki bez bik wloclawek profinet pożyczki praca kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny porównywarka pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych ranking kredytów banków w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki podporządkowanej pomocne pożyczki umowa pożyczki podatki pożyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt studencki bank polskiej spółdzielczości kredyty chwilówki cieszyn pożyczki na dowód śrem kredyty chwilówki częstochowa kredyt bez bik pod zastaw kredyt bank kosiarzy godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyt bez bik banki forum kalkulator obliczania odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank kontakt telefoniczny najtańszy kredyt w banku kredyt na dowod gdynia tel umowa pożyczki od brata wzór kredyty chwilówki włocławek kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emeryta kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank opinie pozyczki dla bezrobotnych bialystok pożyczki ing pożyczki bez bik i krd z zajęciem komorniczym centrala kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt bank w starogardzie gdanskim szybkie pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt konsolidacyjny ing opinie prywatna pożyczka do ręki bez dochodu warszawa ekspresowe pożyczki świnoujście kredyt w uk jak dostac kredyt bank w sochaczewie odsetki karne pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla każdego kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a turbo express pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki dla firm pożyczki provident kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank bielsko godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyt na pit oprocentowanie przelewy w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki mail kredyt bank w szczecinku zyrafa pozyczki pożyczki pod zastaw dębica umowa pożyczki zawarta w dniu kredyt mieszkaniowy w zagranicznym banku pro domo pozyczki ile trzeba oddac kredyt bank ror kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema kredyt bank w radomsku pożyczki konin kredyty kredyt konsolidacyjny z małżonkiem kredyty bankowe rodzaje pożyczki bez bik śląskie pożyczki żnin korzyści pożyczki gotówkowej optima direct pożyczki garr pożyczki kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp oprocentowanie pożyczki między firmami kredyty bez bik ruda śląska pkf skarbiec tanie pożyczki dla ciebie kredyt mieszkaniowy bez małżeństwa umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc kredyt optima kontakt pożyczki na dowód giżycko konto firmowe kredyt bank a zamknięcie konta wnioski kredyt bank powstanie bocian pożyczki regulamin bocian pożyczki obligacje kredyt bank grodzka kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kredyt gotówkowy w banku bgż pożyczki pod zastaw gniezno kredyt obrotowy w idea banku kredyt bank w pile podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank forum kredyt bankowy online rodzaje kredytów w banku komercyjnym umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a składki zus auto kredyt bez bik forum orion pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny doradca finansowy pozyczka bez bik na splate komornika kredyt bank opinia kredyt bank ilość placówek wzór poręczenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt chwilówka numer telefonu pożyczki na dowód ing kredyty bez bik nysa kredyt bank kupon 5 kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pcc od umowy pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pszczołka pożyczki kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy bank pocztowy forum kredyt bank zmiana konta kredyty chwilowki lowicz kredyty bez bik chojnice kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki bank forum pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków kredyt bank łódz kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyty bez bik pod zastaw pożyczki pod zastaw łomża pożyczki bez bik gumtree niespłacanie pożyczki idea bank jakie oprocentowanie kredytu pieniadz kredyt bankowy cykle koniunkturalne kredyty w idea bank opinie podatek od pożyczki kara kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2013 kredyt bank problem kredyty chwilowki srem pożyczki w domu klienta podkarpacie pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki wzór gofin kredyt studencki pko bp umorzenie kredyty chwilówki żywiec kredyt bank lokata 6 getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kredyty bez biku w plocku bank pko bp kredyt firmowy kredyt bank gdynia witomino kredyt dla firm w idea bank opinie kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki nowe online pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyty chwilówki dg oprocentowanie kredytów fm bank wzór umowy spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank wrocław placówki pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm pożyczki od osób prywatnych zielona góra zasady przyznawania pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana pożyczki z zfśs a pcc szybka pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt studencki pko wypłata pożyczki do 50000 pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowud kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków szukam pożyczki prywatnej forum pożyczki kasa stefczyka kredyt bank notowania funduszy inwestycyjnych artur kobus pożyczki kredyt pod zastaw auta bez biku kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt samochodowy bank millenium kredyt bank lokata forum umorzenie pożyczki cit pozyczki leszno szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lublin kredyty bez bik pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm pozyczki gotowkowe holandia 2014 kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2013 kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno kredyt dla firm bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal udzielę pożyczki pożyczki podkarpacie kredyt chwilowka w przeźmierowie pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej przez internet przedłużenie pożyczki ekspres kasa nowe pożyczki online pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów kredyt bank oddział w toruniu pożyczki prometeusz białystok udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie kredyt samochodowy santander opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole opinie kredyt dodatkowy w getin banku pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik i krs umorzenie pożyczki z zfss podatek alina waclawek kredyty prywatne opinie pożyczki pozabankowe na pit bezzwrotne pożyczki z up konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy podatek status pożyczki kredito24 pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów nieruchomości marka pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza tel kredyt bank konto studenckie umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie kredyt bank warszawa ul zeromskiego oddziały kredyt banku w lublinie kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granicą kredyt bez bik 25000 pożyczki access kredyty banku sgb pcc od pożyczki od firmy kredyt na samochód bez bik poznań szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem kredyt bank zwycięstwa koszalin kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ograniczeń wiekowych kredyty bez bik płock kredyt bank lubin kredyt konsolidacyjny a refinansowy santander consument bank kredyty pożyczki na świeta kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank kredyt studencki pko wypłata oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór szybkie pożyczki olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki w lublinie biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników pcc od pożyczki od rodziny kredyty chwilówki rzeszów plac wolności kredyty bez bik w banku pożyczki bez bik gniezno pożyczki prywatne kielce warunki kredytu w banku millenium pożyczka od ręki katowice kredyt bank kosciuszki kielce kredyt w bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank w tychach pożyczki udzielane przez internet umowa pożyczki pcc wzór pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad