kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie kredyt bank adres do przelewu kredyt samochodowy mbank dokumenty pożyczki na otwarcie działalności pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości andrychów umowa kredytu w prawie rzymskim umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz powalisza kredyty konsolidacyjne jakie oprocentowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs wzór kredyty chwilówki dla osób z komornikiem kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania kredyt bank 2 oddział warszawa kredyt w banku credit agricole kredyt pozabankowy bez biku pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa umowa pożyczki oszustwo kalkulator rat pożyczki ing pożyczki bez bik i dochodu kredyt bank prowadzenie konta kredyt bank pulawska pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk kredyt konsolidacyjny rrso bankomat kredyt bank lubin kredyt w banku pko kalkulator kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku kredyt bank rachunek maklerski pożyczki pozabankowe forum dyskusyjne pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyty pozabankowe opole business consulting pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe ranking banków pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo kredyt bank moje konto kredyt na pit w credit agricole wong pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny aig numer kredyt do orange kredyt getin bank na pit pożyczki bez bik gryfice kredyt bank pozycja na rynku gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod kredyt gotówkowy bez umowy o pracę bezzwrotne pożyczki z up kredyt bank chojnice godziny kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej kredyt bez bik elbląg mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt bank olsztyn piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt bank wyniki pożyczki kraków chwilówki kredyt chwilówka numer telefonu kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt gotowkowy w banku santander udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt kredyty w uk dla polakow kredyt bank problemy kredyt bank w koninie cash express pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez erif pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach i bik kasa stefczyka pożyczki pożyczki na podjęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce kalkulator pan stanisław wziął kredyt w banku pożyczki dla firm bez big kredyt bankowy sciaga kredyt studencki w wbk kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki oferta pracy pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank natolin umowa pożyczki przedmiot umowy szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek druk pcc od pożyczki pozyczki chwilowki pod weksel w jaworznie pożyczki pozabankowe gorzów wlkp pożyczki internetowe opinie pożyczki mieszkaniowe w zakładach pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny na co zwrócić uwagę kredyty mieszkaniowe dla ludzi pracujacych za granica pożyczki chwilówki od 19 lat kredyt bank kedzierzyn kozle pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń faktura za odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt bank iv o warszawa kredyt bankowy wbk kredyt bankowy małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa kalkulator pożyczki idea bank wzór umowy pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kredyty chwilówki oddziały szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt bank routing number kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki bielsko biała kredyt obrotowy w alior banku kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt bank aukcje poleasingowe kredyt na 5 zł orange kredyt bank lokaty maj 2012 baltic money pożyczki z tytułu pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza wzór umowy pożyczki pcc pożyczki podobne do provident pożyczki 30 tys kredyty chwilówki ostrów wlkp prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin kredyt bank pabianice godziny otwarcia sieradz pożyczka 15000 kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank piła kredyty chwilówki środa wlkp kredyty bez biku opinie kredyt bank myślibórz kredyt bank szuwarowa godz otwarcia kredyt bank poznań garbary godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek kredyty chwilówki parabank adam nowakowski pożyczki pożyczki na dowód osobisty pożyczka na otwarcie działalności łódzkie pożyczki łódź bez bik kredyt bank wolomin godziny otwarcia ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki pożyczki profi credit opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarzy kredyt bankowy raty jak udzielić pożyczki znajomemu cross pożyczki pozyczki bez biku gorzow pko kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt konsolidacyjny najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank bph kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe bgż kredyt bank w jaworznie kredyty chwilówki gdańsk opinie pożyczki przed świętami jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange kredyt bank wiatraczna kredyt bank kasprzaka kredyt 10000 w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe marże umowa pożyczki pod zabezpieczenie kredyt bankowy ze złym bikiem kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank godziny otwarcia siedlce kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank dokumenty kredyt konsolidacyjny w polbanku opinie kredyt bez bik oswiecim pożyczki na renty pozyczki do 15000 anglia kredyty chwilówki bez bik poznań kredyt bank w sokółce kredyt bank ostrow maz ujęcie pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek kredyt bez bik w łodzi pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście 37 alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu pożyczki społecznościowe bez zaświadczeń mikropożyczki lubelskie umowa pożyczki pieniężnej doc pozyczki walbrzych z bik krs i komornikiem helikon pozyczki kredyty bez bik w lesznie kalkulator dobrej pożyczki pożyczki na rozwój firm kredyt bank lokata warta w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie szukam pożyczki warszawa kredyty chwilówki wieluń praca kredyt w getin banku opinie 2013 pożyczki domówki grudziądz podatek pcc od pożyczki udziałowca bocian pożyczki a komornik idea bank kredyt na start opinie kredyt bank w ostródzie kredyt pozabankowy dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki w jednoosobowej spółce optima pozyczki na dowod chwilowki pożyczki z tygodniowa rata kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez bik elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego prywatne pożyczki w lublinie kredyty chwilówki forum pracowników bocian pożyczki praca kierownik pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna kredyt na samochód bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty pozabankowe luban kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym opinie pożyczki pozabankowe w płocku kredyt bank w busku kredyt chwilówka reklama pożyczki bez bik dolnośląskie pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław kalkulator pożyczki pko sa jak uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pokoju kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyt bank marki kontakt pożyczki dla zadłużonych łódź kredyt bank polbank umowa pozyczki z poreczeniem kredyt mieszkaniowy a ślub bocian pożyczki żary umowa pożyczki taksa notarialna kredyt chwilówki starachowice kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum czy umowa pożyczki musi być oprocentowana kredyt bank chmielna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skierniewice pożyczki bez bik chwilówki małe pożyczki na dowód pożyczki bez krd pożyczki chwilówki chorzów kredyty gotówkowe bez biku bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw motocykla pożyczki profi credit pożyczki konsumpcyjne pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi pożyczki w bankach spółdzielczych szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin idea bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyt bank kupon 5 kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim kredyty chwilówki grochowska 332 niespłacony kredyt konsolidacyjny capital partners pożyczki kredyty bez bik przez internet kredyty bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku millenium pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową pożyczki pozabankowe na 30 lat godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt bank sa zarząd kredyt bank gdynia bławatna 11 kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla zadłużonych i w bik kredyt bank zwrot ubezpieczenia kredyt bank lublin windykacja kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea opinie umowa pożyczki dla członka zarządu umowa pożyczki na procent podatek dochodowy od nieoprocentowanej pożyczki konsolidacja bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt chwilówka na telefon prawo cywilne pożyczki kredyty bez biku szczecin tsk pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa alior bank sa kredyt kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik umowa pożyczki prywatnej wzór pożyczki pod zastaw gniezno pożyczki program kredyty i pożyczki charakterystyka pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking szybkie i tanie pożyczki od ręki olsztyn odsetki od pożyczki udziałowców kredyt bank parkiet forum pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości w sandomierzu szybkie pożyczki do 2000 bocian pożyczki jarocin bocian pożyczki zg kredyt bez bik zgorzelec kredyty bez bik i bez zaświadczeń pozyczka 50 000 przez internet uczciwe pożyczki od osób prywatnych forma pisemna pożyczki kredyt bank pabianice ul zamkowa kredyt samochodowy dla rencisty pożyczki bez dochodów warszawa udzielone pożyczki aktywa pożyczki atiz bankomaty kredyt bank w krakowie kredyt bank powsińska pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bank pozyczka w lukas swiebodzin pożyczki działalność gospodarcza wzór umowy pożyczki finansowej kredyty chwilówki infolinia kredyt na samochód bez bik getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój umowa pożyczki w banku chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki mosina pożyczki hajnówka kredyt mieszkaniowy brak spłaty szybkie pozyczki bez biku kredyt bank plac zbawiciela gdzie po kredyt bez biku pewny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank jest bankiem pożyczki pod zastaw świdnik kredyt bank ropczyce kredyt konsolidacyjny w allianz banku credit agricole pożyczki akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident kredyt bank dział reklamacji kredyt bez bik bank warszawa kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 12 kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyt banku zarobki forum pożyczki prywatne bez wstępnych opłat kredyty pozabankowe 10000 kredyt bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa kredyt bank krdbplpw pożyczki dla małych firm na start umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego nowak pożyczki głogówek umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie kredyt bank w raszynie kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw pożyczki do domu bez bik pożyczki ze złą historią w bik pożyczki lubin armii krajowej kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników pożyczki do 5 tysięcy kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki sochaczew pożyczki w 15 minut od 18 lat banki w uk udzielające pożyczki emigrantom kredyt bank długa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w goleniowie kredyt samochodowy dla firm credit agricole pożyczki chwilówki żyrardów umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem wzór kredyt bez bik na budowe umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między osobami fizycznymi kredyt konsolidacyjny co potrzeba pożyczki dla małych firm potrącanie rat pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm kredyt w eurobank kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt ge money bank pożyczki bez bik słupsk bank on pożyczki pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyt bank telefon bocian pożyczki konin kredyt konsolidacyjny plock kredyt bank ile idzie przelew kto udzieli prywatnej pozyczki trzcianka umowa pożyczki zawarta przez jednego z małżonków kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza kredyty chwilówki dla kogo pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank kiedy wychodzą przelewy pożyczki easy cash pożyczki chwilówki pruszcz gdański pożyczki z obsługą w domu podkarpacie przedmiot pożyczki kredyt studencki pko odroczenie spłaty pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie pożyczki kaśka pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe sms szybkie pozyczki mprywatne na procent warszawa pożyczki na pit bez bik pożyczki ratunkowe porównanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt w fiat bank pożyczki bez biku dla zadłużonych mikropożyczki na otwarcie działalności pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz pożyczki partycypacyjne kredyty duże na dowód wrocław umorzenie pożyczki z pup oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp kredyt bank toruń fosa kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki nobilon oświadczenie o zwrot pożyczki kredyt bank dluga krakow pożyczki bez bik chełm optima pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik sesje przelewów w kredyt bank idea bank kredyt obrotowy oprocentowanie kredyt bank darłowo kredyt bez bik kłodzko kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice pożyczki katowice ul moniuszki 7 pożyczki bocian świdnica kredyt samochodowy pan kowalski zaciagnal kredyt w banku w wysokosci 40000 kredyt porównanie banków pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź kredyty pozabankowe 50000 kredyt samochodowy bank spółdzielczy pożyczka bocian miedzyrzecz nr tel pozyczki z komornikiem z dostawa do domu certus pożyczki opinie kredyt bank dabrowa tarnowska udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 look pożyczki santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt samochodowy fortis bank opinie kredyt chwilówka co to jest czy santander zglasza kredyt do bik umowy pożyczki pieniędzy wzory pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo przedawnienie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank focha kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum koszt całkowity pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw umowa pożyczki wzory pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank kalwaria zebrzydowska w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na firmę kredyt bez bik bank kredyt bank rebranding umowa pożyczki między firmami a vat kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spoldzielczym w jakim banku wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki nie stwierdzona pismem kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie umowa spłaty pożyczki wzór bocian pożyczki warszawa kredyt studencki w banku pko sa wonga pożyczki reklama numer do ślimak pożyczki pożyczki prywatne bez bik bank pko kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank gostynin kredyt na firme bez biku kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych olsztyn umowa podporządkowania pożyczki kredyt bank w łomży konwersja pożyczki na kapitał skutki podatkowe alior bank kredyt konsumpcyjny umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty kredyt gotówkowy w krakowskim banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank online logowanie pożyczki prow pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie pożyczki na kilka dni mobbing w kredyt banku szybkie pożyczki bez krd pożyczki pozabankowe porównanie pożyczki rodzinne bez podatku kredyt studencki pko wymagane dokumenty kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe regulamin kredyt bank 24h pożyczki plus bocian pozyczki wniosek pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 22 pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice kredyt bank profit umowa pożyczki rodzina wzór pożyczki w domu klienta podkarpacie pożyczka na procent pożyczki na energię odnawialną umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona zastawem duo pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank sa wałbrzych kredyt studencki pko aneks do umowy provident pożyczki praca kredyt bank rawicz godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne dla bezrobotnych szybka kasa pożyczki kredyty bez bik rzeszow kredyt bank prepaid kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt bank sa we wrocławiu

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad