szybkie kredyty bez bik kredyty bez bik w legnicy umowa pożyczki a podatek pożyczka od zaraz chełm pożyczki bez bik i dochodów kredyt gotowkowy w deutsche bank kredyt samochodowy mbank udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki pod zastaw gorlice umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach pożyczki pozabankowe kartuzy kredyt bank bankomaty mielec pożyczki na energię odnawialną szybkie pożyczki online opinie umowa pożyczki przez internet pszczółka pożyczki opinie kredyty bankowe statystyki umowa pożyczki i pcc mikropożyczki dla firm 2013 kredyt bez bik w skok pożyczki gotówkowe w alior banku kredyt bank zielonka pożyczki bez bik przemyśl pożyczki bez bik i krd legnica kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty samochodowe ing getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyt bez bik na zakup mieszkania kredyt bank cena euro kredyt bank lipno godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pytania kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik 25000 kredyty chwilówki na telefon pożyczki dla zadłużonych toruń kredyt bank santander 2012 pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu socjalnego pożyczki prywatne forum o2 w jakim banku wziąć kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bankowy książka kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wrocław mikropożyczki na start szybki kredyt online bez biku nieujawnione pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź kredyty chwilówki andrychów kredyt bank limit wypłat pożyczki dla firm bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki tygodniowe kredyt bank janów lubelski kredyt bank lubicz optima pożyczki przez internet kasomat pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki kutno kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat alior bank prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód numer do ślimak pożyczki kredyt bank ilość placówek pożyczki online w 15 minut pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kraków wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż pożyczki bez bik nowości lukas bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyty chwilowki klobuck wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy pożyczki konsumpcyjne porównanie jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy w chf kalkulator kredyt bank bródno kredyt bank chojnice godziny prominent pożyczki lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin bank opinie pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank kod iban kredyt niski procent w santander consumer bank pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny dla jst kredyt bank sa oddział w sieradzu kredyt pozabankowy 3000 pozyczka na weksel zgorzelec szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big wzór umowy udzielenia pożyczki kredyt samochodowy dla studenta kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki pożyczki prywatne poznań pożyczki na dowód bank pocztowy umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt na firme bez biku pożyczki sezam całą polska pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu banki kredyty z komornikiem bocian pozyczki swinoujscie nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczka na dowód pożyczki na dowód do 5000 pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn kredyt bank world mastercard kredyt bank lodz ketlinga kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie pożyczki wekslowe przelewy w kredyt banku kredyt według prawa bankowego jan nowak pożyczki kredyty chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego santander consumer bank kredyt ze zla historia kredyt pozabankowy bez biku kredyt bank złotoryja pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia kredyt bank lokaty terminowe pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra kredyty bankowe podział kredyt bank płock ul kolegialna godziny otwarcia najtańsze pożyczki w bankach kredyt w uk dla zadluzonych kredyt bez bik 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp forum kredyt bank godziny otwarcia białystok umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony kredyty chwilówki poznań głogowska kredyty bez bik w koninie kredyt chwilówka zarobki idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu na start skok wielkopolska pożyczki pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pozyczki bez big i bik dla zadluzonych pożyczki bez bik 2000 kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik najlepsze banki po duzy kredyt pożyczki chwilówki tablica spółka udziela pożyczki prezesowi kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica wanluks pożyczki kredyty bez biku radom kredyt bez bik big krd bez zabezpieczeń w godzine kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator kredyty niebankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana pracy kredyt studencki jaki bank wybrac pożyczki ratunkowe poznań pozyczka w domu klients czechowice okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej koszt przelewu kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme kredyt bank warszawa ul zeromskiego idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu pożyczki na dowód żywiec restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok pożyczki gotówkowe ranking jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange kredyt konsolidacyjny opis alior bank kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe kluczbork księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus kredyty i pożyczki państwowego długu publicznego kredyt bank autoryzacja sms kredyt bank włodawa kredyt bank zmiana konta kredyt chwilówka warszawa grochowska pożyczki chwilówki internet śląsk pożyczka prywatna pod weksel kredyty dla zadluzonych katowice kredyt bank łódź ketlinga kredyty pozabankowe dla firm kredyty chwilówki kadry kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław adresy kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyty chwilowki plonsk kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank kredyt bank centrala warszawa umowa pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel pożyczki dla firm oprocentowanie pożyczki dla widniejących w krd kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól kredyt bank suwałki telefon optima pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank świnoujście godziny otwarcia kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią w bik kredyt bank ul żytnia kronos pozyczki piotrkow kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza podatek od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca niespłacanie pożyczki w provident kredyt w banku ing kredyt bank koszalin godziny otwarcia ing bank kredyt dla noeo otwartych furm kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki w olsztynie ekspresowe pożyczki wrocław bez big bik i krd kredyt w gospodarce banku umowa ramowa pożyczki kredito24 na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange kredyt bank 10000 pożyczki chwilówki bełchatów kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi pożyczki oddłużeniowe wrocław kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia kredyt bank żagiel warszawa pożyczki chwilówki nowa sól część pożyczki państwowej pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu kredyt pozabankowy kielce kredyty bez bik sochaczew kredyt bank gniezno godziny otwarcia kredyt bank aktualne lokaty kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyt w pekao sa forum kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa pożyczki bez bik nowości profi credit umowa pożyczki kredyt bank kontakt szczecin kredyt samochodowy bank pko pozyczki pozabankowe katowice bez meldunku umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo kredyt odnawialny pko kredyt bez bik w olsztynie kredyt bank w lomiankach kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szczecin kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego kredyt gotówkowy w lukas banku pożyczki w niedziele gdzie kredyt bez bik zatrudnionych zagranica kwota pożyczki a pcc jaki jest numer do finan pozyczki kredyt bank oddział lublin żagiel czy kredyty chwilówki działają na prawie bankowym kredyt samochodowy oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór koszt przelewu zagranicznego w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy jak odmówić komuś pożyczki pożyczki mysłowice jaki jest numer kredyt orange kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego pożyczki do 50000 pożyczki gotówkowe bez formalności kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami wzór umowa pozyczki wzor wzór na obliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej gdzie kredyt bez biku kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki dla organizacji kredyt konsolidacyjny przykład bocian pozyczki swiebodzin w jakim banku w swarzędzu dostane pozyczke z pit kredyt bank garbary 71 kredyt bank kurs chf kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki z bankiem a pcc bocian pożyczki czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bank żagiel oddziały pożyczki blog kredyty bez bik do 20000 pożyczki gotówkowe eurocent bocian pożyczki łódź kredyt bank w kłodzku pożyczki chwilówki forum opinie kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa pożyczki bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk pożyczki dla bezrobotnych forum kredyt bank ilość pracowników kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank kartuska 5 gdańsk kredyt w banku a umowa na czas określony umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem znaczenie kredytu w działalności banku pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank wroclaw powstancow kredyt bez krd kredyt bank bankomat ustka kredyty bankowe na rozpoczęcie działalności bankomaty kredyt bank konin kredyt bank narutowicza 55b lublin kontakt commodus pożyczki kredyty firmowe bez bik getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczenia pożyczki firmowe na start kredyty chwilówki pruszcz gdański pożyczki prywatne od inwestorów bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny jest przeznaczony na pozyczki bez big i bik dla zadluzonych pożyczki bez bik big krd erif kredyt studencki bzwbk 2014 pożyczki bez bik 15000 najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku pozyczki inwestor prywatne kredyt gotówkowy bez bik warszawa pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe kredyty bez bik gumtree getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank w lesznie pozyczka dla bezrobotnego ze splata tygodniowa pożyczki prywatne rybnik kredyt w credit agricole opinie zmiana nazwiska a kredyt w banku pożyczki raty dobre pożyczki bez biku pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 jaki procent kredytu w vivus pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 pożyczki na oświadczenie umowy pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyty pozabankowe definicja kredyt bank jana pawła kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole pozyczki udzielane w domu klodzko pożyczki na dowód szczecin pożyczki gotówkowe sezam oleśnica pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa kredyt bank warszawa grójecka pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik szczecin kredyt bank cashback kalkulator procentowy pożyczki everest finanse pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bik i krd w jakim banku wziac kredyt kredyt bank lwowska chełm kredyt bank wrocław kontakt podatek od pożyczki w banku kredyt bez bik 25000 pożyczki dla ludzi bez dochodów kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk kalkulator kredyt bank lokaty online kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wrocław kredyty bez bik krd wrocław kredyty bez biku szybko umowa pożyczki provident wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór pożyczki advice pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz kredyt bez biku forum kredyty i pożyczki referat kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej kredyt bank białołęka kredyty pozabankowe do 30000 pozyczki bez bik ktore mozna wyplacic na poczcie pożyczki chwilówki na rok jaki jest kredyt do orange kredyt samochodowy bez bik na firme nieuczciwe pożyczki kredyt w którym banku umowa pożyczki na zakup samochodu kredyt bank krosno godz otwarcia pożyczki na dowód konin kredyt bank w zielonej górze pożyczki na rok przez internet pożyczki kredito bank pko bp kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty mieszkaniowe getin bank pożyczki internetowe opinie kredyt bank psie pole umowa pożyczki forma pisemna oprocentowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank sa oddziały umorzenie pożyczki zmarłemu pracownikowi kredyty mieszkaniowe marzec 2013 pszczołka pożyczki kontakt kredyt w banku pko sa opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny comperia pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel co to jest kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilowki pila dobranie pożyczki w providencie pożyczki rolnicze optima namysłów pozyczki kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin bocian pożyczki poznań kredyt bez bik mbank kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 kredyt bank notowania walut kielce pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm ekstra pożyczki kredyty chwilówki białystok kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica umowa pożyczki okres przedawnienia kredyt bank gpw kredyt bez bik olkusz bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne kredyt bank zabrze pożyczki dla firm poznań karencja w spłacie pożyczki pożyczki długoterminowe uk umowa pożyczki żyrant pożyczki od osób prywatnych opole umorzenie pożyczki konsekwencje podatkowe pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyt bank placowki katowice dwie pozyczki w takto pożyczki prywatne w płocku pożyczki firmowe bez bik spłata pożyczki w innym banku banki dające kredyt studencki kredyt w get in bank forum czy pozyczki activia sa bez biku kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz szybka pozyczka w uk bez formalnosci do 2000f kredyty bez biku malbork kredyt bank ekstrabiznes pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej kredyty bez bik i krd slask umowa pożyczki gotówkowej wzór kredyt bank pszczyna telefon kredyt bank łączy się z wbk pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank placówki wrocław godziny otwarcia natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki pożyczki z niską ratą profi credit umowa pożyczki kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank elixir pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet provident ubezpieczenie pożyczki pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyt bez bik racibórz kredyt bank kalisz kredyt bank konto bankowe kredyty chwilówki żyrafa kredyt bank różana kontakt umowa pożyczki wzór za darmo bank alior formalnosci do kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku office pożyczki pożyczki bzwbk kredyty bez bik dla emerytów pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radom pożyczki prywatne ruda śląska bank pko kredyt kalkulator kredyt bez biku zielona gora kredyt bank warszawa chałubińskiego kredyt bank żeromskiego skarabeusz pożyczki chełm kredyt bank legionowo kontakt pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet kredyt gotówkowy bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet idea bank oprocentowanie kredytów kredyt samochodowy mbank kalkulator nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników druk pcc od umowy pożyczki szybkie pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank legionowo kontakt kredyty chwilówki pyskowice kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 kredyty chwilówki w skok pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny w wbk gdzie po kredyt bez biku bocian pożyczki regulamin pozyczka 2000 online visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód korzyści pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pożyczka dla młodych firm bez bik zgorzelec pozyczki augustow przez internet szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik kontakt kredyty chwilówki bez bik przez internet optima pożyczki częstochowa pozyczki siódemka ząbkowice w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank notowania akcji pożyczki chwilówki na święta pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie getin bank kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia duzy kredyt bez biku nowe konto w kredyt banku kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad