w jakim banku wziąć kredyt obrotowy kredyt bez bik slupsk duo pożyczki chwilówki big apple pożyczki bankomaty kredyt bank łomża pożyczki chwilówki zasady kredyt bank italy kredyt w banku a bik kredyt bank lezajsk targowa pożyczki i kredyty pozabankowe kredyt bank warszawa polna 11 pożyczki pozabankowe śląskie kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek on line pozyczki bez biku kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 kredyt samochodowy online mbank kredyt bankowy pekao kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank brzeg kontakt dułet pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank warszawa windykacja kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu podatek od pożyczki pienieżnej kredyt w skoku rafineria z komornikiem kredyt bank adresy warszawa umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach pożyczki bez bik radomsko kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja provident pozyczka na prawo jazdy bank pko kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b obliczenie spłaty pożyczki umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny kredyt bez zaświadczeń kredyt rns banki kredyt na samochód bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki online nowe pożyczki dla zadłużonych opodatkowanie umów pożyczki kod kredytu w orange kredyt konsolidacyjny opis kredyt alior bank forum pozyczki prywatne kielce prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat wzór umowy pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu turbo express pożyczki pożyczki prywatne śląsk kredyt banku sa umowa pożyczki po niemiecku kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank wejherowo telefon kredyt bank lipowa białystok godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu kredyty bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank w bialymstoku pożyczki chwilówki przez internet od 18 lat kredyty mieszkaniowe sgb umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk pozyczka przez internet bez zaswiadczen o dochodach repudiacja pożyczki pożyczki internetowe na dowód kredyt bank gdańsk noskowskiego kredyt banki 24 getin bank kredyt przez internet kredyt bank w wyszkowie kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście kredyt bank połączony z bank udzielajacy pozyczki z dochodami z zagranicy kredyt bank 245 pożyczki hajnówka umorzenie pożyczki różnice kursowe marka pozyczki ketrzyn kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyty gotówkowe bez biku kredyt bank kryzys pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki pod weksel lubin umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy profi credit pożyczki kredyt bank ząbki kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank w przemyślu pozyczka banknot siedlce udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet getin bank symulacja pożyczki kredyt bank godziny otwarcia sobota kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki prywatne pruszków kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki wkład własny kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro czy złotówkach kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt kalkulator pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie kredyt bez bik online kredyt bank winogrady kredyt bank lublin opinie baltic pożyczki pozyczka do domu gdynia schemat księgowania pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie ofert banków pożyczki bez bik grodzisk wlkp kredyty konsolidacyjne rzeszów kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty chwilówki bedzin pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk pożyczki pozabankowe rawicz pożyczki prywatne szczecinek certus pożyczki opinie admin pożyczki pozabankowe umowa pożyczki stawka pcc pożyczki gotówkowe bez big nowe pożyczki chwilówki kredyty bankowe bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław kredyty bankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony alior bank kredyty kalkulator kredyty chwilówki prometeusz kredyt bank żytnia kredyt do orange jaki numer pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka podatek od pożyczki termin pożyczki udzielę kredyty chwilówki lublin kredyt bank stargard telefon kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna kredyt konsolidacyjny czy sie oplaca pożyczki ze środków unijnych pożyczki online bez grosza podatek od odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki bez bik malbork kredyt bank 9 oddział warszawa pożyczki przez internet ranking pożyczki bez konta bankowego pożyczki prywatne śląskie big apple pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe prudnik kredyty bez biku sosnowiec kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa pozyczki bocian dla zadluzonych i w bik pozyczki 18lat bialystok umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zastawem wzór kredyt bank infolinia numer bocian pozyczki goleniow provident spłata pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta łódź kredyty gotówkowe bez bik dla firm kredyt bank deutschland kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego poznań pożyczki legionowo otrzymanie pożyczki w walucie obcej skok pożyczki dla lekarzy kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz kredyty chwilowki gdansk pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu bocian pożyczki tarnów credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik morgis pożyczki opinie ubezpieczenie pożyczki pekao sa prawo bankowe kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank sa windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny w agricole szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt bank dluga krakow konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór kredyt bankowy jako żródło finansowania rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki pozabankowe pierwsza za darmo czy komornik sprawdza umowe kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego 85 kredyt bez historii w bik umowe zlecenie warszawa pożyczki na rente socjalną kredyty pożyczki współpraca pożyczki nowogard kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli rodzina na swoim kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim kredyty chwilówki wikipedia kredyt dla zadłużonych bez bik alior bank kredyt na start pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys lublin mafia pozyczki kredyt bank investor relations umowa pożyczki między znajomymi wzór kredyt bank awaria systemu kredyt na dowod od reki kredyt na samochód bez sprawdzania w biku w jakim banku brac kredyt bankomaty kredyt banku lublin pozyczki dla bezrobotnych niebankowe szamotuly umowa pożyczki w działalności gospodarczej pko kredyt bez bik kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska pożyczki oscar kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania pozyczki pod weksel rybnik kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia wcześniejsza spłata kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kto udzieli kredytu bez bik umowa pożyczki od rodziny wzór umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek pożyczki bez bik od 18 lat zwrot pożyczki angielski kredyt gotówkowy w banku paribas kredyty online bez bik kredyt bank w walbrzychu pożyczki w domu klienta żnin bankomaty kredyt banku rzeszów kredyt bank pomoc techniczna kredyt bez biku jaki bank pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe kredyty chwilówki w słupsku pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk kredyt bank wyniki finansowe kredyt bank kielce kościuszki 6 kredyty chwilówki online kredyt chwilowki poznań kredyt online eurobank opinie kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie pożyczki w domu klienta nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki na dowód w bydgoszczy kredyty mieszkaniowe najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bank warszawa regon kredyt bank skierniewice kontakt bocian pożyczki lubsko alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt rodzina na swoim w getin banku forum pożyczki pod zastaw opinie pożyczki bez oprocentowania jaki nr na kredyt orange umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry anonse kredyty z komornikiem tempo finanse pożyczki tarnobrzeg pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice kredyt bank chrzanów tel profi credit pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem bank pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki w domu klienta gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny santander pożyczki prywatne stargard szczeciński kredyt chwilowki gdansk pożyczki od ręki warszawa bezzwrotne pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych koszt pożyczki w providencie kredyt w banku czy raty w sklepie kredyt bank rzeszów godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki przez telefon kredyt bank aukcje kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank santander kredyt bank czestochowa al nmp darmowe pożyczki bez bik bik pożyczka w placówce warszawa kredyt bank łódź kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank przelewy wewnętrzne kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie kredyty chwilówki opinie o firmie kredyt bank kościuszki katowice interpretacje podatkowe pożyczki odmowa pożyczki vivus kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia czy podatek pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym kredyt bank grojecka 186 pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki bocian starogard gdański pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki forum pożyczki w amber gold kredyty bez bik big i krd kredyt bank w jastrowiu marek woch pożyczki pożyczki nidzica kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kalkulator alior bank kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki prywatne lublin refinansowanie pożyczki provident oprocentowanie nominalne pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe z dojazdem do domu w krosnie wyliczanie oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bank wypłaty za granicą kredyt bez biku ełk kredyt bank placówki lublin umowa pożyczki działalność gospodarcza odsetki karne od niespłaconej pożyczki pożyczki prywatne prawo knf pożyczki jak wziasc kredyt w orange za 5 zł kredyt bez bik opolskie kredyt samochodowy getin bank kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kredyt bank radomsko godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy marża banku kredyt chwilówka nowa ruda cesja wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki umowa pożyczki opracowanie pożyczki gotówkowe tczew pożyczki bez bik kraków pozyczki pod zastaw w uk kredyt bank w kaliszu mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana pożyczki bez bik brzeg kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne żory pożyczki typu provident tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator szybkie pożyczki opole umowa pożyczki przez udziałowca pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum druk zgłoszenia pożyczki do us kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole szukam pożyczki 2013 w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki na dowód lubań kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka kredyt unijny idea bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas opinie kredyt bank euribor pożyczki typu bocian kredyt bank kraków stradomska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego koszt umowy pożyczki notarialnej konsolidacja kredytu wbk pożyczki dom finansowy pożyczki kieszonkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki bez biku na telefon eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin kredyt bank sa inwestycyjny dom maklerski pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce kredyty online bez bik kredyt bez bik na dowód pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw warunki kredyty bez biku grudziadz optima pożyczki numer telefonu umowa pożyczki wzór urząd skarbowy wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank chf kurs kredyt gotówkowy z bik kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bank nowe ogrody gdańsk pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia pożyczki onet kredyt bez bik lubuskie kredyt bank kraków wielicka kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us pożyczki bez granic siemianowice pożyczki pro domo płock kredyt bank windykacja praca kredyt samochodowy online mbank kalkulator luban sl pozyczki prywatne kredyt studencki wbk 2014 pożyczki chwilówki głogów zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank pożyczki nieruchomości kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności kredyt bank ryki bank pocztowy kredyt na mieszkanie forum słupia pożyczki dla firm pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego kredyt bank w wałbrzychu kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2013 pożyczki chwilówki będzin kredyt bez bik z komornikiem dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór pozyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki kronos kredyty chwilówki librowszczyzna umowa pożyczki w ratach wzór pożyczki koszalin szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet jak wyrobić kartę kredytową bez zgody rodziców kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna pożyczki alwernia pcc od umowy pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank wąwozowa godziny otwarcia nr telefonu na pozyczki w uk kredyt mieszkaniowy zły bik pożyczki pozabankowe bytom kredyt bank wałbrzych broniewskiego pożyczki bez bik banki kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kalkulator kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie najlepiej powiekszenie pozyczki pekao sa pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorców kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 kalkulator pożyczki polbank pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik radom abis slask pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny krok po kroku pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski pożyczki gotówkowe do 5000 kredyt chwilówka krakow umowa pożyczki stowarzyszenie udzielenie pożyczki spółce jawnej przez wspólnika pożyczki pod zastaw diamentów gross capital pożyczki udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 pożyczki chwilówki radomsko pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty kredyty mieszkaniowe wymagania kredyt bez historii bik kredyt bank nowy sącz jagiellońska część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg pożyczki dla firm jednoosobowych kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki wraz z poręczeniem kredyty chwilówka namysłów kredyty dla firm bez bik pożyczki roczne pożyczki bez bik i krd czestochowa pożyczki w cieszynie afera o kredyt kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa kredyt bank warunki kredyt w toyota bank pożyczki z dofinansowaniem kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa pożyczki chwilówki świecie umowa pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami wzór kredyt bank w lublinie ul narutowicza kredyt bank kraków stradomska godziny otwarcia abis pozyczka głogów numer telefonu kredyt bank wrocław legnicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik wolny rynek kredyty chwilowki lask umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek umowa pożyczki wzór gofin pożyczki real pożyczki firmy bocian umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim pozyczki pozabankowe mieszkaniowe bez zaswiadczen pozyczka bialystok bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe takto umowa pożyczki realna pożyczki 15000 kredyt online bez bik forum tarnobrzegocian pożyczki kredyty bez bik rzeszów unicredit pożyczki kredyty bez bik w płocku szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyt bez bik legionowo kredyt bank wieliczka telefon bankomaty kredyt banku w pile kredyty chwilówki swietochlowice kredyt bank opinia kredyt bez biku wrocław konsolidacja kredytu w mbanku pożyczki pod weksel wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd aig kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki i chwilówki prywatne kredyty hipoteczne lodz szybkie pożyczki panda pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyty chwilówki jawor kredyt w danske bank pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda pożyczki zagranicznej a pcc

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad