pozyczki w domu slimak i inne bydgoszcz kredyt bank matejki szczecin kredyty bez bik plock pożyczki dla pracowników a vat kredyt bank świecie telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyt bankowy na wykup mieszkania z komornikiem kredyty bez bik mielec kredyt bank bankomaty kredyt bank warszawa centralna pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt banku kursy walut kredyt samochodowy bez bik open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń przeniesienie pożyczki pożyczki przez internet pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe pro domo toruń pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód kredyt bank sulechów kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw domu 15000 bezzwrotnej pożyczki idea bank kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe dla pracujących za granicą getin bank pożyczki chwilówki kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę kredyt bank w krakowie ul kalwaryjska kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen pożyczki internetowe na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy pekao sa forum kredyt bank żagiel szczecin kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła pożyczki prywatne umowa pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik w parabanku kredyty i pożyczki jst kredyty mieszkaniowe 2009 kredyty w jakim banku najlepiej kredyty pozabankowe bez biku sosnowiec kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik najnowsze kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank w bochni godziny otwarcia pożyczki bezpłatne pożyczki gotówkowe dla bezrobotnych pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd pożyczki i kredyty bez bik chorzów katowice akropol pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac pożyczki społecznościowe pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok pożyczki trzebinia kredyty chwilówki nakło marcin pytel pożyczki kredyt chwilówka sierpc kredyt konsolidacyjny najkorzystniejszy oferty pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie fig pożyczki ekspres kredyt dla firm bez bik us i zus pożyczki żuromin kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyty chwilówki forum kredyty mieszkaniowe od 2014 roku pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk maz bocian pozyczki warunki udzielenia ang pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki ruda śląska kredyt studencki w wbk pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt bank różana kontakt pożyczki nieruchomości zwrot pożyczki urząd skarbowy bank pko sa kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki mieszkaniowe z funduszu socjalnego umowa pożyczki wzór za darmo kredyt bank lubicz kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank jutrzenki pozyczki bez bik forum pożyczki na dowód kościerzyna umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie dochody kredyt samochodowy w ing pozyczki prywatnych inwestorów pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną kredyt konsolidacyjny okres kredytowania szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie godziny graniczne w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych singli kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole placówki kredyt banku w białymstoku alior bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczka bocian bytom kredyt bank sa windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie pożyczki mokotowska santander consument bank kredyty kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator online kredyty bez bik i us decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt mieszkaniowy wczesniejsza splata kredyt chwilowki lodz umowa pożyczki na czas nieoznaczony kredyty bez bik w krakowie pożyczki chwilówki lębork kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety pożyczki pod zastaw lubelskie szybkie kredyty dla firm bez bik jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór pożyczki dla młodych kredyt bank w jarosławiu kredyt bank sa adres kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku pożyczki do domu poznań kredyty bez bik gdansk potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyty chwilówki kontakt kredyt bank okopowa kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kredyt bank praca szczecin pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na działalność kredyt w paribas bank opinie uni cash pożyczki wycena pożyczki w euro kredyt bez biku rzeszow pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt studencki banki 2012 kredyt bez biku płock idea bank kredyty online kredyt bank długa kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank polkowice praca pożyczki de minimis optima pożyczki zarobki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości częstochowa kredyt bank bankomaty bezpłatne umowa pożyczki prawo bankowe pożyczki bez bik jarosław udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat kredyty chwilówki on line pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław pożyczki prywatnie wrocław opodatkowanie pożyczki w rodzinie firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyty konsolidacyjne katowice pożyczki bez bik inowrocław kredyt bank lębork telefon kredyt bank przelewy online kredyt bank bps santander kupił kredyt bank 2012 mariusz dudziński pożyczki pożyczki współpraca przedawnienie roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki bankowej pożyczki bez bik dębica kredyt bank powsińska umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi zus kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód pożyczki chwilówki provident kredyty mieszkaniowe o co pytać kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt alior bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy opinie kredyt w uk na dom kredyt studencki pko bp legitymacja kredyt bank 2 kredyt bank kalwaria zebrzydowska pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank konto osobiste opinie kredyt bank krapkowice kontakt kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego 77 kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku kredyt w fiat bank pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli pożyczka w walucie obcej przez internet kredyt chwilówka chojnice kredyt bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych kredyt bez bik slupsk pożyczki dla nowo powstałych firm kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy w jakim banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pozabankowe września kredyt konsolidacyjny banku bph pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie kasy stefczyka przeterminowany kredyt konsumencki departament windykacji mala pozyczka pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki na dowód opole nie oddanie pożyczki jakie banki daja kredyt w euro pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt w banku ochrony środowiska kredyt uk forum kredyty chwilówki mikołów kredyt bank gdańsk suchanino godziny otwarcia kredyt bank oplaty za prowadzenie konta kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona kredyt bank w sopocie kredyty bez bik i krd dla firm pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu piła pożyczki dla firm online cechy pożyczki bankowej udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez udziałowca oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów infolinia pożyczki pro domo pożyczki chwilówki tarnowskie góry kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza kredyt bank oddziały w białymstoku umowa pożyczki paliwa umowa pozyczki wzor kredyty pod zastaw samochodu bez bik kredyt bez bik świebodzin kredyt bank gostyń wlkp kredyt bank nr telefonu kredyt bez bik wroclaw kredyt bank w białymstoku ul warszawska oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć kredyty bez biku opole kredyt bank koszt przelewu kredyt bank obsługa kredyt bank kielce kościuszki 6 zawieszenie działalności a kredyt w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim pozyczka w pko praca zagranica przedawnienie pożyczki w providencie kredyty w wbk forum kredyt konsolidacyjny windykacja pożyczki bez bik dla prowadzących działalność kredyt bank olawa kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy mbank kredyt bank wbk pożyczki bank pko szybkie pożyczki elbląg kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki kronos jak wziąć kredyt w banku zagranicznym kredyty chwilówki w słupsku umowa pożyczki kpc jak obliczyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd kredyt pozabankowy na firmę kredyt bank rydla szczecin pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin umowa pożyczki o czym pamiętać kredyt bank popularna telefon adresy kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki gdynia kredyt bank w żarach pożyczki bez bik olecko kredyty bez bik internetowe kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w biku udzielę pożyczki prywatnej warszawa kredyt bank ceny walut pożyczki z ratami tygodniowymi optima pożyczki wołomin kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2013 pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt mieszkaniowy na mieszkanie w kamienicy kredyty bez bik konstantynów kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres spłaty pożyczki lublin ul graniczna 21 kredyt bank zana sesje przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt bank niemcy pożyczki pozabankowe wawa kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a pożyczki alter pożyczki pod zastaw legnica potrzebuję pożyczki blog 2014 polecane pożyczki opinie kredyt bank centrala wrocław kredyt bank jarosław godziny otwarcia paulina gąska pożyczki kredyt bank ostrów wlkp pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kraków rata pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank w ostrolece podatek od odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse kredyt bank wolomin kredyt na dowód w jakim banku odsetki od pożyczki kurs prowizja pożyczki kredyty chwilówki koszalin pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyt bank jumper pożyczki chwilówki skawina kredyt bank wiatraczna godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik od zaraz kredyt w banku holenderskim kredyt bank narutowicza 55b lublin kontakt w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 pożyczki jeremie opinie kredyt bez bik pko odsetki od pożyczki obliczenie kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych pożyczki wejherowo wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki kredyty studenckie bzwbk kredyt bank lębork godziny otwarcia abis pożyczki dla każdego forum pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu kredyt bez bik 20 tys umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy pożyczki bocian olsztyn kontakt pozyczki na dowod czechowice prywatne kredyty bez bik na pit kredyt bank sa kontakt kredyt bank elblag kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt konsolidacyjny open finance karencja w spłacie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki w uk kredyt bank polan poznań zakładowy fundusz świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki kod kredytowy do orange kredyty pozabankowe cieszyn pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet alior bank kredyt konsumpcyjny druk zgłoszenia pożyczki do us umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki pożyczki dla obcokrajowców pożyczki społecznościowe sekrata pozyczki dla polakow w londynie bez bik i umowy o prace kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 kredyt w banku pko kalkulator morgis pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sa siedziba karr pożyczki umowa pożyczki z zakładu pracy pożyczki bez bik bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 pożyczki bez limitu wieku prywatne pożyczki tczew kredyt bank bednarska bez bik kredyt poznań wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika bankomaty kredyt banku szczecin bocian pożyczki nip bocian pożyczki katowice kontakt umowa pożyczki stawka pcc pozyczki mieszkaniowe na sam dowod marża banku kredyt kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki bocian szczecinek kredyt bank ul długa kraków godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko sa kredyt bank tomaszów maz pozyczki w uk po polsku kredyt bank wyniki finansowe kredyt bank radlin kontakt pożyczki bez bik słubice kredyt bez biku online uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont kredyt bank lokata na 6 5 pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kraków pożyczki z urzędu pracy 2013 kredyty chwilówki opinie klientów pozyczki online bez przelewu kredyt w banku millenium opinie kredyty bez biku łódź idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszow sprawdzone pożyczki bez bik pożyczki od 18 lat przez internet w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyty bez bik swietochlowice adler pożyczki dobra umowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny a rozwód przedstawiciel pozyczki bocian gmina slonsk kredyty chwilówki w lublinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli kredyt bankowy na samochód pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków kredyt bank karier pieniądz kredyt bankowy i cykle koniunkturalne pożyczki nigeryjskie bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank w sandomierzu umowa na czas określony gdzie kredyt najszybsze pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez bik 200 tys kredyt samochodowy na firmę kredyt konsolidacyjny jak to działa kredyt bank szczecin matejki 8 pożyczki bez bik bez sms kredyt bank centrum kredyt bez bik glogow opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec pożyczki dla bezrobotnych olsztyn kredyty chwilówki dział kadr pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki z odsetkami kredyty bez bik 50000 pożyczki na chwilę umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św kredyt bank opłata za pakiet kredyt w gospodarce banku kredyt w credit agricole kredyt w banku nordea opinie kredyt bank misja kredyt bank w m1 kraków eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny kontakt podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2012 kredyt studencki banki 2013 jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyt bank lokaty opinie pożyczki dolnośląskie getin bank wniosek kredytowy online pożyczki pozabankowe międzyrzecz kredyty chwilowki nowy sacz kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema pozyczka bez bik szczecin oferta kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator porównanie prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań kredyt bez biku rybnik kredyt bank lublin narutowicza telefon pozyczka bez bik szczecin oferta kredyt bez biku kielce pożyczki do 1200 zł kredyt bank zajęcia komornicze kredyt bez biku gliwice pożyczki prywatne szybko kredyty bez bik krosno kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut pożyczki bez pracy tanie kredyt na dowód bez biku kredyt samochodowy lukas bank pożyczki wierzyciel kredyt bank rekomendacje pożyczki licytacja kredyt bank nowy targ lokata z premią kredyt bank opinie kredyt bank sobota kasprzaka kredyt bez bik 4000 zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki bez bik na 2 lata orange jaki numer na kredyt pozyczka 20000 bez bik i zabezpieczen gdzie po kredyt bez bik forum pożyczka całkowicie przez internet kredyt pozabankowy 10000 tarnobrzegocian pożyczki profi credit kalkulator pożyczki szybkie pożyczki panda umowa pożyczki opłata notarialna szybkie pozyczki pod zastaw busko jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk pożyczki z małym dochodem symulacja kredytu w credit agricole kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych pożyczki arimr pcf pożyczki ślimak pożyczki opinie pożyczki chwilówki internet kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku pozyczka od zaraz warszawa kredyt bankowy dokumenty kredyt bank wilda pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyt bank warszawa mokotów kredyt bank oddział w warszawie optima pożyczki online pożyczki chwilówki kaska pożyczki bocian starogard gdański kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański kredyt bez bik starachowice pożyczki gotówkowe bz wbk pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz dłużników stewczyk w słupsk pozyczka na dowód potrzebuję pożyczki wrocław

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad