kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacje kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa kwota pożyczki brutto pozyczka w lukas swiebodzin lukas pożyczki gotówkowe daily finance pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ul zeromskiego atiz pożyczka w banku klient zaciągnął kredyt pożyczki online na dowód bez bik kredyty bankowe na rozpoczęcie działalności mam długi potrzebuje pozyczki opole lubelskie kredyty bez bik i krd poznań ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012 ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze pożyczki chwilówki dla emerytów dobre pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator alior bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki bocian płock kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy pożyczki wolska pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej kredyty mieszkaniowe 2008 mikropożyczki 2012 zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczki bez bik nidzica godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt bank kalwaryjska kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank lublin oferty pracy kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa jak otrzymac pozyczke w prodomo bocian pożyczki żywiec kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko bp kredyty pozabankowe bez bik toruń pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw nieruchomości porównanie kredytów samochodowych dla firm odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt podatkowy tukan pożyczki pożyczka z komornikiem kredyt bank placenie karta za granica kredyt przez internet bez biku 3000zl konwersja pożyczki na kapitał pcc pożyczki podobne do providenta płock optima pożyczki gniezno kredyt bank wyrobienie nowej karty kredyt studencki pko na rok udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyty pozabankowe szczecin szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń jak dostac pozyczke w atiz kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank dietla pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h kredyty chwilówki zdjęcia kredyt bez bik 6000 pożyczki ślimak poznań kredyt bank w kaliszu umowa pożyczki od kolegi uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej pożyczki do 2000 zł sesje przychodzące w kredyt banku pożyczki bocian gryfice kredyty bankowe to konto kredyt studencki warunki 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny invest bank kredyt bank zmiana waluty spłaty kredytu umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt bank lomża pożyczki tempo finanse kredyt bank radom żeromskiego godziny otwarcia profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace kredyty dla malych firm na start 2014 kredyt bez bik i krd umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pracownikowi kredyt bank bankomaty toruń kredyt bez bik do 5 tys kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki luboń kredyt chwilówka wodzisław idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm pożyczki 24h kredyt bank zamość lokaty pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk nowe pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty luty 2013 pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy na 120 wartości kredyty chwilówki chrzanów pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online pożyczki pozabankowe międzyrzecz pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe bez bik pozyczki pozabankowe plock na dowod pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki przez internet pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki luboń kredyty mieszkaniowe współpraca kredyt bank adres e mail bocian pożyczki kredyt bank międzyzdroje optima pożyczki leszno pożyczki takie jak w providencie czy kredyt bankowy jest kosztem odsetki od pożyczki działalność gospodarcza kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs kielce kredyt bank routing number kredyt bank praca zarobki kredyty chwilówki praca katowice kredyt bank poznan godziny otwarcia kredyt bank mokotów kredyt w banku na mieszkanie pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie pożyczki bez bik bank umowa pożyczki wibor kredyt bank giżycko praca pozyczka z dojazdem do domu ostrołęka chwiluwka kredyt dla firm bez bik opinie kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki u kruka vivus pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank piotrków godziny otwarcia pożyczki prometeusz wrocław pan kowalski zaciagnal kredyt w banku w wysokosci 40000 pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod zastaw kredyt bank chełm telefon pożyczki do domu czy od pożyczki trzeba zapłacić podatek pożyczki w 15 minut na konto intercom pożyczki pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt bank w zamościu pożyczki podobne do żyrafy kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie zarobki umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki dla firm bez big obliczenie podatku od pożyczki kredyt bank białą podlaska centrala kredyt banku lublin pożyczki gotówkowe pko pożyczki ze złym bik pożyczki do 300 zł na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu getin kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank notowania walut pożyczki atiz gowork kredyty chwilówki kredyty chwilówki poznań kredyt novum bez bik kredyty banku światowego dla polski pożyczki w bankach porównanie kredyt konsolidacyjny getin prominent pożyczki lublin kredyt bank w żorach kredyt bank kod umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą kredyt bez bik w skoku stefczyka pożyczki bez big wrocław kredyt na mieszkanie ranking banków kruk pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum kredyt bank banki partnerskie kredyt bank w ostrołęce kredyt bank vi oddział warszawa wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet kredyt bank puls rynku pożyczki na dowód gorlice kredyt bank obsługa kart kredytowych pozyczki pozabankowe bez bik w powiecie kutnowskim w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kto może dostać kredyt bank konstancin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank opłata za sms kredyt bank oleśnica mcredit pożyczki kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza pożyczki grodzisk mazowiecki umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bankowy i jego rodzaje pozyczki internetowe pożyczki społecznościowe 2013 sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław ul dworcowa kredyty mieszkaniowe wymogi kredyt bank warszawa ul powstańców śląskich pożyczki chwilówki on line kredyt na wyciag bankowy kredyty chwilówki katowice ligota kredyt chwilówki sosnowiec oprocentowanie kredytów w fm banku pożyczki pozabankowe 20000 kredyt bank platforma wymiany walut kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt bank w grudziądzu pożyczki chwilówki forum opinie pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem w jakim banku nie brac kredytu kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bik ostrów wielkopolski kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 czy kredyt bank ma problemy pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica czy skoki maja oferte pozyczki dla zadluzonych pożyczki w niedziele bocian pożyczki kalkulator rat 18lat na dowod kredyty olsztyn pożyczki chwilówka od ręki kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki bez biku sieradz pożyczki na dowód chorzów wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank w radlinie pożyczki partnerskie pożyczki socjalne w pracy kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowod online firma pożyczki bank bph kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki pozabankowe w białymstoku kredyt bank powsińska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank spółdzielczy wschowa kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty kredyty banki spółdzielcze pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra spłata pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe mikropożyczki lubelskie pożyczki ekspresowe bocian kredyty bez bik w poznaniu pożyczki prywatne w Żorach kredyt bank lomża marka kredyty opinie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki gotówkowe promocje pożyczki chwilówki kościerzyna kredyty pozabankowe plock kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyt bank waluty kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnej osoby pożyczki bez bik we włocławku kredyt samochod irlandii pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania prywatne umorzenie pożyczki a przychód skarabeusz pożyczki bełchatów pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem radom pożyczki prywatne kredyty bez biku wadowice pożyczki wołomin kredyt studencki pko wymagane dokumenty kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108 warszawa kredyt chwilówki legnica pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdynia pożyczki chwilowki warszawa przez internet idea bank opinie kredyt samochodowy pożyczki bez bik zus i us kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot odsetek ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt oniliaj pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl pożyczki bez rejestru dłużników pożyczki arsen kredyt bank chojnice kredyt bank konkurs vivus przedłużenie pożyczki ubezpieczenie pożyczki od śmierci kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wrocław kredyt obrotowy w idea banku opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy oferty banków kalkulator pożyczki alior sync umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bank w busku windykacja pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki wrocław na dowód alior bank kredyty online pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki z wekslem wzór pożyczki bzwbk provident koszt pożyczki pożyczki kraśnik kredyt bank warszawa fieldorfa prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków pożyczki gotówkowe provident pożyczki na jaki procent ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pko getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pozyczka nowa huta kredyt w getin noble bank najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredytowy kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego kredyty chwilówki płock jachowicza kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy kaska pożyczki opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych firm kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bez bik opolskie kredyt bank adres do przelewu pożyczki bez bik oleśnica pożyczki w inowrocławiu pożyczki państwa kredyt bank ciechocinek bedzin kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik wrocław pożyczki bez bik elk kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank opinie umowa pożyczki poręczenie kredyt bank oddział krynica zdrój pożyczki dla zadłużonych konsolidacyjne pożyczki na dowód chełm pożyczki pozabankowe nie provident duże pożyczki kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki bez biku dla zadłużonych oświadczenie udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank miedzyzdroje kredyt konsolidacyjny ustawa pożyczki bez granic siemianowice kredyt bank warszawska pożyczki pozabankowe do domu pożyczki chwilówki dla bezrobotnych kredyt współpraca pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości katowice kredyt bez bik widruszow pożyczki pozabankowe w niemczech oakham pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe długoterminowe poznań pożyczka chwilówka konin kredyt bank lidzbark warm prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia bank pbh kredyt kolobrzeg kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank łódź zgierska prowizja od umowy pożyczki a vat sprzedaż kredyt banku santander bocian pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank kubusia puchatka kredyt bank lublin ulica zana obligacja 4 pożyczki konsolidacyjnej rejestracja pożyczki kredyt bez bik jastrzebie umorzenie pożyczki a pit oprocentowanie kredytów idea bank kredyt bank lokaty dla firm kredyt bank powsińska kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa są kredyty chwilówki polska kredyt gotówkowy bez bik zaświadczeń marża banku kredyt obrotowy podatek od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca alior bank kredyt na dowód mbank kredyt samochodowy online oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki email kredyt bank krakowska alior bank kredyt przelicznik optima sa pożyczki opinie kredyt studencki forum 2013 alina waclawek kredyty prywatne kredyt bank wesoła godziny otwarcia abis pożyczki infolinia umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki dla każdego 48 pożyczki na dowód gorlice gdzie można uzyskać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank poznan krauthofera abis pożyczki dla każdego forum pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla zadłużonych katowice szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bez bik pożyczki społecznościowe jak kredyt pozabankowy na auto czy istnieje jeszcze mennica pozyczki w jeleniej gorze kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem warszawa kredyt bank janów lubelski godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w pożyczki na procent warszawa sprzedaż kredyt banku 2012 kredyty bez bik opinie pożyczki dla firm suwałki umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki kredyt bank zaswiadczenie o zarobkach pożyczki na dowód pleszew wysoka prezyznawalnośc pozyczek konsolidacyjnych kupiec pożyczki pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kutno kredyty bez bik zgierz umowa pożyczki do wydruku pożyczki w bolesławcu umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny tani kredyty chwilówki oszuści pożyczki chwilówki w kielcach pożyczki do domu puławy kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kredyt pozabankowe poznan ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt w banku porównanie pożyczki piekary poznań zarabianie na pożyczkach kredyt w banku bzwbk kredyt bankowy istota funkcje rodzaje pożyczki chwilówki na 60 dni kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik siedziby chwilowki kredyt jaslo kredyty mieszkaniowe dla wojskowych optima pożyczki września kredyt samochodowy w mbanku forum pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyt w mbanku pozyczki prywatnych inwestorów kredyt bank depozytariusz bank pko sa kredyty opinie pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo pożyczki ekspresowe bocian pożyczki na dowód kredyty kredyty mieszkaniowe mieszkanie dla młodych pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia kredyty chwilówki radom prażmowskiego uczciwe pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania tsk pożyczki profi credit pozyczka kłodzko kontakt kredyt samochodowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław kredyt bank kedzierzyn kredyty chwilówki telefon kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2011 pożyczki provident gdańsk kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław pożyczki online bez bik i krd kredyt bez bik do 10000 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyt samochodowy w banku pko kredyty chwilówki debica kredyt pozabankowy koszalin kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank opinie kredyt bank w plocku kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku pożyczki z małym dochodem kredyt bank konto firmowe kod w orange na kredyt kredyt bank otwock staszica kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a kredyt konsolidacyjny aig umowa pożyczki członka zarządu szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pozyczki przelewy bez bik kredyty pozabankowe płock kredyty chwilówki gryfino marka pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki między firmami pcc pożyczki optima kalkulator pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski kredyty bez bik i krd tychy kredyt bank pożyczka konsolidacyjna kredyt w eurobank umowa pozyczki z poreczeniem kredyt bank żory godziny otwarcia eurocash pożyczki poznań pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard adres telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie ofert banków pomarańcza owocne pożyczki kredyty pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank w pułtusku kredyt bank dąbie szczecin kredyt bank zduńska wola kontakt santander kredyt na samochod w uk kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online bank pekao sa kredyt rodzina na swoim jaki jest kod na kredyt z orange pożyczki na dowód w lublinie kredyt bank sa lubin szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta z ok wrocławia

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad