kredyt bank nr iban transfery w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kto daje kredyt do orange pop kredyt bank pyskowice pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy a pcc kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta kredyt bank wpłata na konto kredyty chwilówki sandomierz kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie konta kredyt studencki pko umowa warunki pożyczki w provident kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski kredyt pozabankowy na zakup mieszkania udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu kredyt bank pko sa kalkulator pożyczki w 15 minut na konto kredyt bank24 pozyczku raty tygodniowe pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica pożyczki do 5000 bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyt bank luboń godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu kredyt prywatny wzór umowy cywilno prawnej kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza nieujawnione pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty wierzyciel pożyczki forum kredyt bank warszawa praga południe pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek pożyczki prywatne bolesławiec kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy kalkulator w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska pożyczki pozabankowe jelenia góra kredyt bank k24 kredyt bank uk banki kredyt bez bik kredyt bank leasing kredyty bez bik wikipedia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2013 pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bank godziny otwarcia tczew kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki na dowód wieluń umowa pożyczki między podmiotami powiązanymi pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank 24 infolinia pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pożyczki lublin kredyty kredyt w banku lukas kredyt bankowy bez bik placówka warszawa kredyt bez bik tarnów pko bp sa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pozyczki z komornikiem boleslawiec pożyczki dla zadłużonych w erif pozycki bez zaswiadczeń bez bik 50000 pożyczki bez biku sieradz hnarutowicza leszno kredyty dla zadluzonych kredyt konsolidacyjny opóźnienia w bik pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec nowosc pozyczki do donu kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kalkulator kredyty bankowe dla msp kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności umowa pożyczki przykłady pożyczki chwilówka kredyt bez bik dla firmy kredyt bank otwock praca godziny przelewów w kredyt banku pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej rybnik kredyt getin bank bez bik open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt orange 1zl umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse kredyt samochodowy ranking banków kredyt bank multima kredyty banku pko bp kredyt samochodowy getin bank warunki kredyt bank w gdyni prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka kredyty bez bik w kielcach kredyty bez bik jelenia gora kod na kredyt z orange kredyt bez bik przez telefon kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 pożyczki w banku ing kredyt bank numer banku niezgłoszenie pożyczki kredyt bank w debicy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z wekslem retencja pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania kredyt banki sieradz pożyczki bocian reklama pożyczki na dowód polkowice kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us pożyczki prywatne w czestochowie kredyty chwilowki lowicz kredyt bez bik online pożyczki bez bik na firmę pożyczki prywatne prawo kredyty bez biku na oswiadczenie który bank udziela kredytów bez bik witam kredyt bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki bez bik szczecin pożyczki świecie pozyczki na dowod dzierzoniow kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa pożyczki parabank kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia kredyt bank adresy w warszawie pożyczki w domu klienta szczecin pożyczki na prawo jazdy kredyt bank ul targowa godziny otwarcia posrednictwo kredyty chwilowki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 kredyt w banku kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku forum pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik online szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx pożyczki na dowód wrocław pożyczki money pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum bank pekao sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt bez bik świebodzin kredyty chwilówki kalisz kredyt studencki pko umowa kredyty chwilówki dyrektor kredyt do orange pop tanie pożyczki konsumpcyjne kredyt bank długie ogrody godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa oddział w sieradzu kredyty bez bik od reki pozyczki dla zadłuzonych wbanku pko finanse kredyt bank cinema city provident koszt pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe dla ludzi pracujacych za granica pożyczki pod zastaw rtv warszawa pożyczki na dowód 2013 picasso pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki cypr pożyczki bez biku zielona góra odsetki od pożyczki angielski umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa kredyty bankowe historia pożyczki na dowód w bydgoszczy pożyczki udzielone przez jst pożyczki kyzoo pożyczki tygodniówki irr pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw głogów kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 wartości kredyt bank karta prepaid pożyczki w krakowie oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie kredyt gotówkowy z bik pożyczka kielce online kalkulator kredytowy jelenia góra banki pożyczki w uk abis pożyczki infolinia odsetki od pożyczki kalkulator gofin pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki kredyt studencki pko poręczenie pożyczki łódź bez bik pożyczki marka bydgoszcz kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi kredyt bankowy i jego funkcje pożyczki gotówkowe santander szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat pozyczka na dowodd bez zaświadczeń kamien pozyczki pozabankowe na kazdy dochod siedlce kredyt bank filia poraj kredyty bez bik i krd radom pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie kredyt bank investor relations kredyt bank białystok skłodowskiej godziny otwarcia szukam pożyczki szczecin szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod pożyczki pruszcz gdański kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt banki kredyty bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców mazowieckie umorzenie pożyczki zfśs księgowanie pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyty chwilowki lask alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank piekary śląskie drobne pożyczki przez internet alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska pożyczki chwilówki w olsztynie kredyt bank wojska polskiego wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank olsztynek bocian pożyczki wymagane dokumenty czy od pożyczki płacimy podatek kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie pozyczki providus pożyczki pozabankowe na raty eurobank kredyt kod na kredyt orange kredyt bankowy ustawa optima direct pożyczki kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje bocian pożyczki lublin pożyczki pod zastaw olecko duze pozyczki pod weksel kredyt bank zgorzelec kontakt kredyt bank nr rozliczeniowy kredyt bank centrala wrocław na jaki numer kredyt w orange bankomaty kredyt bank konin kredyt bank platforma wymiany walut kredyt bank świnoujście godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wspiera żeglarzy mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian kredyty bez bik kutno jaki nr na kredyt w orange kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu kredyty chwilówki szczecin opinie pozyczki do domu klienta pożyczki od ręki łódź ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ergo hestia getin bank kredyt gotówkowy online kredyt w banku bgż opinie w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank pożyczki ranking 2012 kredyt bez bik słupsk lukas bank kredyt gotówkowy przez internet pożyczki chwilówki żagań pożyczki w profi credit forum pożyczki eurolan pożyczki wierzyciel kredyt bank białą podlaska kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank rzecznik prasowy kredyt w pko opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dla firm reklama pożyczki umowa pożyczki w prawie niemieckim kredyt bank olsztyn pożyczki pozabankowe tczew umowa pożyczki ile podatku umowa pożyczki od wspólnika wzór kredyt bank depozytariusz potrzebna pozyczka opole pożyczki społecznościowe w anglii kredyt pozabankowy częstochowa kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście bocian pożyczki olsztyn pożyczki na procent śląskie szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online kredyty bez zaświadczeń forum pożyczki dla doktorantów kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza kredyt studencki gospodarczy bank wielkopolski kredyt pozabankowy bez bik krd pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków kredyt bank stargard godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla jednostek samorządu terytorialnego umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami pożyczki bocian olsztyn kontakt kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie przedawnienie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki bez bik kasiora kredyt bank koszt przelewu kod na kredyt w orange na karte najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pożyczki dla uczących się decyzja o umorzeniu pożyczki z zfśs wzór fundusz inwestycyjny pożyczki w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku kredyt pozabankowy na kupno domu lista pozyczek bez bik pożyczki bez bik forum kredyt bez biku w banku kredyt bank reklamy szybkie pożyczki od 19 lat kredyty chwilówki dłużnicy kredyt konsolidacyjny co to kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock podwyższenie pożyczki millenium umowa pożyczki na rachunek bankowy kredyt bez bik malbork idea bank kredyt na start firmy opinie pożyczki meritum pożyczki na dowód vivus pożyczki od prywatnych osób kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa dobre pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki rewolwingowej wzór kredyt w pko bp forum czy bank stanfader udziela kredytow bez bik idea bank warunki pożyczki pożyczki unijne małopolska pożyczki dla firm bez zus kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zarobkach kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki bez bik sopot umowa pożyczki wspólnika ze spółką kredyt bank wniosek o wakacje kredytowe pożyczki dla bezrobotnych poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa najtańsze pożyczki w banku pozyczka w lukas swiebodzin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik pozyczki do domu świdnica getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel kredyt bank w mlawie kredyty mieszkaniowe 1992 pozyczki chwilowki konin ul dworcowa kredyt w postbank pozyczki w niedziele pożyczki pozabankowe katowice umowa pożyczki zamiast darowizny pożyczki mieszkaniowe w zakładach pracy kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa umowa pożyczki a podatek dochodowy kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej pożyczki płock na dowód kredyty chwilowki opole kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw kredyty chwilówki w płocku bankomat kredyt bank warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior kredyty chwilówki program partner pożyczki gotówkowe kluczbork kredyty chwilówki bytom jagiellońska kredyt w orange na karte kod przedłużenie pożyczki ekspres kasa zabezpieczenie pożyczki na nieruchomości kredyt bez biku nowy sącz kredyty chwilówki brodnica pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp w jakim banku dostanę pożyczkę przez internet pożyczki bez biku ełk getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa opinie kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa okres karencji w spłacie pożyczki mława pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez biku walbrzych kredyt bank w nysie czestochowa pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna argentum capital pożyczki oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór pozyczki bez bik i krd na oswiadczenie kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe z 1992 roku pożyczki racibórz jaki nr na kredyt w orange umowa pożyczki pcc 2013 pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat transfery w kredyt banku profi credit pożyczki przez internet kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie kredyt bank pożyczka na dowód szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom kredyt bank kontakt kredyt bank sa numer swift kredyt bank call center essentialia negotii pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe pko banki które daja kredyt bez bik kredyt samochodowy bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank krynica godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki przez internet na konto pożyczki gotówkowe dla niepracujących kredyt bank sandomierz kontakt pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet warunki otrzymania kredytu konsolidacyjnego wbk umowa pożyczki wzór weksel kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo kredyty mieszkaniowe umowa na czas określony meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska druki wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp pożyczki 1500 kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik piotrkow tryb kredyt bank jumper 3 pożyczki dla firm bez zus kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkladu wlasnego kredyt a bankowy rejestr pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt konsolidacyjny online kredyt bank nowy targ kontakt bocian pożyczki lublin kredyt bank wrocław placówki pożyczki jarosław pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota kredyty pozabankowe gliwice potrącenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczka do domu podkarpacie umowa pożyczki opis miś pożyczki szybkie pożyczki online bez bik i krd karta kredytowa deutsche a bik oferta pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt w aib pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagane dokumenty pozyczki na nowa firme otrzymanie pożyczki pcc kredyt bank rawa mazowiecka godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń pożyczki na dowód staszów ahead pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt w pko bank polski kredyty dla studentów mbank kredyt konsolidacyjny na poczcie kredyt bankowy dla msp pcc od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny pożyczki jako źródło finansowania kredyt pozabankowy skarbiec kalkulator rat pożyczki ekspresowej kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator ing kredyt bank rachunek walutowy wzór na obliczenie raty pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kredyt na pit bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator porównanie kredyt bank kiedy sesje kredyty chwilówki opinie o firmie kredyt bank zołnierska kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki katowice giszowiec kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt chwilówki zabrze kredyt mieszkaniowy dublin kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt pożyczki studenckie uk nowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik warunki pożyczki w alior banku kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie pożyczka bez bik garwolin kredyt bank sa lublin zana pożyczki chwilówki na dowód olsztyn kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd kredyty pozabankowe gdynia kredyt w banku zachodnim forum kredyt bank biala podlaska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator multibank duże pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki potwierdzona notarialnie ewidencja księgowa umowy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik do 20000 pożyczki kredyty szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec kredyt bank lista placówek alior bank kredyt na pit kruk pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki darłowo pożyczki z niską ratą pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm kredyt bank najgorszy pożyczki bez bik szczecin kredyt bankowy małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa kredyt bank wyniki 2012 korzystny kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki a pcc wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad