kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik kredyt bank oddział łomianki najtańsze pożyczki ranking pożyczki głubczyce kredyt bank nysa szopena pozyczka pieniezna w irlandii kredyt bank kondratowicza pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz bocian pożyczki bolesławiec pożyczki na dowód bolesławiec kredyt bank rawicz telefon kredyty bez bik leszno szybkie pożyczki dla rolników w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt w banku co potrzebne kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 kredyty bez bik bolesławiec kredyt studencki bank bz wbk kredyt bank adres warszawa kredyt bez bik ruda śląska banki udzielajace kredytu bez biku pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie umowa pożyczki dla instytucji kultury kredyty bez bik nowy sącz szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy bph kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 jaki kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora kredyt bank brzeg kontakt kredyt samochodowy fortis bank umowa kredytu pożyczki kredyty bez bik kwidzyn oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kalkulator pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow kredyt bank giżycko praca wycofanie poręczenia pożyczki kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja kredyty bez bik 20000 koszt pożyczki pożyczki praca kredyt bank problem z logowaniem kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking wzór weksla pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe w kredyt banku kredyt w euro jakie banki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2012 umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi kredyt w banku slaskim pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin pożyczki chwilówki suwałki pko kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt orange 5 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny gotowkowy kredyt bank warszawa abrahama kredyt banki grudziądz umowa pożyczki raty pożyczki społecznościowe appfunds odsetki od pożyczki obliczenie pożyczki w bankach porównanie kredyt bez bik kołobrzeg pożyczki bez biku opinie pożyczki sms bez bik i krd pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy dokumenty kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank łomża telefon pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc kredyt bank hr pożyczka 6000 bez infomonitora kredyty chwilówki kalwaryjska kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik online helikon pożyczki opinie kredyt bank warszawa bankomaty kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej umowa pożyczki szablon kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól pozyczki prywatne na procent olesnica optima direct pożyczki pożyczki udzielone przez jst kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce praca za granica pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt bez bik jaworzno pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd kredyt bank akcjonariusze pozyczki na dowód kraków ile można potrącić pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej puck pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw sochaczew kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kościuszki pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredytowy getin bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych forum kredyt mieszkaniowy zwrot podatku kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt studencki zasady 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej kredyt bank 2012 pożyczki chwilówki lista pożyczki bez bik chrzanów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów kredyt bank koszty kredyt bank wiek kredytobiorcy pożyczki bez bik dolnośląskie pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet w banku klient zaciągnął kredyt kredyt w banku na założenie firmy kredyt w banku dla bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki na dowód lubuskie kredyt bank pyrzyce w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki dla polaków w londynie nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bankowy pasywa najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń prywatne pozyczki podkarpacie pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyty bez bik od 4000 kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy 2 kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik kredyt bankowy a pozyczka pożyczki sms bez bik opinie pożyczki pozabankowe 20000 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki kredyty plock bocian kredyt bank karta kredytowa pożyczki na dowód lubin pożyczki olesnica bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki na dowód ciechanów nadzabezpieczenie pożyczki pożyczki balonowe kredyt bank elektroniczny kredyt bank zakopane pożyczki gotówkowe najniższe oprocentowanie księgowanie przelewów w kredyt bank pozyczki bez biku poznan kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kredyt bez bik i komornika kredyty bez bik przemyśl banki udzielające kredytu bez bik kredyt bank gowork pożyczki z niskimi dochodami latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm kredyt bez bik szamotuły kredyt bez zdolności 10000 kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne poznań kredyt na dowod mielec kredyt bank połączenie z bz wbk pożyczki bezzwrotne dla bezrobotnych oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej pożyczka dla firm bez bik i krd kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki udzielone i należności własne przykłady kredyt w banku pod zastaw mieszkania ulotka pożyczki kredyt bank rekomendacje kredyt bez bik samochodowy pozyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik online oświęcimiak pożyczki pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us pożyczki lubin pożyczki współpraca pożyczki ltro pożyczki na dowód w lesznie kredyty chwilówki w olkuszu transza pożyczki umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem pożyczki dla bezrobotnych online numer telefonu do kredyt banku zagiel kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 kredyt bank żeromskiego tel kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto udzielać pożyczki ang umorzenie pożyczki przychód okres przedawnienia pożyczki pożyczki na energię odnawialną kredyt chwilówka 24 doradcy24 pożyczki pożyczki przez internet bez przelewu wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz kredyt bank centrum handlowe warszawa pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy ubezpieczenie oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego bocian pożyczki jaki procent kredyt bank kielce kredyt bank klodzko kredyt konsolidacyjny kruk kredyt bank w lubartowie pożyczki dla start up pożyczki nfośigw kredyt bez bik kościan pożyczki chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bez biku gliwice bankomat kredyt bank warszawa eurocash pożyczki opinie alior bank kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki chwilówki nysa kredyt bank sa lokaty kredyt bank niemcewicza pożyczki gotówkowe bez zgody współmałżonka udzielenie pożyczki członkowi rady nadzorczej umowa pożyczki rodzina wzór kredyt studencki pko bp terminy pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik przez internet zarobki w kredyt banku 2011 kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt na dom pozabankowy pozyczki na dowod gubin kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph kalkulator pozyczka w uk na benefity umowa pożyczki wzory umów kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik kredyt mieszkaniowy pekao sa forum szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki cent kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bocian łódź przez internet szybki kredyt sms bez bik kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin jak udzielić pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie kredyt a prawo bankowe szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki kredyt chwilówka kluczbork pożyczki pozabankowe grudziądz dyskretne pożyczki chwilówki szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs oprocentowanie kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank łódź kościuszki pożyczki na procent gdańsk pożyczki dla nowej firmy szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez krd umowa pożyczki regulacje prawne kredyt bank lokaty październik 2012 kredyt bank oferta konta w którym banku najłatwiej o kredyt gotówkowy cel pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko forum umowa pożyczki art pożyczki prywatne tablica umowa pożyczki dla spolki pożyczki pod aktywa kredyty chwilówki telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw nieruchomości wniosek o kredyt bankowy wzór pożyczki decyzja online pożyczki dla odrzuconych pożyczki świnoujście kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa firmy dajace pozyczki zadluzonym u komornika kredyt bank łosice oprocentowanie debetu w kredyt banku kredyt bank kolobrzeska kredyt bank oplaty za przelewy kredyt bank prowizja za granicą kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie nr telefonu umowa pożyczki pomiędzy małżonkami kredyt bankowy na spłatę komornika pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy symulacja pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu za granica szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt bank rawicz telefon kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia za pracę w banku klient zaciągnął kredyt kredyty bez bik ruda slaska wiarygodne pożyczki prywatne bank millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki bez big kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki na dowód bez krd prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa druk spłaty pożyczki kangurek pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp żyranci kredyt bank w sokółce kredyt konsolidacyjny skok piast kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy forum 2012 kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie kredyt pozabankowy dla firm ranking pozyczek bez bik i z odbiorem na poczcie wzór na obliczenie pożyczki pożyczki na dowód wrocław kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyt studencki pko warunki spłaty pożyczki pozabankowe ostrowiec podatek od pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa pożyczki bez krd przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel księgowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt konsolidacyjny expander pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódzkie kalkulator pożyczki provident kredyt bank polisolokata kredyty bez biku wadowice kredyt studencki pko bp opinie pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta porównanie kredytu lublin broker pożyczki prywatne zdunska wolą kredyty bez biku na oświadczenie optima pożyczki inowrocław biznes pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki na wykup mieszkania kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyt bez bik sosnowiec kredyt bez bik radomsko umowa pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyty chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania trudne pożyczki konsolidacyjne kredyt w banku pocztowym zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank kredyty na samochód bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej na raty pożyczki bez zaświadczeń słupsk pożyczki w domu płock pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej wzór umowy pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt bank mikołajki kredyt bank górczewska 200 kredyt bankowy referat kredyt bez zus us gdańsk udziele pożyczki prywatnie warszawa global pożyczki świdnica bocian pożyczki nakło nad notecią potrącanie rat pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w santander pożyczki chwilówki poznań głogowska szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa klijenta w domu pożyczki żnin kredyt bank sa lublin kontakt kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego kontakt kredyt bank fundusz gwarancyjny kredyt bez bik credit agricole kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w 2013 kredyt bank notowania walut kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat kredyty online bez biku szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lew pożyczki pożyczki prywatne krotoszyn kredyt bez bik sosnowiec kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob pracujacych w uk pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw kredyt bank w oławie pożyczki chwilówki w białymstoku pcc od umowy pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra pożyczki pozabankowe bez providenta kredyt w deutsche banku forum umowa o spłatę pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank pożyczki chwilówki nowa sól kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie godziny otwarcia szybkie pozyczki bez biku kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank rydla szczecin w jakim banku korzystny kredyt kredyt bank kontakt białystok umowa pożyczki druk aktywny szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank kierownik filii pożyczki profi credit kredyt bank w hrubieszowie kredyty bez bik częstochowa kredyt z banku a pcc credit agricole pożyczki kalkulator awaria systemu w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe płock pożyczki chwilówki dębica wzór umow fm bank kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bez bik w pile getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyty bez bik śrem mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki pożyczki dla firm bez bik zaświadczeń kredyty bez bik erif krd kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie kredyt bank prepaid kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank księgowość elektroniczna kredyt bez biku bip pożyczki formularz kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor kredyt bez bik do 12miesięcy kredyt konsolidacyjny banku bph feniks pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana bocian pożyczki praca pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin kredyt bank oddział sopot kościuszki kredyt w gospodarce banku kredyt bank sprzedaż 2012 pożyczki luton kredyt prowizja banku pożyczki podobne do bocian kasa branickiego pożyczki pozyczki raz dwa trzy bez bik i krd pożyczki na dowód uk pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej kraków obliczenie raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim pozyczki placówki w pabianicach kredyt bank krapkowice godziny otwarcia kredyty przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodów kredyt bank klienci pożyczki pozabankowe z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki olecko odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód pozyczki pozabankowe ostroda bez sprawdzania baz danych pożyczki prywatne kto udzieli pożyczki prywatne małopolska kredyt bank monit pożyczki pozabankowe na rok pożyczki dictionary umowa pożyczki przez internet pożyczki na gumtree kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin gdzie dostane kredyt bez sprawdzania w biku ubezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank mokotowska 49 pożyczki bankowe włocławek bocian pożyczki formularz kredyt bank w m1 pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej kredyty chwilówki inwestycje opinie ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom kredyty bez bik nowy tomyśl kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia pozyczki z komornikiem i windykacja szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim warszawa kredyty chwilowki ceny transferowe pożyczki kredyt odnawialny bez biku pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank kredyt bez bik bank warszawa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia pozyczki pod zastaw w uk pożyczki bez bik krd i zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny chomikuj pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik big krd i erif kredyt bankowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki prywatne ruda śląska kredyt bank żeromskiego radom pożyczki dla młodych osób kredyt bank reklama adamczyk kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska nowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt bankowy przedawnienie roszczeń umowa pożyczki jako umowa wzajemna kredyt bankowy a utrata pracy kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń forum pożyczki chwilówki tablica pożyczki milicz wniosek o umorzenie odsetek kredytu bocian pożyczki krs pożyczki bez krd i big wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank sa płock

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad