jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki potwierdzenie salda pożyczki kredyt bez bik 5000 kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków pożyczki ozorków umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt bank zabrze kontakt czy alior bank daje kredyt pracujacym w czechach pożyczki bez biku i komornika kredyt w banku gbs pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt studencki pko informacja umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór w banku klient zaciągnął kredyt kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw pożyczki bocian tarnobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki co to jest szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow udzielenie pożyczki ang kredyt bankowy jako produkt banku komercyjnego kredyt chwilówka wodzisław najprostszy kredyt przez internet bez bik kredyt bank działdowo kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyt samochodowy kredyty chwilówki opole książąt opolskich pożyczki chwilówki mogilno pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt bank w białobrzegach kredyt bank wolomin godziny otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki kup pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi kredyt bank lokaty marzec 2012 preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko forum kredyt bank szczecin adres kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje kredyty chwilówki szczytno pożyczki eurocent kredyty chwilówki tychy tel kredyt bank świecie niespłacone pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym idea bank forum pożyczki dla zadluzonych z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki chwilówki 0 pożyczki bez bik łódź forum kredyt bez biku torun w jakim banku warto wziąć kredyt pożyczki na dowód debica pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik opinie pożyczki na dowód uk kredyt bank w leżajsku kredyty w bre banku eurobank kredyt bez bik kredyt bank warszawa marszałkowska helikon pozyczki wymagalność zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bankowy ze złym bikiem wzór pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank pustki cisowskie kredyty chwilówka częstochowa bocian pożyczki windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny sgb pożyczki pozabankowe kętrzyn pożyczki chwilówki w starogardzie gdańskim hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki najtańszy kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt mieszkaniowy w kasie stefczyka udziele prywatnej pozyczki swidnica mikropożyczki toruń kredyt bank galeria mokotów pożyczki pozabankowe lubin kredyt bank oleśnica godziny otwarcia kredyt bank miechów pożyczki bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora parabanki pozyczki prywatne wrocław pożyczki proszowice mennica pozyczki jelenia gora opinie pożyczki bocian łódź przez internet kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej boś maksymalne oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki typu subprime kredyty bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank mobile pożyczki dla bezrobotnych forum getin noble bank kredyt opinie jak dostać kredyt bez bik kredyty bez bik gdansk kredyt bank polan poznań oprocentowanie kredytu w fm bank kredyt bez bik myszkow kredyt bank kapital 3 kredyt bez bik w koninie kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkladem wlasnym kalkulator konwersja pożyczki na kapitał różnice kursowe kredyty samochodowe bank zachodni kredyt bank lomża termin przedawnienia z umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenie w jakim banku dostanę pożyczkę przez internet umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyty chwilówki knf pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki w uk kredyt w banku ing naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki umowa pożyczki pit duzy kredyt bez bik wieruszów kredyty chwilówki warunki gdzie można uzyskać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty w idea banku forum cash express pożyczki pożyczki prometeusz wrocław szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsumpcyjny bank spółdzielczy pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres kredytowania księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki euro providus bocian pożyczki koszalin pożyczki bez bik krd na dowód pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa kredyt studencki bank zachodni umowa pożyczki proz pożyczki dla domu pozabankowe kredyty pozyczki bocian opoczno kredyt bank włochy ul popularna pro domo kredyty bydgoszcz pozyczka w domu bialystok pożyczki 48h kredyt w banku spóldzielczym oprocentowanie pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki na święta odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit kredyt w getin banku opinie 2013 pożyczki dla zadłużonych kielce rybnik pożyczki prywatne kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche banku kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyt bank belgia kredyt bez biku katowice zwrot pożyczki wspólnikowi kredyt dla firm w credit agricole wniosek o umorzenie odsetek od kredytu kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie umowa pożyczki miedzy firmami wzór pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt bank kraków nowa huta ewidencja księgowa udzielonej pożyczki pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej tani kredyt inowroclaw parabank kredyt kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego pko sa gdzie kredyt bez bik zatrudnionych zagranica kredyt uk forum kredyt w krakowskim banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank w goleniowie szybkie kredyty przey internet w niemczech pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry pożyczki grajewo pożyczki prywatne augustów kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt na pit bez bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe kluczbork pożyczki internet pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace kredyty chwilówki świebodzin kredyt konsolidacyjny na karty kredytowe pożyczki na weksel toruń kredyt bank karolkowa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla powiatu kredyt bank kutno pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyt na start w idea banku forum kredyt mielec kredyt bez bik w pile bocian pożyczki zabrze bank pocztowy kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty pozabankowe słupsk kredyt getin bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny 60000 kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator 2014 optima pożyczki jelenia góra pożyczki dla dla każdego w uk uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty w fm banku pewny kredyt pozabankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku credit agricole kredyt odnawialny w banku bgż formy pożyczki kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników bank spółdzielczy kredyt bez bik krotoszyn kredyt bankowy podsumowanie pożyczki na dowód częstochowa konsolidacja kredytu wbk bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm porównanie kredytów samochodowych dla firm pożyczki w kasynach advice pożyczki opinie karty debetowe w kredyt banku prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank reklama ojciec chrzestny umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi pożyczki tarnowskie góry kredyty bez bik trójmiasto kto bierze pożyczki gotówkowe świdwin kredyty wictoria opinie wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank w toruniu godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe dla firm kredyt w gorzowie bez sprawdzania bik druk umowy pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczki w bankach porównanie pożyczki na sam dowód myszków kredyt bank suwałki telefon pożyczki hybrydowe kredyt bank wychodzące pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyt prostoliczony śmierć kredyty chwilowki srem jak wziąć kredyt 5 zł w orange pożyczki konin kredyt bank poland kredyt bankowy bez bik przez internet pozyczki prywatne premium i podobne wronki kredyt bank wołomin telefon kredyt studencki pko bp odroczenie spłaty pożyczki chwilówki 0 kredyt bank jutrzenki kredyt studencki forum kredyty chwilówki trzebinia kredyt bank wołomin kontakt umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek kredyt bank w radlinie prowident krakow pozyczk pożyczki świebodzice kredyt w banku centralnym kredyt pozabankowy bez bik forum pozyczki bez bik forum kredyt bank plac zbawiciela pożyczki toruń krótkoterminowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce dobry kredyt bez bik opinie umowa pożyczki między firmami kredyt studencki pko bp odroczenie spłaty pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować kredyt bank oplata za prowadzenie konta szybkie pożyczki rzeszów kronos pożyczki praca pożyczki prywatne ciechocinek szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń santander kupuje kredyt bank 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie kredyt bank opłata za prowadzenie konta pożyczki tomasz lis kiedy umowa pożyczki jest zwolniona z pcc kredyt bank kobierzyńska szybkie pożyczki wągrowiec kredyt bank akcje promocja w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik dębica udzielanie pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bez krd kredyty chwilówki koszalin pożyczki na nieruchomości kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf chomikuj kredyty chwilówki chełm umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel kredyt bank łomża praca alior bank kredyt refinansowy wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik pożyczki siemianowice śląskie pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank czeki kredyty chwilówki z zajęciami komorniczymi kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank kredyt pozabankowe online firma pożyczki kredyt prywatny z komornikiem pozyczki dla rencistow bez bik torun udzielenie pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt bank w zambrowie pożyczki na dowód olsztynek błyskawiczne pożyczki online actum pożyczki pożyczki bez bik dla prowadzących działalność pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik kredyt w deutsche banku forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium pożyczki bez bik bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank w przeworsku godziny otwarcia kredyt bank białostoczek szybkie pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki bez bik we włocławku kredyty chwilówki katowice mikołowska warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyt bank lubin wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw kredyt bank allegro kredyt bank bialystok warszawska kredyt bez biku inowrocław kredyt bez bik 2000 zł pożyczki łatwe kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bez bik wikipedia umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek wzór na obliczenie raty pożyczki umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór pozyczka od zaraz warszawa kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kontakt kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp umowa pożyczki z podmiotem zagranicznym kredyt bank program dla wybranych firm umowa pożyczki wzór pdf w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy przedłużenie pożyczki ok money kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kredyt bank sa kredyt konsolidacyjny 15000 kredyty bez bik zdunska wola pożyczki roczne pożyczki dla zadłużonych w krd pożyczki bez bik krd kraków niskoprocentowe pożyczki dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego forum pożyczki chwilówki mława pożyczki na dowód chojnów kredyty mieszkaniowe bph kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska umowa pożyczki a podatek vat skarabeusz pożyczki podkarpacie kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu kod na kredyt w orange go kredyt bank białobrzegi radomskie kredyt bank sa chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe w białymstoku pożyczki na sam dowód osobisty kredyty w getin banku kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania kredyty bez bik i krd lublin pożyczki na dowód gorlice kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne poznań kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kto płaci podatek od umowy pożyczki kredyt studencki w banku bgż pożyczki na dowód bez dochodu kredyty chwilowki ledziny kredyt bank w ostrołęce pożyczki między ludźmi kredyt dla firm bez bik kraków kwota pożyczki netto pożyczki 20000 zł kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza 50 pożyczki siemianowice śląskie dobre pożyczki forum limit pożyczki od rodziny kredyty chwilówki cieszyn kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż opinie 2012 kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki korporacyjne kredyt bez bik w kielcach pożyczki od internautów chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie pozyczki w domu klienta chwilowki poznan kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko pożyczki internetowe bez biku kredyty bez bik w warszawie kredyty bez dochodow kielce kredyt bank w świebodzicach kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik białystok profi kredyt kontakt klodzko pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów kredyt bank sa email kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla forum pozyczka bez bik szczecin oferta pożyczki bez krd olsztyn oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kalkulator kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik umorzenie pożyczki ewidencja kredyt samochodowy bez bik forum kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bez bik swidnica kredyt bank warszawa ul giełdowa 7 9 przedawnienie pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt samochodowy bank bph kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska kredyt bank piotrków tryb kontakt kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyt chwilówka bez biku mikropożyczki na start kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego kredyt bank częstochowa adres kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym pożyczki bez bik lubartów kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank limit kredytowy kredyt bank fundusz papierów dłużnych pożyczki pozabankowe białogard epef pożyczki kredyt pożyczka bez bik umowa pożyczki bez pcc pożyczki na chwilę kredyty bez bik grudziadz pozyczka bartek pozyczki pozabankowe dla zadluzonych w bik i krd na czym polega umowa pożyczki kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty internetowe bip pożyczki opinie pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto pożyczki online 24 wzór umowy pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej mariusz lipiński pożyczki pożyczki od 18 roku życia pożyczki bez bik nowości pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem kredyt w santander bank kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank arka umorzenie pożyczki w walucie kredyt bez biku jaki bank kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt bank prowizja od wpłaty pożyczki bank śląski pozyczki online bez przelewu kredyt bank w wieluniu kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie o bankach w jakim banku wziac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki do domu oława kredyt ratalny w getin banku żyrafa pożyczki windykacja ogłoszenia pożyczki wrocław kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bankowy historia szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszow oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata kredyt bank mielżyńskiego kredyty chwilówki ranking kredyty bez bik w olsztynie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rodziny alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko kredyt bank forum 2011 kredyty chwilówki bez bik kredyt w banku czeskim bocian pożyczki tomaszów maz pozyczka chwilowka elk kredyt bank prowadzenie konta advice pożyczki opinie kredyt bank kierownik kredyt pozabankowy na auto pożyczki bankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyty chwilówki zielona góra kredyt bez bik lodz kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew kredyt w deutsche banku pożyczki bielsko biała prodomo pożyczki toruń kredyt bez bik opole umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt bank tczew telefon kredyt bank impreza integracyjna pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big kredyt bank lubartów kredyt studencki banki 2012 kredyt w nordea banku w jakim banku kredyt na dom uk odsetki od pożyczki deklaracja umowa pożyczki w kodeksie cywilnym kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców kredyt z orange na jaki numer pożyczki dictionary

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad