formularz pożyczki pożyczki dla firm śląsk pożyczki w domu zawiercie kredyt bank jędrzejów kredyt bank bz wbk udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi kredyt bank oddział piła w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na budowe domu pożyczki pod zastaw nowy sącz kredyt bank racibórz godziny otwarcia bank zachodni wbk sa kredyt studencki kredyt bank żywiec godziny pracy umowa pożyczki dokument czy umowa pożyczki musi być sporządzona na piśmie pożyczki premium oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki bez bik iława kredyt bank knurów poręczenie pożyczki pożyczka na poczcie polskiej bank kredyt dom lębork pożyczki u kruka kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla samorządów najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 kredyt bank namysłów w jakim banku brac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy umowa pożyczki zgoda małżonka kredyt bank węgorzewo kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego kredyt bank deutschland pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank wroclaw placowki kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia pożyczki alternatywne kredyt na samochód używany bez bik kredyty chwilówki myszków kredyt bank rrso kredyt konsolidacyjny bez podpisu małżonka jak dostać kredyt bez bik szukam pożyczki śląsk kredyt bank busko godziny otwarcia pożyczki do 100 zł jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca kredyt samochodowy w vw bank opinie kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat przez internet kredyt bank sa w gdańsku kredyt bank ii oddział wrocław kredyt bank dusznicki opinie pożyczki prywatne opole udziele pożyczki prywatnie kredyt bank sa żagiel adres pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen lukas bank kredyt bank placowka wroclaw pożyczki bez biku ełk jakie banki udzielają kredytów bez bik udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi idea bank kredyt forum kredyt bank emerytura pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa kredyt w santander consumer bank opinie pożyczki przez internet ranking kredyty pozabankowe koszalin kredyt bank rumia gdańska lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie kredyt bank tarnobrzeg pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nowych firm oddłużanie pożyczki kredyt bank w gryfinie kredyt bank bankomaty pożyczka bez banku kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu kredyt pozabankowy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 wartości kredyt bank sa ii oddział w łodzi kredyt mieszkaniowy nordea habitat kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nauczycieli pożyczki wśród najbliższych kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej pożyczki na telefon opinie getin bank kalkulator zdolności kredytowej umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór kredyty pozabankowe szczecin pożyczki prywatne sanok praca optima pozyczki lodz forum wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pdf szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska pożyczki od ręki online umowa pożyczki od udziałowców pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni wong pożyczki kredyt bank grodzka kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki trzebnica podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy umowa pożyczki wzot pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego kredyt pozabankowy lodz wierzyciel pożyczki kredyty chwilówki 0 pożyczki online na dowód bez bik pro bono pożyczki umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór kredyty bez biku i komornika pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp sa kredyt studencki w bz wbk kredyt bankowy pekao kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 kredyty bez bik konstantynów ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku kredyt konsolidacyjny renta socjalna kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego pożyczki bez bik bez przedpłat umowa pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt w postbank kredyty chwilówki czy warto pozyczki krotko terminowe kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy porównanie rybnik pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank wołomin kredyt na remont mieszkania kalkulator pko kredyt bank przejęcie wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt studencki 2013 banki najtańsze pożyczki ranking kredyt bank prywatyzacja robert kotowski pożyczki umorzone odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy pożyczki bez bik w ciechanowie kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole pożyczki no dowód elblag porównanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bankowy porównanie bocian pożyczki bez bik pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowej kredyty bez bik w legnicy kredyt bank książkowa getin noble bank kredyt deweloperski pronus pożyczki w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu pożyczki bez bik grudziądz pożyczki od inwestorów prywatnych kredyty mieszkaniowe raport kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty asper pożyczki elbląg kredyt w ktorym banku kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie kredyt bank infolinia 24h kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki pod zastaw konin najtanńsza sprawdzona pożyczka bez bik kredyt w ktorym banku najlepiej pożyczki na dowód osobisty bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kalkulator rat pożyczki ing pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą bez bik optima pożyczki do domu gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyt bank liczba akcji zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt odnawialny w ing bank śląski łatwe pożyczki bez bik pożyczki dobre miasto kredyty chwilówki siemianowice śląskie kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyty studenckie w pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank forum kredyty chwilówki konto potrącenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej odzyskanie pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp przedłużenie kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska 50 kredyt bez biku torun kredyt bez bik szybko kredyt konsolidacyjny problemy konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kod do orange kredyt kredyt bank dlugie ogrody pekao pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt chwilówka 24 pożyczka bez bik na samochód kredyt bank ożarów kredyt bank sa warszawa adres kredyt online bez bik forum pożyczki konsolidacyjne bez zdolności kredytowej preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin schaer kredyt bankowy gdzie dają pożyczki na dowód pożyczki żyrardów kredyt bank lokata 6 5 procent kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności pozyczki dla polakow w anglii kredyt bank zagan kredyty gotówkowe bez bik w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom kredyt bank wykupiony pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe providenta kredyt bank lokaty internetowe kredyty chwilowki kety kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank oddział kondratowicza kredyt bank rebranding kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie oferty kredyt bank słowackiego gdańsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki na sam dowód myszków udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu konwersja umowy pożyczki obligacyjnej zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy el global pożyczki pożyczki bez dochodu konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotowkowy kredyty chwilówki rawicz pożyczki bez bik na sms kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa kredyt bank ekstrakonto student getin bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pozyczki bez umowy o prace sanok banki kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń forum kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kontakt tel kredyty pozabankowe bez bik z komornikiem kredyt bank w radlinie pożyczki prywatne lubin w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum kredyt ratalny banki kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi pożyczki gotówkowe do 20000 kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki bez krd i bik kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji czy umowa pożyczki jest umową wzajemną umowa pożyczki dowód ze świadków kredyt bank radom żeromskiego kontakt ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie ile zarabiaja w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie alior bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen kredyt studencki w banku pko sa kredyty bez bik 50000 kredyt bank otwock andriollego umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową kredyt w banku czy przez doradcę kredyt dla firm bez biku umowa pożyczki provident pożyczki getin bank pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska kredyt bez bik 7 wzór umowy pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bez bik i krs kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta pożyczki na dowód w lesznie progroup pożyczki pożyczki picasso radom kredyt bank gotówka www kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank zmiana pinu prado pożyczki opinie getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór pożyczki chwilówki dla bezrobotnych gdzie w rzeszowie można dostać dobry kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki ranking umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bez bik w płocku fundacja kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego kredyt bank turek kontakt kredyt bank warszawa ul foksal kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny karta kredytowa retencja pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski kredyt w alior bank forum odsetki od pożyczki faktura wewnętrzna kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany pożyczki myślenice bezpieczny kredyt kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt bank ciołka godziny otwarcia udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice kredyty konsolidacyjne artykuł cele mieszkaniowe spłata pożyczki kredyty chwilówki na konto warunki otrzymania pożyczki pożyczki prywatne przemyśl panda pozyczki opole kredyt bez bik banki bocian pozyczki lebork kredyt bez bik szczecin pro domo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank zwrot za paliwo kredyt bez bik krakow pożyczki prywatne piotrków tryb prodomo co to za pozyczki pożyczki krasnystaw kredyt bank litwa kredyt w banku dla studenta kredyt bank gryfino kontakt kredyt w banku na dowód umowa pożyczki bezprocentowej kredyty bez bik chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe do domu kredyt bank sanok szopena bocian pożyczki kalisz pożyczki alter księgowanie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs bocian pożyczki forum połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk kredyt bankowy jako żródło finansowania kredyty bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank godzina otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 pożyczki lombardowe lodz pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent 2013 wpływ pożyczki na rachunek walutowy kredyt bank lublin umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bezpieczny kredyt kredyt bez bik opinie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo pożyczki chwilówki żagań kredyt bank przedłużona gwarancja kredyt bank polska kredyt bank sa poznań mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki w jakim banku wziąć kredyt samochodowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyt bank w brzegu kredyty bez bik mińsk mazowiecki pozyczki od osob prywatnych bialystok kredyt bank garbary godziny otwarcia kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa bank bgż pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości podżyrowanie pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin 24h kredyt bank aukcje kredyt bank 3 oddział warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw gniezno kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik gdzie dostane pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu tani kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bez bik skarbiec kredyty bankowe pko sa opodatkowanie odsetek pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 alior bank kredyt gotówkowy online kredyt bank tarnów lwowska telefon najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 krezus pożyczki kredyt na oswiadczenie pozyczki na dowud lub firme andrzej śmiały pożyczki umowa pożyczki ze spółką szybkie pożyczki bez formalności kredyt bank zielona góra godziny otwarcia kredyty bankowe porównanie ofert bocian pożyczki regulamin pożyczki pomorskie ubezpieczenie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank skok kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm kredyty chwilówki gorzów kredyt orange pop 5 zł pożyczki prywatne forum kredyt na umowe na czas określony umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange kredyt w banku pekao sa pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank tbg chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie kredyt w banku pocztowym a bik pożyczki w języku polskim kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kielce w którym banku łatwo dostać kredyt gotówkowy umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobą fizyczną a spółką kredyty prywatne zielona gora kredyt bank obsługa kredyt bank ipad podatek od umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank tychy pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big i krd kredyty bez bik sanok kredyt samochodowy bank pko pożyczki bez bik na samochód kredyty pozabankowe zabrze pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki gotówkowe nowy targ pożyczki prywatne online najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny przy najniższej krajowej firma finan pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe marka kredyty bez bik i dochodów kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon pozyczki dla pracujacych z komornikiem pożyczki pod zastaw toruń axcess pozyczki pomorskie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz pożyczki ratalne online kredyt na umowie na czas określony kredyt bank likwidacja karty kredytowej pożyczki na dowód świdnica pożyczki younga optima pożyczki chojnice pożyczki bez bik lębork pozyczka z obsluga w domu warszaw kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole umowa pożyczki od udziałowców umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek euroefekt pożyczki szybkie kredyty bez bik przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem wrocław pożyczki prywatne potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow bocian pożyczki starogard gdański kredyt bank zgorzelec kontakt kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od siostry oprocentowanie kredytu gotowkowego w santander bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych kredyt bez bik kalisz pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław kredyt bez bik 100 000 potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki adam nowakowski pożyczki pożyczki jeremie pomorskie kredyt bank dział reklamacji profinet pożyczki praca kredyt konsolidacyjny ing opinie skarabeusz pożyczki chełm santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt bez bik getin bank pożyczki chwilówki kontakt pożyczki bez bik zamość kredyt bank racibórz telefon kredyt bank biskupiec pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg pożyczki ebi kredyt prywatny bez bik krd pleszew pilne alior bank kredyty kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko otrzymanie pożyczki a pcc idea bank kredyt na start ze wsparciem unijnym opinie kredyt bez bik dla zadluzonych kredyt bank nowy swiat warszawa kredyt studencki pekao sa poręczyciele pożyczki dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz wzór umowy na udzielenie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator kredyty bankowe ranking kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen kredyty bankowe rachunkowość szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki kamienna góra jak wziąć kredyt w banku zagranicznym pożyczki na podjęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyty chwilówki konsolidacyjny pożyczki kalkulator pko bp umowa pożyczki raty wzór kredyt bank połączony pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum pożyczki prado ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2012 kredyt bez bik dąbrowa górnicza opodatkowanie pożyczki od udziałowca pozyczki na dowód osobisty kredyt bank warszawa kabaty pożyczki rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny przy zajęciu komorniczym kredyt bank dg kredyt bank lokata z premią

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad