kredyt bez bik chojnice nfoś pożyczki pożyczki niskooprocentowane dla firm getin noble bank kredyty ratalne kredyt chwilówka ruda śląska kredyt bank nr na infolinie pożyczki oszuści umowa pożyczki księgowanie bocian pożyczki oborniki pożyczki od osób prywatnych podatek udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kasa pożyczki warunki otrzymania kredytu w getin banku bocian pożyczki krotoszyn mbank kredyt samochodowy kredyt bankowy dokumenty kredyt w banku norweskim banki kredyty pożyczki kredyt bankowy rodzaje kredyt bank aukcje poleasingowe kredyt bez biku na samochod kredyt bank wejherowo kontakt kredyt w banku polskim pożyczki chwilówki za darmo kredyt bank wydział zajęć komorniczych bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie oblicz ratę pożyczki ing termin przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra kredyt bank warszawa al krakowska udzielam pożyczki pod weksel pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk obliczanie raty pożyczki ing kredyt bank ken 19 obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet pożyczki ekspresowe kredyt bank oddział sopot kościuszki pożyczki chrzanów kredyt w banku a utrata pracy szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pozyczka za zastaw auta zagranicznego klodzko pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bank zachodni kredyt bank obecnie kredyt bank dni otwarcia getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank bialystok zwyciestwa warunki kredytu w getin bank kredyt bank wielicka godziny wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy pożyczki przepisy pożyczki dla udziałowców kredyt pozabankowy na mieszkanie pożyczki prywatne poznań kredyty bez bik i krd slask kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 pożyczki prometeusz białystok pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy legnica prywatna pożyczka komornik warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny idea bank bezzwrotne pożyczki z up kredyt bank wniosek kredytowy kredyt chwilówka oleśnica ankieta bezpieczeństwa osobowego pożyczki aureus pożyczki część pożyczki umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór pożyczki na dowód mbank kredyt bank jasło godziny otwarcia kredyt preferencyjny banku ochrony środowiska kredyt bank tarnowskie góry kredyt bez biku piła ryzyko operacyjne w kredyt banku pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez dochodów kredyt odnawialny w ing bank śląski kredyt bez bik piła pożyczki pozabankowe gliwice pożyczki w domu klienta mazowieckie kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bik warszawa bocian pożyczki kielce forum regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zagiel adres kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie kredyt bank żagiel tel pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia pożyczki lubliniec nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet mbank bankomaty kredyt bank kredyt bank miechów umowa pożyczki wzór pdf kredyt bank logo pożyczki bez biku i komornika kredyty chwilowki jelenia gora pożyczki bez krd lublin bocian pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój obligacje narodowej pożyczki rozwoju sił polski kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce pracujac za granica pozyczka pod zastaw kielce pożyczka przez internet bez sprawdzania w jakim kraju najlepiej dostać pożyczkę kredyt bank sa w warszawie oddział w lublinie kredyt bank euronet kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kredyt ratalny credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank mława kontakt kredyt bank sa historia kredyt 3000 bez biku pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy mafi kredyt bank w biłgoraju kredyt studencki pko aneks udzielenie pożyczki spółce osobowej przez wspólnika pożyczki dla polaków uk kredyty chwilówki zabrze wolności kredyt bank departament windykacji warszawa kredyt bank lodz zgierska kredyt dla firm bez bik pożyczki chwilówki na dowód opinie kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza kredyt 3x33 w santander consumer bank pożyczki na dowód bez bik i krd kredyty chwilowki glogow umowa pożyczki u notariusza kredyt bez bik samochodowy pożyczki z obsługą w domu kredyt bank bankomaty wbk pożyczki pod zastaw lubelskie przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik kozienice pożyczki gotówkowe 24h kredyt konsolidacyjny w norwegii kredyt bank m1 kraków konwersja pożyczki kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank plock tel oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy kredyty dla malych firm na start 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank kredyt bank rumia kredyt bank piaseczno godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2014 kredyty chwilówki w tychach pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu rzeszów umowa pożyczki angielski pożyczki bez bik kujawsko pomorskie pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock kredyt bankowy a podatek kredyt bank w czechach skarabeusz pożyczki gotówkowe opinie podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2012 warunki otrzymania pożyczki feniks pożyczki olecko kredyt bez bik provident wong pożyczki pozyczki w nowym saczu kredyt konsolidacyjny 60 tys umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyty pozabankowe w lublinie umowa pożyczki pcc wzór pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat pozyczki n dowod elblag bez krd i bik pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości forum umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wzór pożyczki pozabankowe prudnik pożyczki bez bik preferencyjny kredyt studencki w pko bp pożyczki bez bik nowy tomyśl bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt bank program concerto kredyty konsolidacyjne rzeszów kredyt bank sa ii oddział w poznaniu bocian pozyczki swiebodzin kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią w bik kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska pozyczki z obsluga w domu gdansk kredyt bank ostroleka pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt bank raszyn pozyczki do domu gniezno czy dostane pozyczke w ei global kredyt bank konskie promocje w kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny santander opinie kredyt w koncie bank pocztowy pożyczki w żagiel pożyczka online bez krd 24h pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bez bik do 50 000 pożyczki bez bik łuków pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank sa ruda slaska pożyczki na dowód olsztyn pożyczki bez bik raty pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach olsztyn kredyt bank stalowa wola kontakt pożyczki bocian bytów szybkie pożyczki w uk kredyty pozabankowe rybnik pożyczki bez bik piotrków trybunalski pożyczki na niski dochód kredyt bank czeki umowa pożyczki odsetki za zwłokę pozyczki scarabeusz praca biala podl pożyczki w różnych bankach mbank kredyt samochodowy online oprocentowanie argentum capital pożyczki umowa pożyczki pracowniczej przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie kredyt bank w żarach pożyczki korporacyjne pożyczki dla obcokrajowców pożyczki z komornikiem bydgoszcz kredyty bez biku i komornika tanie pożyczki na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank ustna umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia pożyczki łomża pożyczki dla firm bph kredyt bank ryki kredyt w uk natwest umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wzór kredyty bez biku dąbrowa górnicza bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki pułtusk kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank kredyty bez biki krd umowa pożyczki wymagania kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy pozyczki do domu walbrzych plus kasa pożyczki pożyczki nielegalne kredyty chwilówki ostrołęka pożyczki gotówkowe starogard gdański wzór umowy na udzielenie pożyczki umowa pożyczki gotówki druk pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie banków kredyt w boś banku pożyczki w wałczu kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wbk kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp obliczenie raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bank główny ekonomista godziny graniczne w kredyt banku pożyczki morąg pożyczki pozabankowe w elblągu pożyczki w lublinie szybkie kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank w krosnie opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat kredyt bank oddziały warszawa umowa pożyczki bankowej chwilowki legnica jak wziasc kredyt skarabeusz pożyczki wniosek kredyty bez bik od reki pożyczki w domu klienta głogów kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego 27 pożyczki pod zastaw srem konsolidacja kredytu w wbk umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek umowa pożyczki dla firmy wzór kredyty dla bezrobotnych na raty online kredyty bez bik slupsk szybkie pożyczki głogów kredyt bank 1 oddział warszawa przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bez biku banki pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie kredyt na mieszkanie bank pocztowy kredyt bank ken 57 warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny na firme kredyt bank lokaty opinie kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online kredyt bank braniewo kredyt na mieszkanie w banku millenium kredyt bankowy jako produkt banku komercyjnego pożyczki multika kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin kredyt bank parytet wymiany pożyczki chwilówki podatki pożyczki zagranicznej a pcc bocian chwilowka kredytową nr tel międzyrzecz kredyt bank w wolominie zwrot pożyczki pieniężnej za pokwitowaniem wzór pożyczki bez bik dębica pożyczka plus kłodzko pożyczki chwilówki bielsko pożyczki na konto udziele pozyczki prywatnej na samochód kredyty chwilówki radom prażmowskiego kredyt bez bik racibórz kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank elblag kontakt kredyt bank iii oddział gdańsk kredyty bankowe książki chomikuj szybkie kredyty bez biku jaki jest numer na kredyt orange płock pożyczki bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe ing kredyt online idea bank preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki w domu klienta bez bik pożyczki pyrzyce pożyczki chwilówki wrocław pożyczki do 2000 zł umowa pożyczki komentarz pożyczki dla nieletnich kredyt bank kredyty konsolidacyjne umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pdf pożyczki bocian radom umowa pożyczki pracownik wzór kredyt bank przemyśl dworskiego kredyty studenckie w pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy samotna matka kredyt bank lokaty walutowe kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki wniosek kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny problemy kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja poszukuję pożyczki pod weksel kredyt w krakowskim banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank w malborku prywatne pożyczki w lublinie pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki osobowej pożyczki dla firm bez zabezpieczeń kredyty bankowe współpraca oprocentowanie debetu w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki kołobrzeg umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór kredyt studencki pko sa warunki pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 umowa pożyczki dobrowolne poddanie się egzekucji pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób z komornikiem kredyt bank i santander kredyt bank klienci pożyczki całkowicie przez internet kredyt samochodowy mbank oprocentowanie pożyczki bez bik w siedlcach kredyt bank cieszyn godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód z komornikiem kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego lukas bank kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu szybki kredyt w banku umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie kredyt bank rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyt bank rekomendacje pożyczki firmowe bez bik bankomat kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki konin kredyty pożyczki nakło kredyt bank bankomaty bezprowizyjne oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki konsolidacyjne pozabankowe ketrzyn kredyt bank sa inwestycyjny dom maklerski pożyczki dla osób pracujących za granicą kredyty i pożyczki trójmiasto pożyczki chwilówki rybnik pożyczki pozabankowe pomorskie kredyt bez bik 4000 kredyt bez bik walbrzych pozyczki na dowod w domu slask udzielę pożyczki bez przedpłat pożyczki cashper kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie pcc od pożyczki od firmy kredyt gotówkowy w eurobank infolinia pożyczki pro domo kredyt w banku credit agricole eurocash pożyczki opinie pożyczki na dowód śrem alior bank kredyt internetowy kredyty w uk po polsku kredyty chwilówki nakło nad notecią pożyczki chwilówki wołomin kredyt bank radom żeromskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk podwale panda pożyczka nysa kredyt bank w raciborzu pozyczki pozabankowe w euro w holandii pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta szybkie pozyczki pod zastaw busko umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do us umowy pożyczki pieniędzy wzory kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kredyt bank kościuszki kielce prywatne pożyczki na weksel pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów kredyt w banku przez internet kredyt bank wilanowska godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko bp kredyt kupiecki w banku kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank kurs walutowy kredyt bank fundusze notowania kredyt dla firm bez zus radom kredyt bank tarnobrzeg godziny otwarcia pozyczki gotowkowe pock pożyczki bez banku kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana alior bank kredyt umowa zlecenie bocian pożyczki śrem kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i krd kredyt bank swinoujscie godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy lukas bank bocian pożyczki kołobrzeg kredyty chwilówki grochowska kredyt konsolidacyjny w niemczech pożyczki bez bik śrem kredyt odnawialny bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt bank tarnowskie góry odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet kredyty dlugoterminowe bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bez bik bez dochodu umowa pożyczki a pcc szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat forum oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa wzory umów pożyczki pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zabezpieczeń kasa stefczyka pożyczki umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pcc pożyczki dla młodych ludzi kredyt bank fundusz papierów dłużnych pożyczki z zfśs a pcc pożyczki nauczycielskie kredyt bankowy książka pożyczki gotówkowe anglia kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo przykładowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki gniezno kredyt bank realizacja czeku kredyty mieszkaniowe z wkładem własnym pożyczki nowe online kredyty bez bik białystok pożyczki partner pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowych odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej od udziałowca kredyty bez bik do 80000 kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice kredyty chwilówki zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny dla prowadzących działalność ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pekao umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc kredyty od 18lat na dowod olsztyn kredyty pozabankowe plock pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik na oświadczenie pożyczki na dowód na raty umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej obliczanie pożyczki ing ei global kredyty kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku kredyt konsolidacyjny w ge money bank

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad