kredyt bank łódż pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez formalności kredyt studencki pko bp legitymacja pożyczki dla zadłużonych rolników szybkie pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe do 40000 pożyczki bez bik legnica ulotka pożyczki pozyczki dla zadluzonych przez telefon kredyt bank rachunek pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice umowa pozyczki ze wsteczna data kredyty chwilówki bochnia kredyt bank 3 maja lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie pożyczki udzielane przez gminę szybki kredyt w uk forum pożyczki dla pracowników w bilansie wierzyciel pożyczki forum karr pożyczki jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat kredyt studencki w banku pko pożyczki gotówkowe kielce pożyczki na weksel gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotowkowy kredyt bank legionowo kredyty bez bik stargard szczeciński kredyt samochodowy bank bph pożyczki społecznościowe podatki umowa pożyczki zastaw wzór bocian pożyczki a bik łukasz chlebicki pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe piekary śląskie pożyczki prywatne tczew polecane pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bez bik i komornika kredyt bank lokata negocjowana kredyt bank wejherowo telefon eurocent pożyczki opinie jowisz pożyczki kredyt bank zielona góra kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego 2012 kredyt bank kondycja finansowa kredyt bank kupon 2 kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank w łodzi kredyt bank lubin sezam pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki kraków bez bik kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kalkulator kredyt bank raty żagiel kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pko alior bank kredyt online pożyczki chwilówki kredyty pożyczki na dowód w łodzi pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki internet pożyczki przez internet zyrafa lokaty w kredyt banku opinie optima pożyczki wołomin pozyczki w pko kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin kredyty bez bik na samochód kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis bank usługa udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki duże kwoty pozyczka bez bik kielce pożyczki rybka kredyt konsolidacyjny olsztyn pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki co sądzicie pozyczka od zaraz plock warszawa pożyczki prywatne trudne pożyczki konsolidacyjne kredyt dla małej firmy bez bik pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard kredyt bank wypłata gotówki prywatne pożyczki dla rolników alior bank kredyt przez internet opinie pożyczki pozabankowe na działalność gospodarczą pozyczki żary bez zaswiadczenia kredyt bez biku bielsko pożyczki z obsługa w domu kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank forum kredyt bank leszno pszczółka kredyt inowrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny dla gmin pożyczki na dowód chorzów pożyczki chwilówki koszalin pożyczki domówki kraków feninks pozyczki pozabankowe strona glowwna kredyty pozabankowe w poznaniu kredyt bank bławatna gdynia kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 kredyt bank niemcewicza regulamin pożyczki provident pożyczki mysłowice kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking i wasze opinie kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy atiz pożyczki opinie gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki kredyt w banku zagiel pożyczki partner wzór umowy pożyczki weksel umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyty pozabankowe legnica kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki od inwestorów prywatnych kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku forum kredyt bankowy na dowód kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza kredyty chwilówki zawiercie pożyczki gotówkowe poznań santander bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław kredyt bankowy cechy kredyt bank sa żagiel udzielę pożyczki pod weksel koscian koszty pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki finanse pożyczki bez zgody współmałżonka kredyt na oświadczenie kredyt bank raporty bieżące trudne pozyczki warszawa pożyczki chwilówki współpraca kredyty bez bik wrocław kredyt chwilówka porównanie pożyczki na dowód szprotawa kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kredyt bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczki na dowód w łodzi kredyt bank lodz pilsudskiego kredyty chwilówki tychy jana pawła ii koszty pożyczki w provident kredyt bank aplikacja kredyty chwilówki strzegom mikropożyczki w polsce transakcja pożyczki równoległej kredyt konsolidacyjny z żyrantem kredyt chwilówki zielona góra kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt z idea bank opinie żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki od ręki kredyty kredyt od ręki rybnik pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko kredyt bank warszawa śliska pokwitowanie pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa bielany kredyt bank lokaty dewizowe niespłacony kredyt a bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poręczycieli pekao sa kredyt studencki umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi podatek od pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyty chwilówki miechów kredyt konsolidacyjny banku bph pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań optima pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 gdańsk santander consumer bank opinie kredyt samochodowy kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik kredyt bez bik skierniewice umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z poręczeniem pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan ranking banków kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt w idea bank opinie kredyty bez biku malbork pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kontakt provident wysokość pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw złota lublin kredyt cetelem bank niskoprocentowe kredyty uk kredyt bank wrocław gliniana godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłego pracownika pożyczki bez bik dla firm pożyczki od osób prywatnych nowy dwór mazowiecki deutsche bank kursy walut kredyt pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank przelewy online pożyczki w lombardach kredyt samochodowy dla nowej spółki kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 2 8 warszawa akcess pozyczki kredyt pozabankowy bez bik forum pozyczka dla bezrobotnego ze splata tygodniowa lokaty w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń forum kredyty chwilówki na sms pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyty chwilówki warunki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko bp pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik bocian pożyczki mail szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyt w db bank pożyczki mikro umowa pożyczki zawarta zagranicą kredyt konsolidacyjny mieszkaniowy pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych wonga pożyczki reklama alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym dla firm cash pożyczki kredyty chwilówki radom kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyty konsolidacyjne kielce akropol pożyczki pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica pozyczki z marr jak ksiegowac najszybsze pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank konstancin najtańsze pożyczki w bankach pożyczki prywatne będzin kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw warunki alior bank kredyt obrotowy umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk kredyt gotówkowy bez biku i zaświadczeń czy kredyty chwilowki sprawdzaja bik i krd pożyczki bez bik 24 otrzymanie pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny pozyczka pieniedzy plock bank pko kredyt na mieszkanie udzielę pożyczki na procent pożyczki bez krd przez internet pożyczki p2p pożyczki unijne 2014 ile kosztuje kredyt w banku kredyt w banku pocztowym bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki odnawialnej ing pożyczki chwilówki długoterminowe oferty pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny idea bank kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku kredyt alior bank forum kredyt bank garbary godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bez bik nowy sacz umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne pozyczki bez bik i krd numer tel pożyczki bez bik przasnysz pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet firma bocian pożyczki firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczka od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki pruszcz gdański podatek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej przedłużenie pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt w jakim banku 2013 dar pożyczki działdowo gdzie mozna w sieradzu dostac pozyczke bez dochodu kredyt bank lokata z bonusem alior bank kredyt na samochód pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa kredyty w uk po polsku umowa pożyczki kto płaci pcc kredyt bez bik poznań rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator kredyt bank połączony najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej forum pozyczki augustow przez internet kredyty bez bik w domu rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank kredyt w banku paribas kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek pozyczka bez biku Środa wlkp pożyczki u lichwiarzy kredyt bank merger kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki żagań el global rzeszów kredyty opinie kredyt bank opoczno kredyt konsolidacyjny pko opinie kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa kredyty pozabankowe szczecin kredyt odnawialny w ing bank śląski kredyt bank adres korespondencyjny szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod kredyt bank gold profit pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem mikropożyczki z efs podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika getin bank kredyt samochodowy wcześniejsza spłata kredyt bank lokata internetowa kredyt studencki jakie odsetki alior bank kredyt obrotowy dla firm kredyt bez biku inowrocław kredyt bank falenica bank pko bp kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko kredyt bank ilość pracowników kredyt bank spółka akcyjna czy kredyt bankowy jest zawsze oprocentowany kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla firm pożyczki przez internet żyrafa kredyty chwilówki radom belgia kredyty forum pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet pożyczki online bez grosza promocja pożyczki gotówkowej wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny rzeszów kredyt bank definicja kredyty w pko sa forum pożyczki albert założenie konta w kredyt banku pożyczki gwarant opinie kredyty chwilówki zarząd kredyt bez bik na zaswiadczenie pożyczki przez internet forum pozyczki do reki wroclaw bez krd banki ktore udzielaja pozyczek na dowod pożyczki w amber gold opinie kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank monit w jakim banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt kredyt bank wisła odsetki od pożyczki zfśs wzór kredyt w banku bgż opinie kredyt bank pl kursy walut kredyt studencki pko druki kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego kontakt kredyt pozabankowy olsztyn ranking banków w polsce kredyt pożyczki parabank szybki kredyt bez biku i krd grudziadz kredyt bankowy a rozwód kredyt bank merger kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie jak dostac kredyt w polsce pracujac w uk pożyczki na dowód milicz pożyczki oświęcim godziny graniczne w kredyt banku druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyty bank santander kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko kalkulator kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki chwilówki wzór kredyty bez bik bolesławiec pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej z komornikiem kredyt chwilówka 2000 kredyt bank żyrardów umowa pożyczki art czas przedawnienia pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych 25000zl pożyczki pozabankowe tczew umowa pożyczki opłata notarialna kredyt bank dewizy pożyczka w domu klienta podatek od odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank pocztowy kredyt bez bik jasło pożyczki bez bik szamotuły kredyt bank obotrycka gorzów warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko bank pko bp kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty mieszkaniowe w londynie pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie najtańsze pożyczki w bankach umowa pożyczki z samym sobą jaki numer na kredyt w orange profil aktywny kredyt bank szybki kredyt na samochód bez bik kredyt bank kraków wielicka umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór najkorzystniejsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum chwilówki szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bocian pożyczki a komornik kredyt bank grupa umowa pożyczki pieniężnej doc kredyty bez bik 50000 udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty prywatne pozyczki lichwiarskie slask pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty pożyczki na rozwój działalności kredyt w banku czy u doradcy kredyty w idea bank opinie prodomo pożyczki podlaskie przyrzeczenie udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank konto junior kredyt bank brzeg kontakt prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz grudziadz parkmar pozyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce kredyt bez biku bydgoszcz ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank metro politechnika gdzie dostane kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bank lublin zana kontakt pożyczki bez bik zabrze kalkulator pożyczki pko bp umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna firma pożyczki sezam wieluń mikro pożyczki bez bik polecane pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec pozyczki do domu bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik 10000 zł przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo kredyty chwilówki tychy niepodległości pożyczki na dowód w domu kredyty chwilówki świdnica pożyczki sl forum dobrej pożyczki kredyty chwilówki praca forum pożyczki leszno narutowicza pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy włocławek kredyt prywatny świdnica kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w anglii kredyt studencki w pko bank polski pożyczki na duże kwoty pożyczki kraków rynek podgórski pożyczki gotówkowe wbk kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn kredyt bank kontakt białystok kredyty bankowe i pozabankowe kalwaryjska krakow pożyczki bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank adresy w warszawie kredyty chwilówki łask umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy przedawnienie pożyczki z zakładu pracy pozyczki bez bik wloclawek kredyt w banku skok pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange warunki pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza duet pozyczka numer tel kredyt bank obotrycka pożyczki długoterminowe na dowód bank bgż kredyt na mieszkanie getin bank wniosek o kredyt online umowa pożyczki między podatnikami vat kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millennium pożyczki na weksel śląsk kredyt bank prabuty warunki kredytu w kredyt banku kredyt bank wólczańska 178 udzielić pożyczki english pożyczki dla urzędników kredyt konsolidacyjny rio kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż kredyt bez bik dabrowa gornicza pożyczki w kutnie kredyt chwilowki zielona gora kredyt w getin bank pewny kredyt bez biku kredyty dla nowych firm bez bik bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki gotówkowe poznań kredyt bank marza pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach pożyczki jeremie forum pożyczki bocian włocławek kredyt bank łódź ketlinga godziny otwarcia kalkulator kredytu samochodowego alior bank banki które daja kredyt bez bik kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim pożyczki chwilówki nowogard kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja kredyt bez zus us gdańsk kredyt bank gdynia starowiejska godziny otwarcia bik pożyczka w placówce warszawa pożyczki od ręki bocian kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne certus pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd płock kredyt na pit bez bik i krd kredyt pozabankowy lodz

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad