pożyczki chwilówki ranking kredyty bez bik piotrków jakie jest opracowanie dla pożyczki pod konto w pko kredyty chwilówki ostróda kredyty chwilówki w lublinie kredyt bank minsk mazowiecki kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów kredyt bank w koszalinie bocian pożyczki nysa kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy pożyczki bez bik tarnowskie góry pozyczki bez konta kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator lukas bank pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw kredyt bank kubusia puchatka firma pro domo łomż pożyczki jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt inwestycyjny prawo bankowe pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki z bratem kredyt bank praca warszawa kredyt samochodowy w getin noble banku kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredytowy szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet pożyczki polska różne polska usługi kredyt bank kobierzynska krakow kredyty chwilówki płock sienkiewicza małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd odsetki od pożyczki gofin udzielanie pożyczki kredyt bank czarne złoto kredyt bank gryfino godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście kredyt przez internet bez biku zmiany w kredyt banku auto kredyt bez bik umowa udzielenia pożyczki przez gminę bocian pożyczki lublin kredyty bez bik w krakowie kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie dochody kredyt bankowy na samochód pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie optima pożyczki program partnerski kredyt bank o lublin żagiel kredyt konsolidacyjny co to kredyt w anglii forum kredyt mieszkaniowy pko symulacja pożyczki dla przedsiębiorstw witam kredyt bez biku pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik big krd i erif kredyt studencki bank pko sa kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe w uk dobry kredyt kalisz kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny tanie pożyczki gotówkowe opinie kredyt bank warszawa śliska kredyt bank placówka gdańsk pożyczki międzyrzecz pożyczki na dowód na raty pożyczki prywatne na umowę cywilno prawną pożyczki chwilówki kielce pożyczki prywatne forum kredyt bank wypowiada umowy na życie umowa na czas określony gdzie kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt bez bik krakow kredyt bank powstancow slaskich warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczenie rat pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt bank w sosnowcu pożyczki od ręki lublin pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik bydgoszcz pozyczki bez bik chelmno pożyczki podobne do vivus kredyty chwilówki librowszczyzna kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany pożyczki bez bik na samochód szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet aktywny druk umowy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód gorzów pożyczki nordea kredyty bez bik tablica pożyczki dla gmin kredyt on line pozabankowy umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki restrukturyzacja kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik internetowe kredyt bank gold metal kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła kredyt dla zadłużonych online kredyty bez biku walbrzych pożyczka bez big kraków kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska 25 optima pożyczki zarobki skok wołomin pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników alior bank kredyt dla studenta kredyt bez bik pszczyna hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki bocian pożyczki numer tel pożyczki provident oprocentowanie kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2013 lublin pożyczki pozabankowe orange kody kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking pozyczki bez big opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki ściąga kredyt bankowy definicja kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt bank sa leszno bezpłatne pożyczki chwilówki mam długi potrzebuje pozyczki opole lubelskie pozyczki atiz ostrow pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica kredyt bank sa w lublinie pożyczki na dowód kutno warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki w jeden dzień istota pożyczki kredyt w orange kod dobranie pożyczki w providencie pcc od umowy pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt pozabankowy zielona góra kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy przez internet kredyt w ktorym banku umowa pożyczki gotówki podatek kredyt bank slupsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki podobne do bocian kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne kredyt bank kolegialna umowa pożyczki provident wzór udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu kredyty bankowe książki chomikuj optima szczecin pożyczki kontakt szybkie pożyczki 0 bank pko sa kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank zielona góra pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów pożyczki ząbkowice śląskie wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin kredyt bank kościuszki kielce kredyt bank przeworsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki uk umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek pożyczki bez bik i krd zywiec kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania pozabankowy kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje kredyt bez biku bez zaświadczeń pożyczki na własną działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank w ostrowcu św kredyty pozabankowe lubuskie pożyczki skok wesoła getin noble bank kredyt na samochod kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 bocian pozyczki garwolin kredyt konsumpcyjny bank pocztowy pożyczki gotówkowe provident kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp opinie kredyt bank zarobki 2012 pozyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie kredyt pozabankowe poznan pożyczki w 15 minut online kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 wartości pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów kredyt bank wlodawa alior bank kredyt w euro pożyczki chwilówki kołobrzeg kredyt bank bankomaty warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe bankier przelewy w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki bełchatów pożyczki końskie kruk pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bolesławiec rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia pożyczki takto kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy mój dom pan stanislaw wzial kredyt w banku kredyt bez bik 30 tys szybkie pożyczki cieszyn ekspreskasa pożyczka na dowód oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy ubezpieczenia na życie profit pożyczki włocławek kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum getin bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój pozyczki bez big kredyt samochodowy w santander bank kredyt mieszkaniowy mój dom pożyczki na dowód przez internet pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja pożyczki bez bik big pożyczki chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego w jakim banku brac kredyt pożyczki na dowód bez bik online kredyt bank profile pożyczki społecznościowe portale pcc czy vat od pożyczki koszty notarialne pożyczki kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości częstochowa kredyty pozabankowe bez kard racibusz kredyt bez biku jaki bank pożyczki na własną działalność kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata kredyt bank rawicz sarnowska 2 kredyt bank kierownik umowa na czas określony gdzie kredyt pożyczki chwilówki leszno getink bank krasnik kredyt dla firm kredyt na dowod olawa ulica umowa pożyczki komentarz kredyt bank ekstrabiznes kredyty chwilówki bielsko kredyt bez bik będzin kredyty chwilówki zwolnienia kredyt studencki spłata forum czy łatwo o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108 warszawa getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pożyczki bez bik big krd erif pożyczki chwilówki bez prowizji kredyty bez bik płock pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza kredyty chwilówki we wrześni kredyty chwilówki rmf pożyczki repo umowa pożyczki opis kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań kredyt w banku na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki chwilówki białystok lipowa jak księgować pożyczki udzielone kredyt bank olsztynek umorzenie pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt bank promocja wiosenna pożyczki na dowód bez bik poznań pożyczki chwilówki sopot uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego pożyczki zła historia kredytowa pożyczka na dowód choszczno kredyt bank biskupiec pożyczki bez żadnych formalności kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 oblicz ratę pożyczki pko bp pożyczki internet pożyczki optima bydgoszcz profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator konto osobiste w kredyt banku opinie kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt bank bankomat prowizja kredyt bank oferta pracy kredyt bank iban bic kredyt bank poznan oddzialy kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku pko kredyt na pit z zajęciem komorniczym kredyty w uk dla polakow pożyczki bez biku w tomaszowie maz pożyczki prywatne oszuści jak wziąć kredyt w orange za 5 zł pożyczki przez internet lista tanie pożyczki przez internet kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem umowa pożyczki us kredyty w banku pko sa kredyt bank lodz bednarska pożyczki chwilówki długoterminowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym kredyt technologiczny banki pożyczki na oddłużenie kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku oprocentowanie kredytu w banku millennium bank pko pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny tłumaczenie pożyczki chwilówki chodzież getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu dla firm oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp prodomo pożyczki forum kredyt bank sanok szopena pożyczki marka bydgoszcz pożyczki takto forum pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nowych firm kredyt studencki na preferencyjnych warunkach pożyczki oddziały warszawa kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz kredyt bank numer telefonu pożyczki sl pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny kredyt studencki pko kiedy pko kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt dla firm bez bik opinie kredyt odnawialny w banku millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa kredyt obrotowy w idea banku pod zastaw kredyt bank ilość placówek chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie pożyczki prywatne kielce umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez zabezpieczeń udzielenie pożyczki spółce z oo pożyczki biała podlaska kredyty mieszkaniowe w bph pożyczki poznań pożyczki udzielone spółce przez udziałowca kredyty chwilówki gorzów wielkopolski pożyczki skok chmielewskiego pożyczki typu incredi pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik kredyt bank aktywacja karty kredyt bank lomianki godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki unijne dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw idea bank warunki pożyczki dekretacja pożyczki krzysztof pawiński pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 minut kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank pocztowy pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych mikropożyczki unijne decyzja pozyczkowa na telefon lub online kredyt bank nowy targ godz otwarcia bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank rybnik wolności kredyt w ulster bank ie oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku zabezpieczenie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt konsolidacyjny dla samorządów kredyt bank pelplin godziny otwarcia kasa stefczyka warunki pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska kredyt bank ceny walut firmy udzielające pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki w domu klienta bytom kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa kredyt bank komornik kredyty bankowe online kredyt bank dywidenda kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki szybkie pożyczki piaseczno kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki prywatne ciechocinek pożyczki przez internet bez big bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank pożyczki na dowód w lesznie szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków alior bank kredyt przez internet kredyt bank mazowieckie pożyczki bocian biała podlaska kredyt bank druki niespłacane kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczka bez big kraków kredyty w uk dla polakow kredyt chwilówka jaworzno kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać pożyczki dla firm pko kredyty chwilówki bielsko udzielę pożyczki na procent szczecin pożyczki internetowe od 18 lat pożyczki komornicze pożyczki chwilówki jasło kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys pozyczki dla zadluzonych bez dochodu kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie pożyczki w prawie rzymskim umowa pożyczki doc kredyt bank długa kraków godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki pozabankowe na rok pożyczka w domu klienta numer tel gorzow kredyt bank numer swift szybki kredyt dla firmy bez bik pożyczki dla będących w bik praktyka w kredyt banku opinie kredyt bank ostrowiec św konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy a pcc łukasz chlebicki pożyczki tani kredyt bez biku maksymalne koszty pożyczki bocian pożyczki wałbrzych pożyczki na dowód online bez bik kredyt na dowod osobisty gdansk kredyt bank lloyds pożyczki krótkoterminowe online justyna liszka pożyczki pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredytowej pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt konsolidacyjny w kb kredyty konsolidacyjne kraków pożyczki na dowód dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki prywatne bytom kredyt chwilówki żary kredyt bank powstancow warszawy pozyczki poza bankowe typu provident pożyczki głogowska placówki kredyt banku poznań pozyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe bz wbk skarabeusz pożyczki krs kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski kredyt w eurobanku kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator uznanie pożyczki pożyczki sms bez bik opinie pożyczki w skoku opinie pożyczki warp kredyty mieszkaniowe money umowa pożyczki przez wspólnika umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór kredyty bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk pożyczki provident kredyt bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń koszalin kredyt bez bik tczew ekspresowe pożyczki ełk pożyczki kronos bnp paribas kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich wzór pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d pożyczki z obsługą w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit pozyczki żary na dowod pożyczki w banku pekao sa kredyt pozabankowy opole kredyt pozabankowy na zaswiadczenieno zarobkach w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kredyt konsolidacyjny tesco optima pożyczki kraków kredyt bank lubliniec pożyczki bez bik łódź forum prosty kredyt konsolidacyjny płock pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór polsko europejskie pożyczki 24 kredyt bank lubin kontakt kredyty bez bik gumtree skarbiec pożyczki kontakt expres pożyczki renta wojskowa a kredyt gotówkowy pko bp bezpieczne pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank maciej bardan pożyczki chwilówki częstochowa pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kraków pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu katowice kredyt bank windykacja lublin kontakt pożyczki bez biku świdnica pożyczki trzydziestki umowa dobrej pożyczki kredyt studencki bank pocztowy pożyczki na dowód konin kredyt gotówkowy bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt bank zajęcia komornicze partner pożyczki warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kraków sync bank kredyt na dowod pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyt bank śliska żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a kredyt bank w szczytnie pożyczki prywatne kraków pożyczki bez bik wronki kredyty mieszkaniowe od nowego roku kredyty chwilówki 2000 odsetki od pożyczki kosztem podatkowym

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad