kredyt bank warszawa targówek zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyty i pożyczki w uk pożyczki bez bik 20 000 kredyt bank krotoszyn godziny otwarcia pożyczki trzydziestki kredyty gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum krezus pożyczki kredyt bankowy encyklopedia zarządzania pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej przez internet kredyty chwilówki samochody pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty bez bik w czestochowie bankomaty kredyt banku w gdańsku kredyt bez biku kielce kredyt bank kraków kapelanka godziny otwarcia prywatna pozyczka przez 24 h kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyty bez bik prywatne pozyczki pozabankowe bez pracy kredyt bank ix oddział warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea pożyczki dla jst w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2013 bocian pożyczki opinie pożyczki w bankach spółdzielczych pożyczki starogard gdański warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank kredyty chwilówki płock opinie oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko sa obliczanie wysokości pożyczki kredyt bank chojnice kościuszki kredyt bez bik konin kredyt bank kariera kredyt samochodowy w getin banku forum pożyczki pod zastaw agd bocian pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik w lesznie pożyczki bez bik tarnowskie góry ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 pożyczka bez procentu bank pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe współpraca kredyt bank zmiana danych kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna pożyczki chwilówki piła wzór na obliczenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank kapitał pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd bezpłatne pożyczki online kredyty bankowe to konto bilansowe pożyczki i kredyty bez bik chorzów katowice kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny nieznane pożyczki kredyty chwilówki gdańsk pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód pożyczki udzielane przez osoby prywatne pożyczki oscar kredyt studencki pko bp 2013 kod na kredyt w orange na karte pożyczki wadowice pozyczka od ręki września i okolica kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie kredyt bank sa wikipedia umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt samochodowy dla nowo powstalej firmy kredyt bank poland address kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu kredyt w ktorym banku cesja wierzytelności pożyczki najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym umowa pożyczki rodzeństwo jak wziasc kredyt w orange za 5 zł pożyczki bez historii kredytowej umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w biku pożyczki bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyty w domu klijenta jarosław kredyt bez biku świdnica kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny w skoku stefczyka najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank warszawa wesoła kredyt bank ii oddział białystok pożyczki bez dochodu łódź pożyczki pod zastaw rtv warszawa kredyt w eurobanku dla emeryta pożyczki pod zastaw pruszków skarabeusz pozyczki zamość pożyczki bocian kościan kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie kredyt bank 1 oddział wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy bez marży pozyczki z komornikiem z dostawa do domu kredyt bank bławatna gdynia bocian pożyczki skargi kredyt studencki pko opłaty manipulacyjne proste pożyczki gotówkowe potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska kredyty chwilowki klodzko kredyty chwilowki poznan glogowska kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt kredyt bez bik na budowe kredyt chwilowki zielona gora najtańsze pożyczki na rynku pożyczki pod zastaw kościan kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm bez bik pożyczki prywatne małopolska kredyt bank włodawa telefon provident kwota pożyczki pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji udzielone pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie odsetki od pożyczki podatek zaokrąglenia pożyczki gierka pożyczki zagraniczne państwa kredyty bez biku pozabankowe pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 kredyt bez bik zus us bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie kredyt bez bik pod zastaw domu pożyczki kaśka kredyt w polskim banku praca za granica kredyt samochodowy w lukas bank pożyczki kalkulator pko bp profi credit kalkulator pożyczki wyrok umowa pożyczki czy umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnej osoby pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt pożyczki podkarpacie kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt takto pożyczki kontakt konwersja pożyczki na udziały pożyczki chwilówki pruszcz gdański kredyt bank swift umowa pożyczki zawarta w dniu kredyty chwilówka namysłów pożyczki do 100 zł kredyt mieszkaniowy lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe porównywarka pożyczki pod zastaw radom kredyt dla zadluzonych online bez rozmowy kredyt bank dąbie szczecin pożyczki mieszkaniowe z funduszu socjalnego kredyt w uk natwest pożyczki w domu klienta pabianice pożyczki jeremie forum pożyczki oddłużeniowe bocian pożyczki druga pożyczka amber kredyt kredyt bank jakie bankomaty bez prowizji pożyczki bez zaświadczeń międzyrzecz tel pożyczki ustka kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyt bank numer rozliczeniowy pożyczki przez internet bez przelewu umowa pożyczki w rodzinie a podatek kredyt bank csv kredyt bank suwałki telefon pożyczki prywatne 24h kredyt bank warszawa wlochy kredyt bank wrocław siedziba bocian pożyczki świecie kredyt w bank of scotland kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe concerto kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredytowy kredyty chwilówki w częstochowie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pdf wniosek o kredyt studencki pekao sa kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 pożyczki z obsługą domową kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku kredyt bank wyciągi bankowe pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik pozyczka na rok bez bik dla bezrobotnych wzór umowy pożyczki nieoprocentowanej zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang umowa pożyczki zakładowej pożyczki gotówkowe z zajęciem komorniczym szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet kredyt bank bez bik szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik druk pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki brzesko getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank krzeszowice pożyczki w profi credit opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne warszawa pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit gdzie po kredyt bez biku kredyt studencki wbk 2011 pożyczki bez bik wielkopolska najlepsze banki po duzy kredyt pożyczki kasa pożyczki pozabankowe wałbrzych kredyt bez bik chełm kredyty bez bik w plocku kredyt dla firm bez bik zus pożyczki prywatne 2012 gazeta prawna pożyczki dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór kredyt bez biku szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom pożyczki dla rolników bez bik kredyt bank w wałbrzychu pożyczki pod zastaw świdnik pożyczki ze złą historią pożyczka w domu poznań oprocentowanie depozytów w kredyt banku pożyczki abis forum kredyt bank kod bic czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym wierzyciel pożyczki opinie kredyt w uk bez sprawdzania szukam pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia 24 umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pozyczki na procent pila kredyt bank lesko pożyczki z komornikiem umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk kredyt bank wpłata na konto kredyt konsolidacyjny koszalin kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millenium pożyczki dla nieletnich kredyt do reki warszawa kredyt pozabankowy słupsk pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum gdzie szukac kredytu bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot odsetek pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka idea bank kredyt na start opinie 2012 pożyczki kraków bez bik pozyczka gratka opinie kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice kredyty chwilówki złotoryja kredyt bez biku kielce podatek od umowa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego poznań iban w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny z niskim oprocentowaniem bank pko sa kredyty kalkulator jaki jest kod do orange na kredyt pożyczki pod kontrakt kod na kredyt 1 zł w orange pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck pożyczki dębica kredyt studencki banki kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kontakt warunki kredytu w getin banku kredyt bank garbary pożyczki na dowód podobne do bociana gold pożyczki opinie w jakim banku kredyt na otwarcie firmy pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz pożyczki oddłużeniowe czy łatwo o kredyt w getin banku firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik chwilówki pozyczki prywatne wloclawek pożyczki na dowód żagiel kredyty pozabankowe 10000 pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna alior bank kredyt dekretacja pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty bez bik suwałki kredyt w banku holenderskim kredyty chwilówki w tychach kredyt bank głogów potrzebny kredyt konsolidacyjny udzielam pożyczki pod weksel bip pożyczki formularz pożyczki online bez bik krd kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej rybnik kredyt bank mateusze kredyt samochodowy bez bik forum bocian pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pod weksel pozyczki w uk po polsku kredyt bank zablokowany token oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski kredyt bank akademia przedsiębiorcy regulamin dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank opole kredyt w banku agricole kredyt bank myślenice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w kielcach pożyczki bez bik kielce oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbank pożyczki bez bik elbląg pożyczki polbank warunki pożyczki w skoku stefczyka pożyczka na spłatę komornika banki kredyt w raiffeisen bank żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki literatura kredyt bank chwaszczyńska gdynia pozyczka 70000 bez bik kredyt bank nr telefonu pożyczki bez bik do 1000 kredyty chwilówki świebodzin pozyczki udzielane w domu klienta bydgoszcz profi credit kredyt dla bezrobotnego pożyczki na realizację programów naprawczych jst kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank kredyt bank sa w koninie kredyt w banku bnp paribas opinie pozyczki pod zastaw leszno umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na raty pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg kredyt bank włochy ul popularna kredyt w banku bez krd pozyczka bocian nowy dwor maz potrącenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej proton pożyczki kredyt bank autodealing pożyczki przez internet bez bik kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw akcji jsw getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator fundacja kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyt jako produkt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bank frank pozyczki chwilowki optima krakow kredyty chwilówki pit kredyt samochodowy fortis bank kredyt bank okrąglak oprocentowanie kredytów w fm banku kredyt bank sa warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów broker kredyty mieszkaniowe statystyka kredyt chwilówki żywiec w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki w rachunkowości kredyt konsolidacyjny minimum formalności kredyt bank rawa maz godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen wysoki kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu bank pekao sa kredyt opinie czy kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyt bank wąwozowa godziny otwarcia pozyczki do domu klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko sa kredyt bez bik bank pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min pożyczki pod zastaw pkd pronus pożyczki pozyczka do domu bez bik kredyty chwilówki brodnica bank pko sa kredyty gotowkowe kredyt bank w busku kokos pożyczki prywatne kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2014 wysoki kredyt a wiek pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nowych firm pożyczki profireal udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki bez krd i bez bik kredyt pozabankowy przez internet szybkie pożyczki online uk mariusz kowalski kredyty bydgoszcz kredyt novum bez bik getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank warszawska kredyt według prawa bankowego jakie kredyty sa bezpieczne pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów kredyt bank w swarzędzu pożyczki dukat kredyt restrukturyzacyjny eurobank jaki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia kredyt bank powstanie kredyt bank zarobki 2012 pożyczki na dowód bielsko biała formularz umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilowki lodz plac wolnosci pożyczki od firm prywatnych alior bank kredyt internetowy bocian pożyczki infolinia kredyty chwilowki walbrzych kredyt bank fundacja umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania pożyczki prywatne stargard szczeciński eurocash pozyczki poznan kredyt bez umowy o prace bez bik udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej alior bank kredyt pod zastaw szybkie pozyczki bez bik i krd w w 15minut w bydgoszczy kredyt bez bik na rok kredyt bank płock ul wyszogrodzka korzystne pożyczki kredyt bank świętojańska gdynia kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny kredyt bank kościuszki sopot tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki społecznościowe prawo alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum dobre pożyczki bez bik pożyczki na dowód lubuskie kredyt bez bik ostróda kredyty chwilówki chrzanów rynek pożyczki dla najbliższych godziny pracy kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki 0 pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości łódź bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy kredyty pozabankowe dla firm bez bik kredyt bank gdańsk ul chałubińskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator bocian pożyczki chojnice kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny credit agricole pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż kredyt bank wrocław sikorskiego pożyczki niski procent aneks do umowy kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole opinie pozyczka na dowodd bez zaświadczeń kamien pożyczki pewne pożyczki p2p pożyczki bez podatku podatek pko bp zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego kredyty chwilówki kościerzyna umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi pożyczki chwilówki lublin pożyczki chwilówki bez bik bydgoszcz wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji żyrowanie pożyczki kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 2 8 warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe na 10 lat bank pekao kredyt studencki 2012 szybki kredytyt gotwkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego pożyczki posiadacz kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin pozyczka bez sprawdzania kredyty samochodowe bank zachodni jak zaksięgować pcc od umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki provident wzór mikropożyczki klon kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta umowa pożyczki weksel pożyczki na dowód bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank w otwocku jak wziasc kredyt w banku pocztowym bank kredyt dom lębork eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp chwilowki pozyczki w domu klienta slask kredyt bank placowka wroclaw pozyczki bez biku slupsk numer kontaktowy kronos pożyczki kraków pożyczki leszno narutowicza pożyczki tczew kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kontakt kredyt studencki pko wysokość kredyty chwilówki białystok pożyczki w planie kont kredyty konsolidacyjne z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik big i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking i wasze opinie pożyczki pozabankowe 40000

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad