kredyt konsolidacyjny od jakiej kwoty kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 pożyczki chwilówki bez oprocentowania kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk alior bank kredyt forum kredyty chwilówki kalisz pożyczki gotówkowe bocian potwierdzenie pożyczki wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe dla wojskowych kredyt prowizja banku kredyt bankowy wikipedia wyłudzenie pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank opinie szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec kredyt w bos banku opinie kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg jak działają pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska kredyt bankowy podsumowanie kredyt bez bik ostrołęka gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku kredyty bankowe rachunkowość pożyczki bez bik lublin kredyt bank gorzów godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór kredyt studencki w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki bytom ul jagiellońska pożyczki bez bik kutno odsetki od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki bez bik sieradz kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód pożyczki dla każdego lombard mikołów umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń pożyczki na dowód gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku pożyczki gotówkowe płock pożyczki pozabankowe oferty kredyt bank rodzina na swoim pożyczki chwilówki białystok bez bik kredyt na samochód a umowa na czas określony oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie www kredyty pozabankowe bełchatowie kredyt bankowy długoterminowy najszybszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt samochodowy nordea bank szybkie pożyczki w szkocji pożyczki pod weksel katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie kredyty chwilówki centrala pozyczka 3000 gdansk kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 paulina gąska pożyczki kredyty bez biku konin kredyt mieszkaniowy bez marży kredyt z komornikiem prywatny odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód wzór pisma pożyczki pieniędzy umowa pożyczki osoby prywatne umowa pożyczki wzór pdf pożyczki dla firm skok kredyty bez bik lomza kredyt bank łomża ul dworna mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ biuro dobrej pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2014 r pożyczki prywatne wałcz pożyczki chorzów kredyty chwilówki uwaga tvn pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat kredyt bank gocław kredyty w idea banku pożyczki kasa fiskalna szybki kredyt bez biku i krd grudziadz pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór bez odsetek hortus pożyczki siedlce kredyt w paribas bank opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów kredyty w szkocji kredyt bank zielona góra kontakt pozyczki pozabankowe na kazdy dochod siedlce pożyczki pozabankowe provident kredyt bank krynica morska kredyty samochodowe w ing pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka koszty udzielenia pożyczki kredyt samochodowy mbank forum pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej kredyt dla studentów mbank pozyczki bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace pożyczki pod zastaw pozabankowe pożyczki duże kwoty pożyczki jeremie koszalin pożyczki w domu klienta bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank oddział jana pawła warszawa istota umowy pożyczki pożyczki ozorków kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto pożyczki podobne do bociana pożyczki konin kredyty idea bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie kredyt samochodowy bank tarnów kredyt bankowy podstawa prawna kredyt samochodowy credit agricole kalkulator pozyczka na dowod kwidzyn kredyt bez biku na telefon umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na raty oddziały kredyt banku białystok kredyt bank oszuści kredyty na dowód bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny a umowa na czas określony getin noble bank regulamin kredytu odsetki karne od niespłaconej pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro opinie szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki jak provident umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kalkulator kredyt bez bik prywatny mikropożyczki olsztyn kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań w jakim banku wziąć kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank notowania walut matematyka finansowa pożyczki kredyt bank retkinia credito pożyczki pożyczki z małym dochodem visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk pożyczki roczne kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe ranking banków kredyt samochodowy forum opinie kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław finan pożyczki szczecin kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 kalkulator pożyczki w domu klienta bez przelewu za groszbydgoszcz pożyczki prywatne ogłoszenia wzór na obliczanie rat pożyczki kredyt bank częstochowa lokaty umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór doc umowa pożyczki dla kolegi kredyty bez bik internetowe kredyt bank w pile pożyczki bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank placenie karta za granica kredyt bank sa ruda slaska pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank nieprawidłowy identyfikator lub pin kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy pożyczki chwilówki legnica oferty pozyczek we wrzesni kredyt konsolidacyjny w skoku stefczyka kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec kredyt samochodowy w mbanku opinie kredyt bank nr kontaktowy umowa pożyczki z firmą kredyt konsolidacyjny opis kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice w którym banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki bez biku słupsk tarnów pożyczki prywatne parabanki pożyczki bez bik pozyczki u klienta w domu dolny śląsk kredyt bank powsińska kredyt na auto bez bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe dębica pożyczki chwilówki chełm przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce praca za granica prywatne pożyczki pozyczki tempo finanse oddzial mosina pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska pożyczki bez bik w kaliszu kredyt samochodowy get in bank pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik przez internet kredyt samochodowy getin bank opinie helios pożyczki kredyt bank powiadomienia sms pożyczki na weksel bank pko bp kredyt studencki kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 tanie pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bez bik oława umowa pożyczki prywatnie szybkie kredyty przez internet pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów kredyt bank warszawa kadry bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie kredyt chwilowka czestochowa pilsudskiego fast pożyczki kredyt bank warka szybkie pożyczki opinie banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyty preferencyjne dla rolników banki kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt bank w lęborku pożyczki na umowe zlecenie umowa pożyczki ratalnej wzór pozyczki prywatne wrocław formy poręczenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna ubezpieczenie kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki w domu klienta śląsk kredyt samochodowy bank śląski kredyt pozabankowy definicja kredyty bankowe dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie 2013 pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń gdzie dostane kredyt bez bik i krd przedawnienia pożyczki pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik kredyt bank augustów pożyczki pozabankowe do domu wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki pożyczki bez dochodów kredyty pozabankowe bytom umowa pożyczki wypowiedzenie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyt bank warszawa targówek kredyt bank oddział białystok ul mickiewicza pożyczki dla firm pozabankowe umowa pożyczki w ratach kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon pożyczki pod zastaw chełm kredyty hipoteczne lodz pod zastaw domu kredyty mieszkaniowe zmiany 2014 kredyty chwilówki pracuj pl zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny comperia uokik pożyczki kredyty chwilowki piekary slaskie kredyt bank raszyn telefon opodatkowanie niezgłoszonej pożyczki kredyt bank multima kredyty mieszkaniowe santander kredyt bank oddział włocławek tempo finanse pożyczki opinie kredyt bank konto internetowe kredyt bank wejherowo godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych kredyty chwilowki plock pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pożyczki prywatne na weksel cała polska kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki bank pko bp kredyt studencki kredyty dla firm bez bik bankomaty kredyt banku lublin adresy kredyt banku warszawa kod kredytowy w orange oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyty chwilówki nowa huta wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki meritum bank kredyt na start bez bik spłata pożyczki z amber gold kredyt bez bik radomsko kredyt chwilówka współpraca umowa pożyczki ratalnej kredyt bank radom kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze korzyści z ubezpieczenia pożyczki pozyczki na weksel slask kredyty mieszkaniowe szczecin czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt idea bank dla firm pro domo kredyty bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki między siostrami pozyczki bocian dla zadluzonych i w bik kredyty chwilówki w jastrzębiu zdroju adresy kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki na dowód lubin ksiegowanie przelewow w kredyt banku pożyczki konsolidacyjne bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki rejestracja w us pożyczki od osób prywatnych w uk obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej kredyt bank limanowa kredyty bez biku w bydgoszczy pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów pożyczki na pół roku szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik toyota bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy banku bph umorzenie pożyczki rodzinnej kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulacja kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku forum kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy gdynia umowa pożyczki firmie wzór kredyt bank ełk kontakt kredyt studencki pko bp potrzebne dokumenty pokwitowanie odbioru spłaty pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta sosnowiec kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator kredyt samochodowy ing kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny warto kredyt bez biku zabrze tanie pożyczki internetowe umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki a pcc umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko sa pożyczki regita idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie kredyt studencki pko wcześniejsza spłata kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik katowice kredyt bankowy pod zastaw samochodu lew pożyczki pożyczki tomasz lis odsetki od pożyczki angielski kredyty bez bik warszawa prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra pożyczki z anglii udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu kredyt bank wieluń umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank grodzisk wielkopolski pozyczka pieniezna w dublini pożyczki prywatne pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank tychy feniks pożyczki opinie szybkie kredyty przez internet pożyczki 30 dniowe kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza kredyt bank kapelanka godziny kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia jaki nr na kredyt orange kredyt bank ostrów maz kredyty chwilówki przez telefon kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora trudne pozyczki warszawa kredyt bank canada kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa bank pko bp kredyt studencki pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz wierzyciel pożyczki forum formularz pożyczki finan pożyczki wrocław mikropożyczki wiki kredyt bank główny oddział skarabeusz pożyczki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki chrzanów kredyt bank numer telefonu kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów za darmo kredyt bez biku forum kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu pożyczki lubliniec wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej kredyt bank ken 19 warszawa kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym idea bank opinie kwota pożyczki proz pożyczki logo wzory druków pożyczki pożyczki bez bik trójmiasto kredyty chwilówki jak to działa pożyczki dla zadłużonych uk umowa pożyczki odsetki ustawowe umowa odnowienia pożyczki w ktorym banku nalepiej brac pozyczke na samochod kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkladem wlasnym pozyczki prywatne ostrow wlkp kredyt bank lomza pilsudskiego kredyt bank żagiel lublin kontakt kredyt bank krapkowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki społecznościowe strategie inwestycyjne kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno punkt pozyczek bocian w swiebodzinie pożyczki do 50000 pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki wolsztyn pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon przedstawiciel pozyczki bocian gmina slonsk kredyty konsolidacyjne z bik dąbrowa górnicza kredyty dla osob w bik ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z zfśs pożyczka od osoby fizycznej turek pożyczki bez dochodu łódź kredyt bank suwałki kontakt kredyt bank lubin godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny zły bik pożyczki wekslowe umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt bank międzyrzecz pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pcc od umowy pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki pozabankowe rybnik szybkie kredyty online bez bik pożyczki długoterminowe w uk kredyty chwilówki gdańsk pożyczki prywatne lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny zła historia bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik business consulting pożyczki pożyczki na oświadczenia pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyt bank brzeziny kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkladu wlasnego pożyczki w walucie kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują umowa pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bankier kredyt konsolidacyjny w norwegii kredyt bez bik dla nowej firmy kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku kredyt samochodowy meritum bank kalkulator pożyczki polbank pożyczki 1000 zł kredyt bank spółdzielczy wschowa kredyty bankowe krakow kredyt odnawialny bank pekao sa pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby kredyt bez bik 25 tys pozyczka zabezpieczona aneksem komorniczym druk umowy pożyczki gotówkowej takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez zaświadczeń rzeszów vivus pożyczki na dowód pożyczki chwilówki skawina szybki kredyt bez biku kredyt orange kod kredyty pozabankowe sieradz kredyty chwilówki w olkuszu kredyty online bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż opinie 2012 praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp kredyt bank chojnice godziny kredyty mieszkaniowe mieszkanie dla młodych kredyt konsolidacyjny notus kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina kredyt konsolidacyjny 5000 bocian pożyczki mielec kredyt w banku pocztowym bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód warszawa umowa pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczki bogatynia kredyt bank 24 token kredyt samochodowy fortis bank kredyty gotowkowe lodz prywatnie pożyczki kasa stefczyka kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema getin bank kredyty gotówkowe forum kredyt bez bik i krd kraków kredyt w kasie stefczyka a innym banku kredyty pozabankowe z bik kredyty bez bik lębork kredyt w orange jaki nr pożyczki takto kredyt bank token zmiana telefonu pożyczki na oświadczenie przez internet darmowe bankomaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank numer kontaktowy kredyty bez bik lubin kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym pożyczki provident forum kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków kredyt bank zielonka kredyt w banku bps kredyt konsolidacyjny radom pożyczki 300 zł gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy szybki kredyt bez bik gdańsk

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad