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kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki kraków kredyt gotówkowy bez umowy o pracę pożyczki bez żadnych zaświadczeń pożyczki żary pozyczki bez pracy umowa pożyczki kurs pożyczki zielona góra kredyt bank sa warszawa centrala umowa pożyczki ojciec syn kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank pożyczki gotówkowe banki kredyt bez bik i krd płock kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki gofin kredyty chwilówki franczyza pożyczki pozabankowe żnin kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców śląskich pożyczki lubin armii krajowej kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej kredyty bez bik elblag kredyty bez biku forum wzór umowy pożyczki z żyrantem umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe vivus odmowa pożyczki kredyt bez bik na 10 lat kredyt bank lomza dworna alior bank kredyt dla rolników co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam kredyt bank turek kontakt kredyt bank bok pożyczki bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank praca opinie pozyczki bez baz gdansk pożyczki prywatne na podkarpaciu gzie najlepiej w krakowie wziasc kredyt pozabankowy szybkie pożyczki żagań kredyt konsolidacyjny gminy pozyczka wierzyciel kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier kredyt bez sprawdzenia w bik kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank prywatne pożyczki pod weksel warszawa kredyty pozabankowe warszawa kredyt bank przelewy przychodzące godziny jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zł pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra kredyt bank jarosław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pszów pożyczki internetowe od 18 lat pożyczki na dowód ruda śląska w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank marketing kontakt pożyczki ślimak bydgoszcz kredyt bank dubois białystok w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem kredyty pozabankowe bez bik z komornikiem kredyt na start w fm banku kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt eurocash pożyczki kredyt bankowy pekao gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki pozabankowe 30000 pożyczki bez wychodzenia z domu bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w bik pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia aig kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank sa ostrołęka kredyt bank leszno tel pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja kredyt z banku gospodarstwa krajowego kredyt bank mt940 kredyt bank w otwocku kredyt bank ryki udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi status pożyczki kredito24 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik białystok czy skok udzieli kredytu jak jest windykacja 2014 kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym bez umowy o pracę kredyt w banku a krd praca licencjacka o kredytach mikropożyczki na założenie firmy pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik białystok kredyty bez biku jaworzno kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez big wrocław regulamin pomocnej pożyczki bank pbh kredyt kolobrzeg kod na kredyt na orange kredyt bez bik wrocław kredyt w banku kalkulator kredytowy kredyt gotówkowy pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko opinie szybki kredyt bez bik tychy wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki 24h na dobę kredyt bank w ostrowie wielkopolskim kredyty chwilówki września pilnie potrzebuję pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt samochodowy eurobank umowa pożyczki z zastawem wzór sprzedaż wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bank praca kredyt bank polkowice kredyt bank zamość lokaty dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki chwilówki skok stefczyka umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór pożyczki gotówkowe wiki kredyty bez komornika biku wroclaw pożyczki bez bik śląskie kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp paribas ekspert pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa kredyty chwilówki mikołów pożyczki gotówkowe firmy najtańszy kredyt przy umowie zlecenie kredyt bez bik i big online pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum cash pożyczki kredyt z pierwsza pozyczka za darmo pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank rudnickiego santander consumer bank opinie kredyt samochodowy pożyczki bez bik brzeg dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica kredyty bez bik śląskie kredyt bez bik kraków pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn kredyt bankowy w księgach pożyczki na dowód radom umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego prodomo co to za pozyczki kredyty bez bik i z komornikiem pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice szybkie pożyczki chwilówki umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej optima pożyczki wołomin kredyt bank oszuści uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont mieszkania kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa promocja pożyczki pożyczki gryf kredyt pozyczka bez biku kredyt samochodowy na firmę porównanie kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank oprocentowanie umowa spłaty pożyczki umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna pożyczki w parabankach kredyt bank giżycko praca fundusze pożyczki kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2011 kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt w banku barclays pożyczki bez bik i krd forum pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank limit dzienny najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy pożyczki nau pozyczki providus chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów kredyty chwilówki myszków pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg kredyt konsolidacyjny ca pożyczki i kredyty dla osób w bik i z komornikiem pozyczki chwilowki od osob prywatnych mielec kredyt bank szczecin telefon kredyt samochodowy oferty banków kredyt na mieszkanie w alior bank kredyt na zakup ziemi bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granicą kredyt bank ekstrakonto vip kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt bank kupon 5 kredyt bez biku wrocław kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank kredyt bank zmiana limitu kredyt bez bik santander kredyt bez bankowego rejestru darmowa umowa pożyczki kredyt studencki pekao sa wniosek kredyt bank przelewy wychodzące godziny pożyczki z funduszu charakter prawny pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku gross pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki włoszczowa kredyty bez bik pszczyna pożyczki chwilówki opinie nisko oprocentowane pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi pozyczki tczew pożyczki w domu klijeta na umowę o dzieło kredyt bank łączy się z kredyty pozabankowe malbork pozyczki na dowod konin kredyt bank w wbk umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki bez bik ogłoszenia alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt pozabankowy lublin kredyt bank lukow telefon pożyczki online za darmo odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja forum pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd i bik kredyt bank focha kredyt bank koniec pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2011 umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka pożyczki rodzina na swoim pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych kredyt na dowód lukas bank kredyt bank marki umowa ramowa pożyczki kredito24 kredyt na dowód w alior banku pożyczki pozabankowe konin kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money kredyt bank częstochowa bankomaty kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe asper pożyczki forum kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 pożyczki bez bik w kielcach pożyczki pomostowe kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki dla małych przedsiębiorstw pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank swift iban kredyt bank ogólne warunki kredytowania kredyty pozabankowe słupsk pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat kredyty chwilówki konto kredyt bez bik sms pożyczki oddłużeniowe poznań kredyt bank w belchatowie kredyt studencki jakie banki 2012 kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt mieszkaniowy w idea bank kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym forum pożyczki bez bik skierniewice partner pożyczki opinie kredyt studencki pko bp sa pozyczki pozabankowe kartuzy pozyczki w domu klijeta zwrot pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bez bik 4000 pożyczki prywatne dla zadłużonych kredyty banki porównanie preferencyjny kredyt studencki forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander consumer bank pożyczki krd potrącanie pożyczki z zasiłku umowa pożyczki 2012 everest bocian pożyczki wzór umowy pozyczki opodatkowanie pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej ankieta pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyt bank rrso kredyty chwilówki fundacja szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii udzielę pożyczki na procent szczecin pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie warunki kredytu getin bank pożyczki hajnówka w jakim banku brać kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyty bez bik i krd koszalin pożyczki w skoku kredyty pozabankowe gdańsk kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia santander bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny toruń umowa pożyczki w euro kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia progroup pożyczki umowa pożyczki a us kredyty bez bik skok kredyty chwilówki ostrzeżenie pożyczka w domu poznań pożyczki na wysoki procent kredyt bank fax pożyczki prywatne zdunska wolą pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową uk pożyczki bez bik świecie pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele pożyczki gdańsk grunwaldzka kredyt bank książkowa pożyczki kokos opinie adres kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki między najbliższymi karta kredytowa kredyt bank punkty szybkie pożyczki przez internet na konto umowa cesji pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyty pozabankowe tarnów kredyt w eurobanku kredyt bank oława kredyt bank konstancińska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik brodnica pożyczki bez bik szczecin pożyczki prywatne żory numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia wzór pisma o 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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad