kredyt bank regulamin pozyczki chwilowki natychmiastowe z komornikiem poznan kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik szczecin kredyt bank liczba pracowników pożyczki pomorskie kredyt bank lublin krakowskie przedmieście 37 bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd kredyt bank w ostrowie wielkopolskim kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze dramatyczne zwolnienia w kredyt banku kredyt bank rachunek bankowy pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2013 kredyt pozabankowy 20000 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik lublin kredyt bank galeria mokotów kredyt w uk tesco kredyt bank sa warszawa centrala pożyczki chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego kredyty mieszkaniowe wrocław pożyczki na dowód kalisz pożyczki na dowód lubań pożyczki chwilówki na raty opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank kredyt bank wolomin godziny otwarcia czy od pożyczki bankowej płaci się podatek kredyt bank mieszkanie kredyt bankowy istota kredyt samochodowy mbank symulacja bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt bankowy a konsumencki mikropożyczki na założenie firmy kredyty bez bik opolskie kredyty bez bik i krd rybnik kredyt bank raporty bieżące pożyczki mieszkaniowe w oświacie kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka pożyczki bez dochodów forum odsetki od pożyczki a przychód pozyczki udzielane w domach garwolin pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy umowa pożyczki proz umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca wzór kredyt bank milanówek pożyczki jeremie łódź kredyt bank lokaty terminowe 2013 kredyt samochodowy online mbank kalkulator kredyt bank legionów wrocław kredyt bez bik gliwice kredyty bez bik przez internet pożyczki prywatne tablica kredyt w bank of ireland forum forum pożyczki bocian termin przedawnienia umowy pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyt budowlany w jakim banku pożyczki kórnik kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala karta kredytowa deutsche a bik kredyty bankowe to pasywa czy aktywa kredyt bank 1 oddział poznań kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opłaty pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem pożyczki w planie kont kredyty bez biku na oswiadczenie pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres przewalutowanie kredytu w banku millennium kredyt bank kłodzko godz otwarcia kredyt z komornikiem prywatny przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz kredyt online idea bank pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki bocian gubin kredyt studencki bank millenium pożyczki bez bik w bogatyni kredyt w credit agricole kalkulator kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny getin kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku pozyczki ostrow wlkp nie bocian gros i prowident kredyty bez bik wadowice santander bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt pożyczki prywatne grudziądz w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie pożyczki typu mezzanine pozyczki gniezno od zaraz do reki kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kraków kredyt rodzina na swoim a umowa na czas określony pożyczki marka bydgoszcz jak wziąć kredyt w banku pocztowym pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów broker kredyt bank warszawa patriotów kredyt konsumpcyjny banki umowa pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku kredyty pozabankowe bielsko umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spółce kredyt studencki banki kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro opinie pożyczki pod zastaw pkd podatek od pożyczki ustawa kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw kredyt bank likwidacja konta pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pożyczki chwilówki brzeg pożyczki prywatne głogów kredyt bank 24 kredyt mieszkaniowy na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat pożyczki niskoprocentowe kredyt bank piła kontakt kredyt bank lomza dworna idea bank kredyt na start firmy opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat getin bank kredyt bank grojecka pożyczki optima praca pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej przez internet pożyczki bez bik kościan pożyczki giełdowe kredyt bank konto internetowe logowanie pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz dłużników kredyt bank sopot kontakt kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem obliczanie odsetek pożyczki kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice kredyty chwilówki w płocku kredyt bank w raciborzu pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pozyczka na dzialalnosc bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank gdanska bydgoszcz kredyty pozabankowe bielsko kredyt w banku getin kredyt bank felczaka szczecin duet pożyczki przemyśl pożyczki pozabankowe kraków forum kredyt 160 tyś bez biku bank pko bp kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank warszawa światowida kredyt bank kalwaryjska kredyt bank lokaty online kredyty chwilówki tarnowskie góry kredyt banku pko pożyczki końskie bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie kredyt inwestycyjny eurobank kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus bankomaty kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym umowa pożyczki bez odsetek kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach forum pożyczki chwilówki przez internet uk bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt umowa pożyczki między małżonkami kredyt bankowy pdf kody do orange kredyt kredyty gotówkowe bez bik forum kredyt bank jasło kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke kredyt studencki w banku pko bp kredyt ratalny alior bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony umowa w sprawie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia umowa zwrotu pożyczki burzyńska pożyczki pożyczki pod kontrakt patrycja nowak pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs byłemu pracownikowi kredyty chwilówki kadry pcc od pożyczki płaci kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin placówki kredyt banku wrocław pożyczki de minimis umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem wzór optima pożyczki reklama pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt bank władze deutsche bank kredyt opinie 2013 pożyczki na telefon bez bik bankomaty euronet pozyczka umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank działdowo pożyczki kredyty pożyczki na dowód jawor kredyt z chwilówki kredyt bank otwock karczewska pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki na dowód podobne do providenta pożyczki z obsługa w domu sprawdzone pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 kredyt bez bik gotówkowy kredyt bank sa lodz kredyty bez bik wejherowo zarobki w kredyt banku forum wzór umowy pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu kredyt samochodowy getin bank medicover kredyt bank warszawa oprocentowanie kredytu w banku śląskim kredyty pozabankowe toruń kredyt bez bik banki kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 pożyczki otwock kredyt bez pracy kredyt studencki pko 2014 kredyt bank w częstochowie pożyczki na dowod mlawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław w jakim banku najtaniej wziac kredyt oprocentowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej skarabeusz pożyczki kalkulator w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask pożyczki bez bik nakło nad notecią pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet pożyczki dla 19 latków kredyt bank program rabatowy obliczenie raty pożyczki gotówkowej oferta pożyczki kredyt bank janów lubelski umowa pożyczki od udziałowca wzór kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kredyt bank w częstochowie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta szamotuly pożyczki prywatne w lubinie kredyt bank żwirki i wigury opole pożyczki cash bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń alior bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia oświadczenie oddania pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe grudziądz kredyt bank gostyń wlkp multika rzeszów kredyt bez bik pożyczki chwilówki meritum kredyt konsolidacyjny wady pożyczki pomiędzy firmami ekasa pożyczki pożyczki płońsk vivus pożyczki na dowód zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki chwilówki łask kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały kredyt bank rydla szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki online bez bik zaświadczeń szybki kredyt bez biku i krd grudziadz pożyczki długoterminowe w uk umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy kredyt bank 24 logowanie kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki ranking banków pożyczki gotówkowe bez big kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki dla adwokatów pożyczki od zaraz pozyczki do domu gniezno oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyty chwilówki biała podlaska kredyt bank łódź aleksandrowska godziny otwarcia prywatne pożyczki lubań pożyczki chwilówki nowogard kredyty bankowe książka chomikuj credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty pozabankowe prywatne umowa pożyczki podstawa prawna novum finance pożyczki forum kredyt bank gdańsk kontakt pożyczki ze złym bikiem kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl kredyt bank iii oddział kraków kredyt bank oplaty prowizje pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą najtanszy kredyt pozabankowy akropol pożyczki gdzie dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny pro collect pożyczki opinie kredyt bank opole godziny otwarcia lokaty w kredyt banku 2013 kiedy odsetki od pożyczki nie są kosztem podatkowym praca pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank slupsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki rumia kredyt bank akcjonariusze kredyty bez bik grudziadz kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2012 pożyczki prywatne ciechocinek kredyt bank włocławek lokaty pozyczka 24h do domu nowy targ pozyczka do domu gdynia szybkie pożyczki bez krd i bik pożyczki do domu bez zaświadczeń i z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik będzin ekspres kasa przedłużenie pożyczki kredyty bez biku koszalin pożyczki za 0 zł dobre pożyczki gdzie kredyty bez biku wroclaw z komornikiem najszybsze pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki w ratach tygodniowych umorzenie pożyczki zfron bank pko kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki ze stowarzyszeniem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm umowa pożyczki finansowej kredyty bez bik zgierz pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód poznań umowa pożyczki w spółce komandytowej kredyt bez bik kwidzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny na długi okres optima pożyczki do domu łódź pożyczki online nowe kredyt i umowa na czas okreslony credit agricole pożyczki szybkie pożyczki w uk dla polaków w jakim banku kredyt przez internet kredyt bank plac solny wrocław godziny otwarcia księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki w jst kredyt bank przemyśl dworskiego kredyt bank w polkowicach przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 kredyt pozabankowy 10 tys deklaracja pcc od umowy pożyczki bocian pożyczki mława wyliczanie pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp kiedy decyzja kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety konsolidacja kredytu gdzie najlepiej kredyt w banku aig pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyty bez bik do 30000 pieniądze do domu pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd kraków kredyt bank nr rozliczeniowy kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 deustche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyty chwilówki praca forum bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica pozyczka w uk na benefity pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia pożyczki inwestycyjne umowa pożyczki wzór za darmo kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia kredyt zagraniczny z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w bik kredyt samochodowy dla nowej firmy tanie pożyczki chwilówki optima pożyczki na dowód kredyt bez bik malbork kredyt konsolidacyjny 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt bank dział windykacji umowa pożyczki między małżonkami kredyty bez bik chełm kredyt bank najlepsza lokata koszty uzyskania przychodu odsetki od pożyczki kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku kredyt w banku w niemczech kredyt konsolidacyjny inteligo pożyczki bez bik jarosław kredyt bank olsztynek godziny otwarcia pozyczka pod zastaw auto chrzanow pożyczka plus kłodzko kalkulator pożyczki kasa stefczyka pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem slupsk pożyczki na działalność z urzędu pracy w którym banku kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank powstancow warszawy kredyt bank wyniki udzielę pożyczi kredyt bank lomza pozyczki kronos kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank forum kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe porównanie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2013 kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego wzór na obliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz pożyczki bez bik poznań czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty umowa pożyczki spółce zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki gotówkowej prawo podatkowe pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 pożyczki finansowo kredyty chwilówki inwestycje opinie bocian pożyczki łódź praca kredyt bank dąbrowskiego poznań kredyt dla banku nabywcy pekao sa wniosek o kredyt studencki pożyczki pod zastaw kielce banki udzielające pożyczki pożyczki ngo pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu pożyczki społecznościowe inwestowanie pożyczki prywatne wypelnij wniosek kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym pożyczki kwota wolna pro domo pożyczki praca kredyty chwilówki warszawa kredyt bez bik dla nowej firmy wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki mikropożyczki starachowice kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż opinie 2012 pożyczki na dowód gniezno kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania pożyczki bez bik big erif umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobą fizyczną a spółką kredyt 20 lat oddłużeniowy ze zła historia kredytowa pożyczki prywatne pod weksel łódź kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania kredyt bank olkusz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lublin żagiel ul zana pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard pożyczki bank 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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad