kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb bocian pożyczki wałbrzych kredyt w banku pko sa kredyt bankowy ksiegowanie pozyczkibocian dla bezrobotnych kredyt expert w uk forum kredyty bez bik swidnica szybkie pożyczki śląsk trudne pożyczki bez bik kredyt bankowy głównym źródłem kreacji pieniądza kredyty w banku skok pozyczyki atiz kredyt bank częstochowa umowa pożyczki przedawnienie kredyty bez bik włocławek kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank płock pożyczki na dowód bielsko umowa pożyczki między osobami prawnymi czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kredyty chwilówki bez bik usługi kredyt bank giżycko telefon kredyt bank lublin jutrzenki godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bz wbk przetarg kredyt bankowy kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka pożyczki dla rolników 2013 kredyt w banku na biznes kredyt bank włocławek zwrot pożyczki przychód konwersja pożyczki na udziały kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie finan pożyczki prywatna pozyczka w bialymstoku pożyczki prywatne oferty 2013 pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyt bank rachunek oszczędnościowy pożyczki do domu szczecin pdk kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki bez wizyty w banku trudne pozyczki warszawa kredyt bank w ciechocinku prado pożyczki opinie pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kredyt bank garwolin godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy a zamówienia publiczne czy kredyty chwilówki są ubezpieczone kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego kredyt bez bik i krd ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank powstańców warszawy 2 umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc tani kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec udzielać pożyczki ang kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatnie wrocław jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne grudziądz kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki w spółce z oo ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie umowa pożyczki podpisana za granicą pożyczki chwilówki włocławek kredyt bank spółdzielczy skawina pożyczki dla bezrobotnych nr telefon kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 kredyt samochodowy pozabankowy pożyczki chwilówki tychy pożyczki i poręczenia kredyt przez internet bez biku 3000zl kredyt w pko bp opinie 2012 kredyt bez biku dla firmy pożyczki dla bezrobotnych nr telefon szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt bez bik bank warszawa pożyczki bez bik kłodzko kredyt bank junior multibank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki bezprocentowe dla nauczycieli kredyt bez bik kościan umowa pożyczki firmowej pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz wyliczanie odsetek od pożyczki windykacja pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki prodomo do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator atrakcyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank emilii plater pożyczki kc pożyczki pozabankowe na już szybka pożyczka bez erif eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny regulamin umowa pożyczki z firmą kredyt bankowy ustawa kredyty chwilówki dział kadr kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka kredyty chwilówki złodzieje kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator credit agricole kredyt bank dabrowa tarnowska szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków kredyty chwilówki pit skarabeusz pożyczki gliwice kredyty chwilówki czerwionka dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum kredyt bank kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bez bik koszalin umowa pożyczki nakaz zapłaty bank pko pozyczka na dowod kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń ranking odmowa udzielenia pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe dla małych firm kredyt pozabankowe kredyty bez bik szamotuły skarabeusz pożyczki kościan kredyt w ge money bank kredyt bank fundusze notowania kredyt bank wieliczka kontakt pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych rawicz kredyt bank wyplaty z bankomatu pożyczki społecznościowe łódź kredyt bank żagiel szczecin kredyty bez biku wroclaw kokos pożyczki pożyczki dla wszystkich pożyczki payu kredyt bank giżycko telefon pożyczki ratunkowe w jakim banku wziąć kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty i pożyczki proz częstochowa pożyczki prywatne bocian pożyczki żnin pozyczka dla 18 latków bez bijk kredyt bank wrocław powstańców śląskich czy warto wziąć kredyt w getin banku pozyczki leszno kredyt inwestycyjny banku bgż kredyty bez bik zawiercie kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 kredyt bank w biłgoraju getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator kredyt bank frank mikropożyczki bangladesz pożyczki inwestycyjne dla firm pożyczki oddłużeniowe łódź przedawnienie pożyczki provident pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki opinie o firmie kredyt bank zawiercie kontakt kredyt studencki bankier kredyt bank zajęcia komornicze pożyczki pod zastaw gruntów rolnych umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 kredyt bank wniosek o wakacje kredytowe kredyty chwilówki szczecin wyzwolenia pożyczki bez procentu kredyt chwilówka 4000 pożyczki prywatne piaseczno kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator pożyczki płock kredyt bank święty marcin pożyczki w anglii forum kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 tys pożyczki gotówkowe wbk pożyczki dla firm bez zaświadczeń zabezpieczenie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt samochodowy santander oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne rypin kredyt bank kariera praca pożyczki od zagranicznych inwestorów kredyty bez bik suwałki kredyt samochodowy bez banku potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki 2014 umowa pożyczki pod zastaw auta wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kalkulator szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat pozyczki 18lat bialystok nowak pożyczki głogówek pozyczki inwestor prywatne kredyt bank warszawa wesoła kredyty chwilówki katowice giszowiec pozyczki bez baz gdansk pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów warszawa ewidencja pożyczki z zfśs toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyt chwilówka jastrzębie zdrój alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem kredyt gotówkowy alior bank opinie zgłoszenie pożyczki recyklerów ogame zawieszenie raty w kredyt banku pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp umorzenie pożyczki po śmierci pracownika kredyt bank racibórz mickiewicza kredyt na mieszkanie w jakim banku forum pożyczki od zagranicznych inwestorów pożyczki lidzbark warmiński kredyty chwilówki ełk umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyt z banku zagranicznego kredyt bank ken 57 neo bank kredyt konsolidacyjny szybki kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez bik koszt umowy pożyczki u notariusza pozyczki z obsluga w domu gdansk kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne pożyczki chwilówki na dowód gdańsk kredyt bank w międzyrzecu podlaskim kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank praga południe pożyczki od ręki lublin oprocentowanie pożyczki krótkoterminowej optima pożyczki śląsk pożyczki ze spłatą tygodniową pożyczki bez bik starogard gdański pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez przedpłat kredyty chwilówki pińczów kredyty bankowe praca magisterska kredyty chwilówki sms kredyt bank małopolska kredyt bez bik sms księgowanie pożyczki podporządkowanej pożyczki bez bik mińsk mazowiecki kredyt prywatny świdnica forum pożyczki między rodzeństwem pożyczki w getin banku kredyt bez bik prywatny kredyt w pko bp forum ekspreskasa pożyczka na dowód kredyt bank fuzja pożyczki pozabankowe na dłuższy okres kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa wałbrzych pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe tczew pożyczki na dowód turek kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank limit przelewu kredyt bank w zielonej górze kredyt bank mońki kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia medicover kredyt bank warszawa przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank w markach pożyczki lubsko cechy pozyczki kredyt bank lokaty terminowe umowa przedłużenia pożyczki kredyty bez bik lubuskie pożyczki społecznościowe gdzie pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyt bank gorczewska 200 kredyt bank rejtana rzeszów pożyczki gotówkowe do domu klienta pożyczki online w 15 minut bez bik firma uzyskała kredyt w banku pożyczki bez bik z dostawą do domu ubezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 wzór na obliczanie rat pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w bik skarabeusz pożyczki wniosek niebezpieczne pożyczki pożyczki dla rencistów przez internet pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel kredyt w tesco bank w uk firmy oferujące pożyczki kredyt getin bank forum pożyczki bez bik tychy poręczenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty chwilówki piotrków tryb kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie kredyty bez biku koszalin umowa pożyczki a umowa użyczenia gdzie kredyt bez bik kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku i krd na sam dowów w kielcach kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat pożyczki skok wesoła kredyt bez bik i zus kredyt bank chmielna godziny otwarcia pożyczki marka pożyczki w krakowie kredyt bez bik sieradz dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki lubuskie alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności wzór umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku koszty pozwu o zwrot pożyczki euro cash pozyczki szczecin kredyt dla firmy bez biku udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę udziałowcowi przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank koszt pożyczki bez bik żyrardów pożyczki prywatne ruda śląska kredyt bank fieldorfa pożyczki pozabankowe będzin kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej pożyczki bocian rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt w banku santander pożyczki prywatne nowa sól tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt na firmę bez bik kredyt bank wrocław bolesława chrobrego odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota kredyt bank dąbie szczecin weksel pożyczki wzór ksiegowanie przelewow w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw rtv lublin pożyczki na lichwe pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyty chwilówki brodnica kredyt bank allegro kredyty konsolidacyjne w jakim banku bocian pożyczki gryfice kredyt konsolidacyjny gdańsk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku kredyt bank skok kredyt studencki pko bp powtarzanie roku alior bank kredyt kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od brata alior bank kredyt dla seniora pozyczka w lukas swiebodzin umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki jawnej wzór pożyczki chwilówki z dostawą do domu kredyt bank oddział w warszawie kredyt bank dane adresowe pożyczki oddłużeniowe warszawa kto płaci podatek od umowy pożyczki kredyt w pko bp opinie 2012 pensje w kredyt banku kredyt preferencyjny bank kredyty bez biku w bydgoszczy pożyczki prywatne olkusz kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański kredyt bank w piasecznie kredyt bank międzyrzecz kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki śrem pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi szczecin leszno pożyczki bez bik w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie optima pożyczki płock ekasa pożyczki pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań pożyczki online bez bik ranking kredyt samochodowy dla firm porównanie kredyt samochodowy porównanie banków pozyczki do domu gniezno udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyty na dowod 18lat olsztyn w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank kredyt bank w krotoszynie kredyty w uk po polsku pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium kredyt samochodowy czy gotówkowy forum kredyt bank w legnicy kredyt konsolidacyjny wągrowiec kredyt bank kontakt centrala kredyt inwestycyjny getin bank opinie kredyt pleszew bez biku wierzyciel pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy duże pożyczki kredyt bank legionowo telefon pożyczki wonga oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank warszawa ul różana pożyczki chwilówki bez biku pożyczki podporządkowane w bilansie pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź umowa pożyczki między firmą a osobą fizyczną umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi pożyczki w poznaniu kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko odsetki od pożyczki angielski kredyty chwilówki praca tychy pożyczki pod zastaw kielce kredyt bank warszawa plac zbawiciela kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie wzór pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej kredyty chwilówki białystok lipowa 45 kredyt bank regulamin kredyty mieszkaniowe procent pożyczki wałbrzych czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie nowe pozyczki pozabankowe kredyt inwestycyjny w credit agricole umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór pożyczki bocian w pile kredyt bank w skierniewicach pożyczki abis opinie pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica optima pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 pożyczki na telefon opinie postea pożyczki pożyczki bez bik w kielcach kredyty chwilówki łodź czy łatwo jest dostać kredyt w getin banku pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt konsolidacyjny na 12 lat pożyczka bez bik i krd mława skarabeusz pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe numer telefonu kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia fundusze pożyczki kredyt bank lublin zana 39 kredyt bank w łodzi optima pożyczki warunki przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej szybkie pożyczki warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw częstochowa kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator kredyt chwilówka krotoszyn kredyt bank piaseczno godziny otwarcia pozyczka prywatna veksel dzierzoniow kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt bocian pożyczki gryfice pożyczki kokos kontakt provident zwrot pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing kredyty chwilówki wadowice pozyczki prywatne online w debicy pożyczki od prywatnych ludzi kredyt w koncie bank pocztowy kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty kredyt bank rumia janowo kredyt bank sokołów podlaski kontakt kredyty chwilówki bełchatów udzielone pożyczki aktywa ranking kredytów w bankach kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku kredyt bankowy na spłatę komornika kredyt bank jędrzejów kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kredyty bez bik gdynia kredyt mieszkaniowy w noble bank pożyczki społecznościowe sekrata pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw kredyt w pekao sa forum najtanszy kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki jaki procent pozyczki umowa na zlecenie krakow wyliczanie rat pożyczki umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem wzór kredyt bank kostrzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny z najniższym oprocentowaniem pcc od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyty pozabankowe kutno kredyt bank private banking kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyty chwilowki wroclaw drobnera kredyt bank lodz kosciuszki pożyczki wojciech górski kredyt w ktorym banku najlepiej kredyty chwilówki szczytno kredyt bank łódź 11 listopada godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne z komornikiem kredyt bank w goleniowie kody do orange na kredyt kredyt bank mokotowska 49 pozyczki na dowod radom kredyty bez bik big i krd mikropożyczki klon kredyt bez bik online 10 lat kredyt w banku czy przez doradcę pożyczki tylko na dowód umowa pożyczki okres przedawnienia pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnów optima pożyczki dolnośląskie kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank 2012 umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy getin bank kredyty bez zaswiadczen pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad