kredyt bank sa w lublinie getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp odsetki od pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyty chwilówki katowice ligota pozyczki bez bik i krd numerz tel kredyt bez bik żary szybkie pożyczki żagań kredyt studencki banki 2012 getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank żeromskiego tel pożyczki i chwilówki ile można wziąć pożyczki na dowód fundusze europejskie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki to jest pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik gdzie wziasc kredyt bez bik pożyczki na dowód forum pożyczki 24h na dobę pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod kredyt bank godziny otwarcia szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw nowy sącz kredyt bank w siedlcach kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki prywatne udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie kredyty bez bik w domu kredyty chwilówki kontakt feniks zory pozyczki pożyczki 50 zł prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne kredyt samochodowy dla firm dokumenty kredyt gotówkowy santander kalkulator pożyczki bez bik 25000 bocian pożyczki jarocin kredyt bez bik do 30000 kredyt w jakim banku 2013 kredyt na dowód bank spółdzielczy szybki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt bank kosciuszki kielce bank pko kredyt kredyty chwilowki gdansk kredyt bank gwarancja pożyczki access pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync pożyczki bez biku w koninie kredyt bez bik gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny nie w banku pożyczka 200 zł żywiec pożyczka kalkulator kredytu samochodowego alior bank kredyt dla firm bez bik us zus kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat kredyt bankowy kredyty bez bik w poznaniu pożyczki pod zastaw srem kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millennium pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości leszno kredyt balonowy santander bank 50 50 kwota pożyczki proz pożyczki bez bik i krd włocławek kredyt bank lwowska pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód pożyczki pfron pożyczki chwilówki zawiercie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe zasady kredyt bank rumia godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki polsko niemiecka pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem pożyczki bocian koszalin bank pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe forum bocian pożyczki lębork pożyczki online 18 lat kredyt w idea banku opinie kredyt w pekao sa forum kredyt studencki pekao sa opinie pożyczki do 500 zł bez bik kredyt bank chojnice kredyt studencki forum pko szybkie darmowe pożyczki getin bank kredyty samochodowe forum kredyty chwilówki rzeszów odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki a przychód kredyt gotówkowy bez bik krd skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały konto księgowe pożyczki umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową pożyczki gotówkowe szybkie wzory umów pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową 2013 umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja forum ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 kredyt bank w raciborzu kredyt bank ekstrapremia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia kredyt bez bik big kredyty santander consumer bank pożyczki obliczanie rat kredyt bank w kościanie banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet jednorazowe udzielenie pożyczki a vat oprocentowanie kredytu gotowkowego w santander bank pożyczki bez bik kalkulator kredyt w banku na dowód kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim euro pożyczki limanowa dobry kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyt gotowkowy opinie kredyt bank transze umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank gdansk wrzeszcz kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kredyt bank sa centrala w warszawie koszt pożyczki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator forma prawna pożyczki kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin kredyty mieszkaniowe wymogi pożyczki artykuł oprocentowanie kredytu w banku śląskim kredyt bank oddział w warszawie kredyt bank koniec kredyty chwilowki nowa sol kredyt na dowód lukas bank kredyt bank przelewy z zagranicy kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych bocian pożyczki skargi pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej chwilowki kredyty prywatne dla zadluzonych w jakim banku kredyt na zakup mieszkania kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pko pożyczki nysa vivus uk pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty kwiecień 2012 kredyt bank pyrzyce marka pożyczki białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt na dowód kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa jak dostac kredyt bez biku rafał konarski pożyczki kredyt bank placówki lublin kredyt bank łódź wólczańska 178 kredyt na 15 lat odsetki karne skarabeusz pozyczki w sremie wzory dokumentów pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo kredyty chwilówki opinie gowork kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę komornika kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp forum kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa sobota kredyt bank praca opinie kredyt bank token zmiana telefonu kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki z funduszu efs kredyt bank uk deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online pożyczki od ręki kredyty szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet pożyczki na dowód chwilówki kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank sprzedaż kredyt bank łańcut kredyt w pko bp kalkulator oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bank kalwaria zebrzydowska kredyt bank w chojnicach pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie kredyty chwilowki w czestochowie kredyty chwilowki belchatow pożyczki gotówkowe online bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kalkulator kredyt bez biku bielsko biała pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin matematyka finansowa pożyczki progroup pożyczki kredyt bank pelplin marka pożyczki praca pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt bank pozew zbiorowy pożyczki bezzwrotne pożyczki abis kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyty pozabankowe do 30000 pożyczki gliwice zwrot pożyczki angielski kredyt bez biku 50000 kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp 2013 pożyczki tylko na dowód przez internet umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej pozyczki publiczne zalety pożyczki gotówkowe bocian pozyczki do reki ketrzyn pożyczki gumtree kredyt studencki na jakich warunkach w jakim banku brać kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank import przelewów jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca kredyty skok stefczyka kredyty chwilówki wieluń pożyczki rywal bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki na dowód lublin kredyt bank mickiewicza białystok kredyt w banku na firme bocian pożyczki toruń kontakt szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym kredyt bez bik płock bocian pożyczki bydgoszcz meritum bank kredyt na start bez bik kredyt bank powiadomienia sms pko pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt bank w lipnie pożyczki pko sa tanie pożyczki pozabankowe podatek pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank rumia gdańska pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet asper pożyczki elbląg toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyt marza banku alior bank kredyt studencki renata pikuła pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki współpraca nr tel pożyczki bocian stargard szczeciński kontakt pożyczki dla firm opole bank pocztowy pozyczka pod zastaw kredyt bank siedziby warszawa mława pożyczki bez bik pożyczki na renty socjalne kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych kredyt bez bik dla nowej firmy kredyt bez bik kłodzko gdzie kredyt bez bik forum wiarygodne pożyczki poza bankowe kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki chwilówki na dowód rzeszów kredyt konsolidacyjny na 120 miesięcy kredyt bank niedurnego getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie latwy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik kwidzyn kredyty bez biku bydgoszcz pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet umowa pożyczki dla firmy wzór beata burzyńska pożyczki jak księgować odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank lwowska kredyt bank nowa ruda kredyt bank wpłatomat warszawa kredyt studencki pko bp opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium retencja kredytów kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna kredyt bankowy a kupiecki kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn kredyt bank w skierniewicach pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska odsetki od pożyczki koszty uzyskania przychodu pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu rzeszów kredyt studencki w jakim banku pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeńpoznan kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank pożyczki pod zastaw sosnowiec kredyty konsolidacyjne koszalin kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior kredyt dla firm bez bik us zus kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp forum pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta szczecin pożyczki gotówkowe przelicznik kredyt dla nowej firmy bez bik kredyty bez bik lomza umowa pożyczki wzory umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami wzór kredyt bank mikołów kontakt kredyt bank godziny otwarcia dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku getin bank kredyt przez internet umowa pożyczki osoby prywatne bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt na dowod w niemczech kredyt w bank pko bp kredyty chwilowki lodz konsolidacja kredytu mbank szybkie pożyczki cieszyn pożyczka od 18 lat bez bit olsztyn pożyczki prywatne kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko 1000 zl pożyczki lublin bank pko pozyczka na dowod pożyczki 30 stki kredyt bez banku na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem pożyczki chwilówki łomża kredyt bank kalkulator kredyt odnawialny w eurobank umowa pożyczki od rodziny a pcc kredyt bank w dąbrowie tarnowskiej pożyczki dla nauczycieli pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie kredyt bank toruń telefon zmiana warunków pożyczki kredyt bank żagiel bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie ofert banków szybkie i tanie pożyczki od ręki olsztyn optima pożyczki windykacja zaciągnięcie kredytu bankowego jest operacją szybkie pozyczki luban asper pozyczki forum wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu rodzaje kredytów w banku pekao sa pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach gdynia kredyty banki ranking ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu mieszkaniowego kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz pożyczki bez sprawdzania w big umowa pożyczki spółce kredyt w banku szwajcarskim kredyt bank jutrzenki kredyty chwilówki kłobuck kredyt bez biku bytom pozyczka dla dluznikow warszawa kredyt bank lipno kredyt getin bank samochodowy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór doc kredyty pozabankowe definicja kredyt bank dusznicki pożyczki pod zastaw bolesławiec pożyczki poznań bez bik mikropożyczki kapitał ludzki meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online pozyczki abrewo pożyczki chwilówki kredyty kredyt bank oświęcim kontakt pożyczki oszuści kredyty dla osob z zajeciami komorniczymi tel orange dobre pożyczki opinie chwilówki i pożyczki gotówkowe firmy eurocent czy banki udzielają pożyczek pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki pożyczki provident oprocentowanie kredyt bank wiadomości pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki umowa co lubuskie bocian pożyczki opinie praca pożyczki od osób fizycznych najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank lubartów godziny otwarcia fast pożyczki pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask kredyty bez bik ruda slaska kredyt bank sa ii oddział w olsztynie kredyt na start firmy bez bik kredyt studencki w pko spłata banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw siedlce eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem kredyt samochodowy dla firmy umowa pożyczki poręczyciel pożyczki od osób prywatnych szczecin w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli kredyt bank zielonka godziny kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec gus pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy na kupno domu kredyty chwilówki dla osób z komornikiem kredyt w banku sgb feniks słupsk kredyty kredyty konsolidacyjne 2012 kredyt bank oddział warszawa kasprzaka pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big i krd kredyty chwilówki gliwice matejki pożyczki dla organizacji umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia kredyt w rozumieniu prawa bankowego kalkulator pożyczki gofin pożyczki i chwilówki pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu w jakim banku kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki barcin kredyt bez biku szamotuły kredyt studencki w pekao odsetki ustawowe umowa pożyczki pomocne pożyczki pożyczki od udziałowców w bilansie kredyt bank jelenia góra ul wolności kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka kredyt bank wejherowo gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 kredyt bank mbank pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie szybka pozyczka gorzow wlkp getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki w 15 minut na konto kredyt pozabankowy bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kielce pożyczki w 24h kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyt bank wałbrzych słowackiego kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank umowa pożyczki 2013 mbank pożyczki dla firm dostępne pożyczki nowakka pożyczki umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona nieruchomością pożyczki prywatne trzebnica umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow skarabeusz okres kredytowania kredyt bank biała podlaska rywal kredyt bank tfi kredyt bank chmielna pozyczka na weksel wlasny na slasku kredyt bank 3 maja rzeszów podporządkowanie pożyczki kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki między ojcem a synem kredyt preferencyjny alior bank pożyczki do ręki pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadzczen i limitów wiekowych kredyt chwilówka oleśnica kredyt bank otwock praca charakter prawny umowy pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe goleniów kredyty chwilówki łuków kredyt bank twardzickiego przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa pożyczki z dotacji unijnych kredyt chwilówki zabrze pożyczki bociana kredyt bez bik 3 tyś kredyt w banku z bik everest bocian pożyczki pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank 2001 kredyt bez bik oswiecim kredyt bank gostyń wlkp kredyt bank wesoła telefon umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki a oprocentowanie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód pożyczki prywatne wrocław kod kredytowy orange idea bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie rola kredyt bankowy kredyt bank logowanie firma kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko forum kredyt bank sulechów kontakt kredyt bank warszawa marki pożyczki pod zastaw działki podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2012 kredyty pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin szybkie kredyty dla firm bez bik kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie kredyt bank nowe ogrody gdańsk kredyt pozabankowy lodz getin bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych pożyczki pozabankowe lębork kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice pożyczki wonga opinie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad