kredyt bank żagiel lublin narutowicza bankomaty kredyt bank łomża umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie fig pożyczki pożyczki dla małych firm pozyczki publiczne zalety najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny na rynku pożyczki bez bik prywatne podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce pożyczki novum opinie pożyczki unijne małopolska jakie zarobki w kredyt banku kredyt bank zgierz godziny otwarcia lombard pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaswiadczen kredyty dla firm bez biku pożyczki bez bik z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat pożyczki pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt odnawialny w banku millenium optima pożyczki gniezno alior bank kredyt kontakt konsolidacja kredytu bz wbk kredyt w getin noble bank optima pożyczki online wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty konsolidacyjne na 30 lat kredyt bank centrum bankowości korporacyjnej wrocław kredyt studencki pekao sa wniosek umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs emerytowi kredyty chwilówki w łomży kredyt bankowy funkcje kredyt bank prepaid przelewy w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki wzór aktywny kredyt bank warszawa sobota kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujących za granicą kredyt bank warszawska białystok godziny otwarcia pożyczki w euroexpert kwota pożyczki angielski pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt bank małopolskie kredyt bank zamknięcie konta pożyczki łobez kredyt bank sa włocławek wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kredyt studencki pko aneks pożyczki na spłatę komornika konsolidacja kredytu wbk kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock bocian pożyczki białystok pożyczki do 5000 zł przyznawalność kredytów w credit agricole pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń pożyczki online za darmo pożyczki na dowód rybnik kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej pożyczki polska różne polska usługi pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu pożyczki chwilówki chrzanów pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki bez bik będzin kredyty i pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 procent pożyczki bez bik śrem pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kredyt bank okęcie kredyt konsolidacyjny 120 miesięcy pozyczka w bankomacie tczew kredyt bez bik szczecinek jak dostac pozyczke w atiz kredyt mieszkaniowy banki pożyczki chwilówki kozienice kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie kredyty chwilówki co to jest kredyt w banku millenium opinie pod jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange bankomaty kredyt banku bez prowizji umowa konwersji pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki wibor konsolidacja kredytów wbk kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska 49 pożyczki prywatne na procent warszawa bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator porównanie wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki pozabankowe od zaraz kredyty chwilówki pszczyna pożyczki wieluń kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań kredyt bank olsztynek kredyty chwilówki wieliczka kredyt pozabankowy w banku pro domo pożyczki gdańsk kredyty bez bik na dowód kredyt bank kedzierzyn kozle ślimak pożyczki kraków kredyt bez bik oferty kredyt chwilówki sosnowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny do 300 000 pożyczki katowice 3 maja przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki na dowód w banku jak dostac kredyt w uk bocian pożyczki jelenia góra umowa pożyczki w euro getin bank kredyt 5000 kredyt bez biku w rybniku kredyt w banku bph opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza kredyt bank sa address pożyczki w 24h przez internet bez zaświadczeń bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku kredyty bankowe charakterystyka jaki jest numer na kredyt orange kredyt bank plac zbawiciela telefon bocian pozyczki kwidzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku pożyczki z nfoś kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez bik kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko forum kredyt bez bik bielsko kredyt bank altus pożyczki gold prywatne pozyczki lichwiarskie slask krecik pożyczki opinie pożyczki na dowód wonga giżycko wiarygodne pożyczki bez bik najniżej oprocentowane pożyczki pożyczki infinite kredyt bank niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank płock przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki w żagiel kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo udzielenie pożyczki proz czy kredyt bank jest otwarty w sobote kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen pożyczki chwilówki gorlice kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank opinie dialog pożyczki pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc kredyt studencki bz wbk 2012 eurocent podobne pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyt w uk bez depozytu pożyczki pod zastaw rtv radom kredyt konsolidacyjny a umowa zlecenie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracownikiem a pracodawcą pożyczki bez bik we wrocławiu gdzie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2012 pożyczki na które trzeba uważać ile można potrącić pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki płock online kredyt bank szczecin wojska polskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki rodzaje kredyty pozabankowe bez bik us zus w szczecinie szybkie pożyczki do domu umowa pożyczki prawo pożyczki dla małych firm z unii pożyczki udzielone i należności własne przykłady pożyczki udzielone i należności własne przykłady pożyczki od rodziny podatek provident zasady pożyczki bocian pożyczki koszalin umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek profit pożyczki ciechanów kredyt bankowy na rachunku bieżącym umorzenie pożyczki z zfśś kredyty pozabankowe praca kredyt bank chojnice kontakt kredyt bank awaria kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank forum kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2014 pożyczki na dowód lubuskie pożyczki prywatne gumtree mikropożyczki dla firm podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika łukasz chlebicki pożyczki pożyczki prywatne aktualne oferty niespłacanie pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank przetargi pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo kredyty chwilówki gredan umowa pożyczki a umowa użyczenia pożyczki bez bik na telefon pożyczki udzielane przez gminę kredyty bez bik sieradz pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik big apple pożyczki kredyt bank w ostrowcu św kredyt bank chojnice godziny otwarcia przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank zgubiona karta pożyczki prywatne jarocin kredyt samochodowy vw bank opinie pod jaki numer się bierze kredyt orange pożyczki bankowe kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredytowy pozyczki bez biku kredyty pozabankowe gorzów wlkp lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok kredyt bank krosno odrzańskie kredyty chwilówki kedzierzyn eurobank ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt bankowy podział kredyt z banku pocztowego odsetki od pożyczki kup wyliczanie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny plock kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem bank pko bp kredyty gotówkowe kredyt bank oddział w pile pozyczki na procent kredyt bank radzymińska pożyczki poznań na dowód kredyt w idea banku opinie podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej pozyczki pozabankowe plock na dowod kredyt na wyciąg z konta bez bik konin kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański kredyty chwilówki sandomierz kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi kredyt bank wyniki kredyt bank kielce kościuszki 6 largo pożyczki kredyt bank żory kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bez bik i krs pożyczki start up kredyty chwilówki zabrze karr pożyczki kredyt bez bik z poręczycielem kredyty pozabankowe ranking niespłacanie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank zielonka godziny oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kalkulator kredyt bank m1 kraków kontakt pożyczki na dowód wejherowo umowa pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank w płońsku kredyt bank pl bankowosc elektroniczna kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej 24h kredyt bank numery telefonów kredyt bank ogińskiego jelenia góra kredyt bank bankomaty rzeszów kredyt bez biku bydgoszcz kredyt bank w ciechanowie lokaty pożyczki chwilówki panda pożyczki bez bik oława kredyt chwilówka ile procent umowa zawarcia pożyczki pożyczki prywatne siedlce ranking pożyczki przez internet kredyt samochodowy a firma kredyt eurobank na dowód getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik otwock bnp paribas kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank zajęcia belgia kredyty forum umorzenie pożyczki a pit kredyt bank przelewy kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie pko kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem kredyty chwilówki logo kredyt bank rzeszow rejtana kredyt bank w malborku pod jaki numer kredyt w orange bank bocian radom pozyczka do 2000zl kredyt konsolidacyjny w raiffeisen bank kredyt bank włochy kredyty pozabankowe tarnów kredyt bank lodz bednarska umowa pożyczki do pobrania pożyczki chwilówki tychy kredyt bank bez bik kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy przez internet kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatami kredyt bez bik na budowe pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat przez internet kredyt bankowy pasywa umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk kredyt bank jana pawła 12 alior bank przelicznik kredytu umowa pożyczki opłata notarialna pożyczki jak księgować pożyczki bzwbk umowa pożyczki nie stwierdzona pismem pożyczki bez bik co to umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy kredyt bank grajewo pożyczki uprzywilejowane pożyczki do 2000 zł umowa pożyczki aneks wzór pożyczki w domu klienta legnica kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opłaty kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2013 kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulatory pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na działalność akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny boś pożyczki bez bik płońsk kredyty bez biku pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli kredyt bank mława kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo kredyt na samochód bez sprawdzania w biku szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny pko oprocentowanie umowa pozyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank departament windykacji consumer finance kredyty konsolidacyjne z zajęciem komorniczym rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wejherowo kredyt konsolidacyjny brak zdolności kredytowej umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka pożyczki prywatne stargard szczeciński kredyt bank sa oddział w lublinie kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole szybkie pożyczki racibórz kredyty bez bik piotrków trybunalski pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian renoma pożyczki pożyczki dla osób z niskimi dochodami pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyt bank warszawa ul grójecka pożyczki bez bik koło getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu dla firm kredyt bank knf pożyczki daiglob finance umowa pożyczki na piśmie windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bez bik lębork kredyt studencki pko poręczenie bgk pożyczki na dowód sandomierz kredyty chwilówki miechów kredyt bank centrum obsługi klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander pozyczki posrednictwo warszawa bez dochodu pożyczki prywatne częstochowa pożyczki na dowód kraków kredyt samochodowy bank spółdzielczy kredyty santander kredyt bank charakterystyka kredyt bank łódź ul ketlinga godziny otwarcia wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania kredyt bankowy słownik uznanie pożyczki pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik lubin oddziały kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt bank włochy umowa pożyczki wzór kredyt bank koszalin kredyty chwilówki skierniewice kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku opinie mikropożyczki dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki pozabankowe gumtree warszawa kredyt bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki radziejów kredyt bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki druk darmowy kredyt bankowy praca magisterska kredyt bank gdynia bławatna umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór kredyt pozabankowy gdynia szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet umowa pożyczki do wydruku pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum kredyty chwilówki panel logowania kredyt bank w starogardzie gdańskim przelew własny w kredyt banku kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt mieszkaniowy a ślub pożyczki gotówkowe do 20000 pożyczki prywatne koszalin kredyt bank oszukuje umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie kredyty chwilówki praca zarobki szukam pożyczki łódź pfp pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści leasing czy kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt gotówkowy bez biku przedawnienie pożyczki art pożyczki konsolidacyjne z komornikiem w pewnym banku zaciagamy kredyt kredyty bez bik oława szybkie pożyczki bez big kredyt konsolidacyjny sgb pszczółka pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2013 pożyczki kredytum kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt bank kantor internetowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach alior bank kredyt 5000 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny chorzów pożyczki w provident wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty chwilówki wiki pożyczki w kc kredyt banki mikołów kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki dla bezrobotnych olsztyn umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna umowa pożyczki firmy kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 udzielić komuś pożyczki warunki otrzymania pożyczki w providencie kredyt w banku forum pożyczki na dowód szczecin kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście lublin optima pożyczki na dowód warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu w getin bank pożyczki warp szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska druk udzielenia pożyczki akropol pożyczki pożyczki bez bik 5000 zł pożyczki prywatne żory alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli pożyczki bez bik do 10000 bocian pożyczki nip kredyt bank windykacja pożyczki dla nowej firmy umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby samotnej kredyt bank żołnierska skarabeusz pożyczki kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych kredyt samochodowy dla firm credit agricole istota umowy pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego kredyt bank dział reklamacji mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 nieujawnione pożyczki sygma bank kredyt online bocian pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz kredyt bank polkowice godziny otwarcia pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń kredyt bank janów lubelski kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem ksiegowanie przelewow w kredyt banku kredyt bank czeladź kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny niskie oprocentowanie kredyt w idea bank forum dokumentowanie zwrotu pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki a pcc pożyczki prywatne podatek kredyt studencki bank gospodarstwa krajowego kredyt bank zamość lokaty jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska cesja umowy pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika pokwitowanie pożyczki bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu na alimenty kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu forum szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pewne pożyczki dla każdego kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki pożyczki olsztyn bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad