kredyt bank bps pożyczka na dowód bogatynia kredyt pozabankowy bez bik online kody na kredyt do orange kredyty chwilówki zamość kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmą a osobą fizyczną kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj pozyczki prywatne z dojazdem do domu szamotuly kredyt bank pułtusk telefon pożyczki chojnice kredyty chwilowki umowa zlecenie kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie kredyt bank wielkopolska kredyt konsolidacyjny porównywarka kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać kredyt bank wirtualny doradca pożyczki prywatne forum opinie kredyt bez bik w skok alior bank kredyt obrotowy dla firm pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa pożyczki jeremie koszalin umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs konwersja umowy pożyczki obligacyjnej kredyt chwilowka szczecinek euro pożyczki limanowa 15000 bezzwrotnej pożyczki idea bank kredyt w banku pko sa forum pozyczka od ręki września i okolica pcc od pożyczki między firmami pożyczki gotówkowe pko umowa pożyczki ustawa kredyt bank busko zdrój godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik bolesławiec preferencyjne pożyczki ue pożyczki z up kredyt bank wiatraczna godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator pożyczki typu eurolan pożyczki pozabankowe on line kredyt bank wolbrom mikropożyczki na rentę socjalną fundusze europejskie pożyczki kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia na życie pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań el global rzeszów kredyty opinie kredyt bank zaswiadczenia kredyt bez bik wałbrzych kredyt bank wycena pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na działalność szybki kredytyt gotwkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór pożyczki chwilówki krotoszyn pożyczki pozabankowe bielsk podlaski pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki skok stefczyka pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój abis pożyczki kontakt kredyt chwilowki lubin pożyczki eurocent kredyt dziesiatka udzielę prywatnej pożyczki online pożyczki na weksel pożyczki na dowód pleszew pekao sa kredyt wpis w big pożyczki pozabankowe grójec kredyt bez bik gumtree kredyt bank piotrków tryb godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny pko opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobank kredyt bank fax kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja kredyt bank sa address kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż kalkulator kredyt bank w kamiennej górze kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mazowieckie kredyt bez biku na telefon optima pozyczka z obsluga w domu sanok i okolice kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk jakie banki w poznaniu udzielaja kredytow kredyt bank jakie bankomaty pożyczki bez bik zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulatory kredyt bank poleska pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyt bank lista placówek kredyt konsolidacyjny skok chmielewskiego kredyt studencki pko kiedy kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia pożyczka bez umowy o pracę iz zadłużeniem pozyczkh chwilowki lodz w domu kliemta pożyczki bez bik w kielcach połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp pożyczki pozabankowe do 50000 kredyt bank lista haseł jednorazowych pożyczki preferencyjne nfośigw optima pożyczki kalkulator optima pożyczki tczew umowa pożyczki cesja pożyczki chwilówki bez zatrudnienia kredyt bank 224 szybką pożyczka do domu klienta pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin kredyty bez bik gliwice pożyczki pozabankowe do domu pożyczki w amber gold kredyt samochodowy vw bank opinie jak obliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki kredyty bez bik krd katowice kredyt bank mosina jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca jak wziasc kredyt w providencie uk pożyczki internetowe bez bik pożyczki i kredyty dla osób w bik i z komornikiem kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 umowa pożyczki jakie odsetki kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank kalkulator kredyt bank lokata online pożyczki ekspresowe bocian pko kredyt studencki kiedy wypłata kredyty bez biku zielona góra kredyty dla zadluzonych w biku poznan załatwie kredyt w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny skok piast pożyczki do 80 lat wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki bez biku i z komornikiem kredyt samochodowy mbank forum kredyt bank ekstrakonto junior kredyt konsolidacyjny prawo pożyczki społecznościowe sekrata kredyt bank piłą limit pożyczki pożyczki na dowód krosno kredyty chwilówki czerwionka kredyt bank widok skierniewice umowy pożyczki a podatek kredyt bank relacje inwestorskie pożyczki gros kalisz kredyt bez biku bytom kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w kraśniku pożyczki money pożyczki katowice bez bik pożyczki z up kredyt odnawialny w banku millenium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat kredyty pozabankowe plock kredyt bank kraków długa 4 godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki system partner panel logowania szybki kredyt bez bik 10000 multibank kredyt samochodowy kredyt studencki gospodarczy bank wielkopolski wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór pozyczka przez internet bez zaswiadczen o dochodach promesa pożyczki wzór pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki a oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki bydgoszcz kujawska kredyt konsolidacyjny a gotówkowy pozyczki bez biku kredyt studencki wbk 2013 pozyczki na procent dublin kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki jaki procent kredyt bank rawa maz godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy doc pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik pożyczki od firm prywatnych kredyty bankowe wady i zalety kredyt dla firm bez bik big pożyczki świebodzin kredyty bez zaswiadczen swiebodzin mikropożyczki 2014 pozyczki bez biku slupsk numer kontaktowy kredyt konsolidacyjny inteligo konsolidacja kredytu mbank pozyczka jarocin bez bik szybko w domu kalkulator kosztów pożyczki kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki zfśs kredyt bank maków mazowiecki godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć kredyt bank mokotowska 49 warszawa aureus pożyczki bocian pożyczki turek kredyt na już bez bik kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego skarabeusz pożyczki głogów kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim pożyczki społecznościowe kraków pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum w jakim banku najszybciej kredyt pozyczki pod zastaw leszno bocian pożyczki rzeszów provident pożyczki praca bocian pożyczki gniezno kredyty bez biku kredyt bank konferencja pożyczki chwilówki radom kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki bocian pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz pbs pożyczki kredyt na firmę bez bik tanie pożyczki na dowód pozyczka dla zadluzonych w biku pożyczki prominent kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie od umowy pozyczka pozabankowa na splate chwilowek w bialymstoku kredyt 2000 zł bez zaświadczeń jelenia gora umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej kredyt bankowy na zakup mieszkania pożyczki medyczne kredyt bank bialystok lipowa kredyt bank warszawa zeromskiego pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree pożyczki w domu klienta katowice pożyczki pod zastaw łapy mikropożyczki lubelskie pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp pożyczki gotówkowe w rodzinie kredyt bez bik słupsk kredyt gotówkowy bankier udziele pożyczki prywatnie warszawa kredyt samochodowy bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank focha pozyczka pozabankowa mazowiecki bez dochodow kredyt pozabankowy bytom kredyt bank białystok skłodowskiej godziny otwarcia pożyczki franczyza kredyty bankowe ksiegowanie kredyt cetelem bank wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia kredyt bank białystok radzymińska pozyczka tygodniowka elbląg kredyt bank w bolesławcu pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys kredyt w anglii dla polaków forum księgowanie pożyczki z wfośigw optima pożyczki wrocław kredyt bankowy bez bik przez internet wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin pożyczki w bydgoszczy optima s a kredyty pożyczki pożyczki śląsk kredyt bank warta kredyt bank program systematycznego oszczędzania pożyczka 5000 zl w bankuspółdzielczym czy w santanteze banku latwo jest dostac pozyczke wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy pożyczki prywatne na już kredyt bank bric kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego kredyt bank realizacja czeku pożyczki białystok kredyt pod zastaw auta bez biku bocian pożyczki forum kredyt bank grudziądz kontakt bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne prowizja od umowy pożyczki a vat bocian pożyczki bik umowa pożyczki od pracodawcy kredyt bank oswiecim godziny otwarcia kredyt na rozwój firmy bez bik warunki kredytu w banku millenium szybkie pożyczki elbląg szablon umowy pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank śródmieście kredyt konsolidacyjny dla jst oferteo pożyczki kredyty chwilówki akcja znicz pożyczka pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki na dowód chorzów pożyczki bez bik łomża zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang prywatne pożyczki na weksel katowice pożyczki bez poręczycieli bez bik pozyczki od osob prywatnych poznan pożyczki dla młodych ludzi kredyt kielce awaria systemu w kredyt banku umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit druki wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp pożyczki dla emerytów bez bik kredyt dla firm w getin banku pożyczka na dowód przez pocztę mariusz kowalski kredyty bydgoszcz getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bez bik do 7000 polskie finanse pożyczki umowa pożyczki pkzp umowa pożyczki w rodzinie a podatek pożyczki praca kredyt bez bik chorzów pokwitowanie zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyt bank kontakt kredyt w banku na oświadczenie szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków kredyty chwilówki szczecin opinie umowa pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt chwilówki płock umowa pożyczki z zastawem rejestrowym numer telefonu do kredyt banku zagiel kredyt bank piła telefon wzór umowy pożyczki raty szybkie pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kredyt dla firm bez bik zus kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska kredyt bank oddział kasprzaka kredyt w banku barclays pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja kredyt bez biku w skoku banknot pożyczki łódź kredyt bank marcinkowskiego poznań pożyczki uam kredyt studencki bzwbk 2012 kredyt orange kod pozyczki bez bik i krd kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla zadłużonych pozyczka na pit bez bik w bydgoszcz pożyczki od prywatnej osoby oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank tomaszów maz szybkie pożyczki internetowe bez bik szybki kredyt pozabankowy przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin pożyczki w banku ing udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec pożyczki kredyty na dowód novum finance pożyczki forum kredyt prywatny zagraniczny zawieszenie raty w kredyt banku jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik kredyt pozabankowy od reki pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie bank zachodni kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator przedłużenie umowy pożyczki a pcc pożyczki pozabankowe porównanie kredyt na pit w getin banku forum kredyt bank tczew godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki chrzanów pożyczki w skoku stefczyka pożyczki na dowód dzierżoniów kalkulator rat pożyczki ekspresowej kredyt bank lokata online prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia pożyczki bez bik bez dochodów umowa pożyczki wibor bank pożyczki na dowód kredyty i pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie atrakcyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez biku ełk kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 kredyty chwilówki inwestor opinie pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja kredyt bank plock 1 maja porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki białystok bez bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki społecznościowe łódź kredyt bank ostrów wlkp godziny otwarcia keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik pożyczki kieszonkowe finan pożyczki kwidzyn pożyczki pozabankowe gorlice kredyt bank biuro prasowe kompensata odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki prywatne jarosław kredyty chwilówki złodzieje dpg pożyczki kredyt bank lodź udzielać pożyczki kredyt bankowy na rachunku bieżącym cash express pożyczki kraków pożyczki na dowód gdzie kredyt bez biku kredyt bankowy istota funkcje rodzaje wzór druku pożyczki pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy bez bik warszawa kredyt bez bik puławy kredyt bank turek kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa firma żyrafa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla polakow w uk pożyczki na dowód rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarza jak uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pokoju pożyczki na zakup towaru trustbuddy pożyczki wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok oświadczenie o umorzeniu pożyczki kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodego małżeństwa kredyt bank polna 11 pożyczki w walucie pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet pożyczki bez big sezam pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt bank łódż bednarska placówki kredyt banku wrocław kredyt bank pionki alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt chwilówka rawicz kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka pożyczka online bez krd 24h wniosek o kredyt bez biku kredyt bankowy zalety i wady kredyt na dowod numery telefonu olsztyn kredyt bank warszawa targowa zasady przyznawania pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bank konto bankowe pożyczki bez bik szczecinek kredyty mieszkaniowe w londynie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym kredyt bank pułtusk telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy pracuje za granica kredyt bank warszawa książkowa umarzanie pozyczek w parabankach kredyt studencki opinie forum kredyty mieszkaniowe w credit agricole pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn rolniczych pożyczki pozabankowe w gorzowie wlkp pko kredyt bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe sezam oleśnica pożyczki gotówkowe na umowe zlecenie pożyczki access abis pożyczki dla każdego opinie pożyczki w domu klienta wałbrzych pożyczki bez bik 20 000 odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt uzyskania przychodu potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność szybkie pożyczki chorzów kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej kronos pożyczki kraków do ilu kredyt santander kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum oddziały dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank w ostrowcu kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik szybkie pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki fiskus zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 kredyt bank i wbk kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt idea bank opinie przepisy regulujące pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla osób fizycznych pożyczki w polbanku pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie koszt całkowity pożyczki prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki wzór za darmo kredyty dla zadłużonych siedlce adresy nr tel atiz pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki bez bik częstochowa umowa pożyczki poświadczona notarialnie kredyt bank polen umowa pożyczki dla wspólnika pożyczki trzebnica pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach i bik kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych broniewskiego pożyczki pozabankowe śląskie kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia kredyt na start w lukas bank kredyt przez internet bez zadnych zaswiadczen kredyty bez bik sochaczew pożyczki bez bik w puławach pożyczki bez bik big umowa pożyczki w walucie obcej pożyczki chwilówki nysa kredyty pozabankowe radomsko kredyt mieszkaniowy stały kredyt studencki pko terminy

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad