pożyczki na nową działalność gospodarczą kredyty bez bik 20000 kredyty chwilówki szkolenie w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt studencki pożyczki online z bikiem przedawnienie pożyczki bankowej kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp dokumenty pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt bank gdynia karwiny pozyczki prywatne do reki pcc od pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kraków kredyt bez bik jasło pożyczki chwilówki braniewo kredyty bankowe bez bik kredyt bank białobrzegi tel getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy pożyczki na dowód tuchola wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok pożyczki ślimak bydgoszcz kredyty gotówkowe banku alior pożyczki na dowód kalkulator pożyczki bez bik i krd chrzanów kredyt bank wyciągi kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego pożyczki chwilówki pko kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kalkulator pożyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej kredyt samochodowy dla pracujących za granicą warunki otrzymania kredytu konsolidacyjnego wbk pożyczki bez krd online kredyt bank w gryfinie kredyty pozabankowe na weksel kredyty w uk po polsku pożyczki prywatne bez przedpłat pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat małgorzata iwańska pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank kalkulator kredyt bankowy konto umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy bocian pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy warszawa kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie kredyt samochodowy w firmie kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż pożyczki prywatne kutno pożyczki bez bik i krd chrzanów kredyty bez bik w siedlcach pozyczki z obsluga w domu gdansk kredyty chwilówki wieluń pożyczki gotówkowe na 10 lat astra pożyczki pozyczki prywatne olsztyn w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki na procent pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki przez udziałowca pożyczki online lista kredyty konsolidacyjne kielce umowa pożyczki pieniędzy doc spłata pożyczki walutowej w złotówkach zasady przyznawania pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs pożyczki prometeusz białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny olsztyn księgowanie pożyczki w walucie optima pożyczki online kredyty pozabankowe dla firm umorzenie pożyczki a darowizna bocian pożyczki katowice kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice pożyczki chwilówki nysa termin przedawnienia roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki bocian pożyczki wieluń kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe concerto kredyt bank gubin dobra pozyczka warszawa dla zadluzonych kredyt samochodowy bez bik szczecin kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin kredyt samochodowy bank pocztowy kredyt samochodowy fortis bank robert kotowski pożyczki kredyt bank ken warszawa pozyczki walcz bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny na 8 lat pożyczki chwilówki ozorków kredyt bank allegro pozyczki gryfino regulamin rachunku w kredyt banku kredyty w lukas bank kredyt bank sandomierz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa windykacja pożyczki bankowe dla zadłużonych pożyczki bez biku dla rolników darmowe pożyczki online umowa pożyczki na zakup mieszkania pożyczki bez bik grudziądz kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie szybkie pożyczki legnica kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyt bank oddziały kredyt bank powiadomienia sms pożyczki nakło nad notecią kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód wejherowo kredyt bank w poznaniu godziny otwarcia dobry kredyt pozabankowy pożyczka bez bik abis kredyt bank na pradze ulica adres kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki najtańsze czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod w uk pożyczki chwilówki braniewo oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph kredyt bank przelicznik optima pożyczki toruń pożyczki pozabankowe legnica wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gliwice pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilowki na terenie wyszkowa pożyczki bez bik lubin przez telefon rodzaje kredytów w banku pko bp kredyt bank ii oddział gdańsk pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki między znajomymi pożyczki na dowód zawiercie kredyty chwilówki forum praca pozyczki bez bik wrzesnia baltic money pożyczki kredyt w skok stefczyka forum mikropożyczki mazowieckie lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum przedłużenie pożyczki w ekspres kasa udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez osobę fizyczną umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat pozyczka z komornikiem lublin kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom pozyczka 24h do domu nowy targ ei global pożyczki udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego kredyty bankowe książki chomikuj kredyt bank lubartów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank s a ul kasprzaka 2 8 pożyczki społecznościowe uk pożyczki katowice pożyczki do ręki wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej bocian pożyczki ostróda kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kontakt kredyt bank pulawy najtańsze pożyczki w banku getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator kredyty bez bik samochodowe kredyt pozabankowy szczecin kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie kredyt bez bik kutno kredyty w banku pocztowym forum kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyty mieszkaniowe z 1992 roku pozyczka na dowodd bez zaświadczeń kamien kredyt bankowy prawo bankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole kredyt bank w słubicach getin bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kontakt kto płaci podatek od umowy pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt firmowy pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik gryfice prywatne pozyczki kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a pożyczki z niską ratą kredyt bank aktywowanie karty kredyty bankowe samochodowe pożyczki knurów umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik pozyczki bez bikikrd umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej pozyczki bez bik ktore mozna wyplacic na poczcie bocian pożyczki provident pożyczki bez bik w warszawie pożyczki optima bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc kredyt bank złodzieje kredyt bank w lubartowie kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank reklama pożyczki piosenka pozyczki chwilowki konkret lomza kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska pożyczka bez sprawdzania w krd i bik pożyczki plan kont umowa pożyczki w rodzinie 2012 oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt w rachunku bank pocztowy kredyty w jakim banku najlepiej pożyczki na weksel łódź pożyczki online lista kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking kredyt bank cena akcji kredyt bank kupiony przez pożyczki provident opinie symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyty pozabankowe bez biku pożyczka bez bik i krd abis kredyt konsolidacyjny po angielsku kredyt bez bik skierniewice optima pożyczki toruń pożyczki na dowód sochaczew adresy kredyt banku warszawa umorzenie pożyczki cit pożyczki na dowód w 15 minut pożyczki z banku kredyt bez bik banki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej i bik kredyty bez bik bank kredyt gotówkowy w postbanku kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce pożyczki nieopodatkowane umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem wzór sms365 przedłużenie pożyczki quick cash pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż kalkulator pożyczki bez bik pruszków bank pko sa kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie w jakim banku dostane kredyt z komornikiem umowa pożyczki pienięznej kredyt w uk jak dostac kredyt bank sanok szopena umowa pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyt samochodowy bez bik 2013 usługi finansowe pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pracujacych w norwegii pożyczki prywatne racibórz kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyty bez bik i krs kredyt mieszkaniowy w trakcie rozwodu kredyt bez bik rawicz kasa jowisz pożyczki kredyt bank w sokółce czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie pożyczki prywatne udzielę kredyt bankowy wstęp pożyczki takto forum kredyt konsolidacyjny inteligo mikropożyczki dla firm wrocław kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a kredyt bank fiz ii bnp paribas kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kredyt samochodowy getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówka stalowa wola reklama pożyczki vivus pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie umowa pożyczki dla firm kredyty bez biku z komornikiem umowa przedwstępna pożyczki pożyczki 24 na dobe pożyczki w banku pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn szybkie pożyczki bez bik online warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp sa kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyty pozabankowe na oświadczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy w kredyt banku opinie kredyt bank program partnerski praca w bocianie pożyczki kredyt bank międzyzdroje godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki ang pożyczki na chwilę umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o koszty pożyczki pożyczki partner kredyt studencki w alior banku kredyt w banku bgż forum kokos pożyczki kontakt pro bono pożyczki kredyt bank janów kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich kredyt bank zytnia 15 pożyczki udzielone kredyty chwilówki konto elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen potrzebuje pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank reuters kredyt bank polska 2012 kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu kredyt na auto bez bik kredyt na dowód wzór umowy pożyczki osoby fizyczne kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu prywatne pożyczki pod weksel poznań darowanie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pekao sa gdzie szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt bank warszawa bemowo godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki zwolniona z podatku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bez bik gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt chwilówka klodzko kredyt pozabankowy dla nowych firm kredyt bank lubuskie umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt bank ruda śląska pożyczki pozabankowe oferty pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow wiarygodne pożyczki bez bik pożyczki ratunkowe świdnica jaki numer na kredyt w orange kredyt bank warszawa ul ostrobramska 101 pożyczki pozabankowe oferty pozyczka bocian leszno pożyczki mikro umorzenie pożyczki z zfss kredyt bez bik nowy sacz kredyt w db bank opinie kredyt bank adres warszawa w jakim banku wziąć kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki z budżetu państwa kredyt bank ostroleka godziny otwarcia pożyczki mielec kredyt bank pszczyna telefon pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo meritum bank kredyt online kredyt studencki pko zawieszenie kredyty bez biku płock kredyt bank adres do przelewu pożyczki bez bik optima pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel pożyczki kredyty bez bik kraków udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę osobie fizycznej promesa pożyczki wzór kredyt bank przejęcie umowa udzielenia pożyczki bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl kredyt bank garbary godziny otwarcia lukas bank kredyt przez internet kredyt bank łódź limit pożyczki od rodziny pewny kredyt onlain pożyczki bez bik do 25000 kredyt bank jest bankiem pozyczki do domu bydgoszcz w jakim banku dostanę pożyczkę przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe w częstochowie kredyt bank rawicz telefon pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyt studencki warunki spłaty mikropożyczki olsztyn kredyt studencki 2012 opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki uk pożyczki dorfin pozycki bez zaswiadczeń bez bik 50000 gdzie najlepiej wziąć kredyt bez biku pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu chwilówki stargard pokwitowanie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2013 kredyt na prawo jazdy kredyt bank żeromskiego tel pożyczki społecznościowe co to pożyczki w domu klienta bez bik kredyt w skok stefczyka opinie prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla firmy udzielajace kredytu bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt studencki na jakich warunkach pożyczki gotówkowe z zajęciem komorniczym poznań pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank raszyn godziny kredyt bank w markach kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kalkulator kredyt bez biku szczecin advice pożyczki opinie udzielenie pożyczki gofin kredyty chwilówki sulechów fast pożyczki kredyt bez biku gdansk oddluzanie kredytow w tychach udzielenie pożyczki ang kredyt mieszkaniowy a małżeństwo ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z bgk kredyt bank jędrzejów pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem kredyty bez bik kwidzyn bankomat kredyt banku wrocław firma żyrafa pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto kredyt studencki pko forum pożyczki bez bik provident alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty bez biku wroclaw pożyczki bez bik chojnice kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zla historia kredytowa pozyczki na dowod dzierzoniow kredyt dla nestora w banku pocztowym pożyczki bank bgż pożyczki 30 tys wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki z zakładu pracy financial pożyczki pożyczki bez bik wronki pożyczki gotówkowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej wzór kredyt bank kraków długa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgż kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd kredyt bank sprzedaż nieruchomości interpretacje podatkowe pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt potrzebuję pilnej komentarz kredytu klient maj 2014 pożyczki gotówkowe do domu facebook pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe belgia kredyt bank włochy kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2012 szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd 10000 pożyczka 3 lata brak zdolności kredytowej pożyczki łowicz argentum capital pożyczki kredyt bank w pszczynie kredyt bank dług pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości andrychów kredyt bank token zmiana telefonu kredyt bank sa we wrocławiu pożyczki prywatne chorzów kredyt bankowy chomikuj kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia kredyty pożyczki gwarancje bankowe pożyczki od ręki bocian kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń w uk kredyty chwilówki kasprowicza pożyczki bez banku kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bank poznań morawskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy singiel na swoim pożyczki chwilówka od ręki kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiego wieku kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet pożyczki chwilówki lębork kredyty bankowe ksiazka kredyty chwilówki żory visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyt bank legionowo kredyt samochodowy ranking sierpien 2013 pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd i bik umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik i krd zamość kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki 500 zł szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik kredyt bank dział obsługi klienta kredyt na dowód bez bik kielce szybkie pożyczki bez bik do domu dolny śląsk pożyczki na dowód jawor umowa pożyczki wzór pdf pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek pożyczki oscar pozyczkibez weryfikacji bz podatek od pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny pożyczki pozabankowe bez przedpłat pożyczki od ręki warszawa kredyt bank wlasciciel w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik z komornikiem udzielam pożyczki oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki kredyt na 5 zl orange pożyczki kruk sa pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet szybki kredyt pozabankowy pozyczki u klienta kredyt bank w olecku kredyt konsolidacyjny tani kredyty chwilówki kłobuck duzy kredyt bez biku

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad