pożyczki jessica kredyt bank radzymińska 14 pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank w pruszkowie kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty potrzebne odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej banki ktore udzielaja pozyczek na dowod pożyczki wronki kredyty w pko bp sa historia pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny co potrzebne kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów za granicą bocian pożyczki kutno umowa pożyczki koleżeńskiej sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 warunki do spelnienia kredyt alior kredyty chwilówki garwolin kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf pożyczki bez bik w kielcach kredyty bez bik raciborz pożyczki bez bik 0 jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt bank oświęcim telefon kredyty bez biku wloclawek kredyt bank paypass kredyt bank krakowska opole pfp pożyczki kredyt bank konta kredyt bank gorzów wlkp pewny kredyt bez biku pożyczki prywatne w lublinie umowa pożyczki do pobrania kredyt bank plac solny pożyczki cywilno prawne pożyczki bemowo spłata kapitału pożyczki umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc pożyczki do 300 zł cechy pożyczki wikipedia www kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pozyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank kraków wielicka kredyt bank spółdzielczy kalkulator wzór umowy pożyczki osoba prywatna pozyczka podobna do bocianakielce w jakim banku wziąć kredyt studencki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wrocław umowa pożyczki cechy opinie dobrej pożyczki wzór oświadczenia pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank sa oddział w łodzi provident pożyczki dla firm kredyty pozabankowe bez bik przez internet uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe forum kredyt bank olawa godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank kredyt studencki warunki umorzenia podatek od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank gdańsk kredyt bank ul narutowicza 55b lublin pożyczki chwilówki jaki procent wzory dokumentów pożyczki kredyt bank mieszkanie jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs prolongata pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia pozyczki mikrokasa opinie pożyczki andrychów niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego bocian pożyczki katowice kontakt kredyt bank k24 best partner pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki kutno pozyczka do domu bez bik pożyczki peer to peer umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kutno wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki 7 kredyty bez biku przez internet kredyt bank wolska pożyczki państwowe kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka alior bank kredyt na pit pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat pożyczki wonga kredyt bank w bzwbk kredyt bankowy teoria 24 h pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank 2001 pożyczki na termomodernizację pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki bez bik i krd w domu pożyczki na dowód bochnia kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia nowe pożyczki chwilówki optima pożyczki gliwice banki kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki nowa ruda bocian numer kalkulator rat pożyczki pekao kredyt samochodowy bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank ul ciołka godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik wadowice kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pożyczki bez baz kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2013 kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym bez umowy o pracę czy bocian pożyczki sprawdza bik pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin kredyt bank sa oddział łódź umowa pożyczki a podatki kredyt dla firm bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny radom wzór dokumentu pożyczki optima pozyczki ciechanów pożyczki z małym dochodem kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu kredyt bez bik i zabezpieczeń afera kredytowa pożyczki bez bik skok kredyt na dowód jaki bank kredyty bez bik żory kredyt bank włocławek jak uzyskac kredyt bez biku umowa pożyczki między ojcem a synem pożyczki bez bik provident kredyt z banku pocztowego pożyczki prywatne we włocławku umowa pożyczki charakter pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego poznań kredyt studencki pko 2013 kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez bik gdzie najlatwiej o pozyczke pod zastaw domu ile zarabiaja w kredyt banku pożyczki kasa stefczyka pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy włocławek pomarańcza owocne pożyczki kredyt bank ciechocinek telefon kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego pożyczki pozabankowe w częstochowie kredyt bank sa regon nip alior sync kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie kredyt bank w kluczborku kredyty bez bik plock oprocentowanie kredytu w millenium bank likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt mieszkaniowy wysoka prezyznawalnośc pozyczek konsolidacyjnych tanie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza kredyt bank obsługa kart kredyt bank warszawa franciszkańska kredyt bank braniewo kredyt bank warszawa sadyba pożyczki prywatne forum o2 w jakim banku kredyt konsumpcyjny w jakim banku najlatwiej wziasc kredyt umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą kredyt bank glowna siedziba pożyczki na weksel śląskie kredyt bank notowania walut kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bytom pożyczki w koszalinie kredyt bank sa historia eu2 pożyczki kredyt chwilówka warunki kredyt bank profit plan kredyt bank główny ekonomista pożyczki bez bik nowogard kredyt do orange na jaki numer pożyczki typu incredi kredyt bank w dzierżoniowie cesja wierzytelności pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki białogard kredyt bank firma pożyczki z dostawą do domu poznań pożyczki chwilówki skierniewice pożyczki w banku kredyty chwilowki ledziny kredyt bank sa olsztyn kredyt chwilówka ulotki pożyczki na nowy biznes kredyt bank tygrysy europy opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyty bez biku bielsko biała odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa wola opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki alior bank kredyt umowa zlecenie kredyt bank sa świnoujście bocian pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bank zoliborz czy sygma bank udziela pozyczek kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa telefon pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź kredyt do reki warszawa ekspresowe pożyczki wrocław bez big bik i krd jak zawiesić kredyt w getin banku spłata pożyczki w innym banku kredyt w niemieckim banku dla polaka pożyczki chwilówki łask kredyt bank trojmiasto alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki gotówkowe ranking banków potwierdzenie odbioru pożyczki kredyt bank konto walutowe opinie kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd polecane pożyczki prywatne kredyty w getin banku opinie pożyczki społecznościowe w uk pożyczki na dowód warszawa credit agricole pożyczki opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku spółdzielczym kredyt samochodowy dla żołnierzy kredyt na dowod gdynia tel argentum capital pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe gdynia skok stefczyka pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bankier kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny kredyty chwilówki windykator pożyczki pozabankowe piaseczno pożyczki rynku pieniężnego umowa pożyczki z firmą w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie mikrokasa pożyczki dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku pożyczki pod zastaw konin pożyczki na dowód włocławek prosta umowa pożyczki wzór pożyczki na dowód jaworzno turbo expres pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe chełm pozabankowe kredyty prodomo pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla córki pozyczki w domu klienta pożyczki bocian opinie kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 procent wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pdf optima pożyczki chojnice kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków kruk pożyczki opinie kredyt bank koszty kredyt studencki bank bph pożyczki gwarantowane pozyczki na dowod kredyt bank kosciuszki kielce kredyt bank lublin zana 38 kredyty bez biku forum jak księgować pożyczki pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw śrem kredyt bank bławatna gdynia kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra pozyczki bez zaswiadczen bielsk podlaski kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą państwa szybka kasa pożyczki kredyt bank w kościanie pożyczki bez bik bocian pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank wałbrzych telefon pożyczki chwilówki żary bank pekao kredyt studencki 2012 pożyczki chwili kredyty chwilówki międzyrzec podlaski gros pożyczki włocławek unilinkpożyczka toruń pożyczki chwilówki sandomierz pożyczki dla nastolatków wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie pożyczki prywatne łowicz kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście debet w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw auta pożyczki dla gmin pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach szybkie pożyczki leszno kredyt chwilówka spłata pozyczki bez bik krd pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn kredyt z banku kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyt bank warszawa ciołka kredyt studencki pko do kiedy kredyt mieszkaniowy program kredyt bank adres siedziby pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt bez bik do 60000 kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy opinie wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik kredyt 15tys bph kredyt bank w ząbkach przekwalifikowanie pożyczki na kapitał beata burzyńska pożyczki kredyt bank transfery pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica dwie pożyczki w providencie kredyt internetowy bez bik kalkulator kredytu samochodowego idea bank kredyt bank chrzanów telefon umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem pożyczki gotówkowe niskie oprocentowanie opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank legnica kontakt kredyt bank warszawa ul grójecka 186 pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik u w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim umorzenie pożyczki spółce powiązanej pożyczki pozabankowe krasnystaw kredyt bank nowy sącz adres kredyt bank limit przelewu umowa pożyczki ratalnej pożyczki od gangsterów wzór umowy pożyczki od siostry naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca pożyczki accord pożyczki na dowód wadowice ing bank śląski kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bocian pożyczki bolesławiec kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyt bank łuków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w jaworznie kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik poznań umowa pożyczki jaka forma pożyczki najtaniej kredyt w banku barclays kredyt bez bik skok stefczyka kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilowki grojecka potrzebna pozyczka na dpwud w kwocie 20 tys bez biku kredyt bank konto internetowe chce wziasc 15000 tysiecy kredytu w pko bp pozyczki bez biku online bocian pożyczki chwilówki franczyza kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym nowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim pożyczki mikro kredyt bank rybnik kontakt pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt bank krosno godziny otwarcia kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór kredyt bank v oddział warszawa kredyt w krakowskim banku spółdzielczym gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki kredyty bankowe ksiegowanie pożyczki gotówkowe z bik pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree wzór pisma pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank łódź oddziały pożyczki online 24 bank pko bp warunki kredytu prywatne pożyczki dla rolników kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt kredyt w banku credit agricole opinie kredyt bank łomża godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki kraków bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe pożyczki online bez prowizji skok piast kredyt 5000 oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości zielona góra oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki typu eurolan pożyczki chwilówki mogilno kredyt bez bik online 10 lat pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji pożyczki bez bik świnoujście kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony pożyczki udzielone pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kredyty chwilówki nobiles kredyt bank sa oddziały pożyczki bez bik w domu pozyczka od zaraz warszawa czy latwo otrzymac w m banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom umowa pożyczki bez procentu pożyczki pod weksel rzeszów kredyt orange jaki numer kredyt bank godziny otwarcia bydgoszcz bocian pożyczki gorzów pożyczki prywatne bochnia bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d kredyt gotówkowy online bez bik cechy pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany przez państwo pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe kredyt bank lębork godziny otwarcia pożyczki pcc czy vat kredyt bank leszno telefon wzór umowy pożyczki gotówki pożyczki partner pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyt chwilowka w przeźmierowie pożyczki pozabankowe śląsk kredyt bank warszawa oddziały duże pożyczki pożyczki kokos opinie pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św długoterminowe pożyczki bez bik skok wspólnota pożyczki kredyt bank bialystok lipowa kredyt orange pop 5 zł bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup samochodu kredyt w eurobank pożyczki nowe księgowanie pożyczki zfśs kasomat pożyczki opinie bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt samochodowy online mbank kalkulator kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem slupsk kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław kredyt bank zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank wpłatomat kredyt bank profil ambitny kredyt samochodowy online mbank kredyty bez bik prywatne kredyt bank piła godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie pozyczka dla pracujacym w czechach kredyt konsolidacyjny czy sie oplaca kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia kredyt bank sa katowice pożyczki pod zastaw białogard kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 kredyt bank w mielcu kredyt pozabankowy 50000 kredyty chwilówki skok stefczyka pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach proste pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki ue kredyt bank radom telefon kredyty chwilówki skierniewice kredyt bank grodzka kredyt konsolidacyjny raty kredyt bez biku łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph kredyt chwilówka czerwionka kredyt bank biala podlaska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w piotrkowie trybunalskim kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 pożyczki internetowe gotówkowa kredyty chwilówki kłobuck kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska 1 pożyczki bez krd lublin kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy bik pożyczka w placówce warszawa udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 ing bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców łódzkie kredyty chwilówki w słupsku pożyczki pod nieruchomość warszawa kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia alex pożyczki wrocław gdzie mozna w sieradzu dostac pozyczke bez dochodu kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka ile kosztuje umowa pożyczki u notariusza kredyt bank zambrów telefon pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyt bank gdańsk kartuska zwrot pożyczki angielski pożyczki bez bik rypin szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt na mieszkanie bez banku kredyt bank w elblągu kredyty chwilówki swietochlowice

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad