kredyty chwilowki zywiec pożyczki bez zaświadczeń od 18 lat umowa zwrot pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób pracujących za granicą pożyczki 48h kredyty bankowe porównanie ofert kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku umowa pożyczki wzajemna pożyczki bez bik i krd w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki optima opinie kredyt prywatny z komornikiem umowa pożyczki konsensualna kredyt samochodowy dla firm credit agricole pozyczka od zaraz warszawa kredyt bank chojnice kredyt na start w fm banku pożyczki atiz symulacja kredytu w credit agricole pozyczki prywatne na procent olesnica kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe w alior banku pożyczki bez bik ostrów wlkp kredyty chwilówki maluch kredyt w ulster bank ie praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp kredyty chwilówki bez bik szczecin czy pożyczki w skoku są ubezpieczone pożyczka na rente socjalną umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik umowa pożyczki spółka jawna pożyczki prywatne brzeg kredyt bankowy bez umowy pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław kredyt bez bik 100 000 wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki pcc czy vat bocian pożyczki logo pożyczki pod nieruchomość pożyczki bez bik sopot objawy pożyczki pożyczki kaktus kredyt studencki pko bp poręczyciele oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp kredyt studencki w banku kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock kredyt bank rzecznik prasowy pożyczki bez bik przez internet w 15 minut kredyty chwilówki jędrzejów kredyt bank płock godziny otwarcia czy kredyt bankowy jest kosztem pożyczki pod nieruchomości kredyt bank ekstrabiznes udzielić pożyczki proz błyskawiczne pożyczki online pożyczki jeremie dolnośląskie kredyt bank winogrady agerta holding pożyczki kredyt 20000 pożyczki optima kredyty chwilówki partner opinie umorzenia pożyczki szybkie pożyczki w uk opinie kredyt bank biała podlaska godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz umowa pożyczki spółka pożyczki społecznościowe wikipedia kredyt bankowy zalety i wady kredyty chwilówki strzegomska wrocław pożyczki na dowód radom kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator ing umowa pożyczki dla instytucji kultury kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie kredyty bez bik sucha beskidzka darmowe pożyczki online pożyczki na dowód lubuskie jaki jest kod na kredyt z orange pożyczki na dowód osobisty kredyt bank suwałki kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot odsetek kredyty chwilówki żywiec pozyczki od 19 lat dla zadluzonych online forum pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik krd warszawa pożyczki w domu klienta wielkopolska kredyty bez bik bocian kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe walutowe kredyt bank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku pko sa pożyczki dla nastolatków kredyt bank wiatraczna kredyty bankowe rachunkowość kredyt bank dział marketingu ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyty bez bik bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń kredyt mieszkaniowy banki ranking pilny kredyt nowy targ kredyt bez biku bialystok kredyt banki grudziądz kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody małżonka do 100 0000 kredyt studencki spłata forum pożyczki kościerzyna kredyt bez bik dębica kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank kredyt konsolidacyjny do ilu lat kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 3000 netto kredyt bank sieradz kontakt umowa pożyczki download kredyt bank zmiana tokena pożyczki online od 19 lat kredyty bez bik przemyśl pismo pożyczki kredyt bank awaria systemu pożyczki prywatnie kredyt bank sa w koninie kredyt na dowód bank pocztowy kredyt bank opis euro pożyczki limanowa dokument pożyczki prywatne pozyczki bez bik krd i erif podkarpacie pożyczki online zyrafa skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały kredyty bez biku jaworzno kredyt w idea banku kredyty bez bik i krd dla firm bocian pozyczki swinoujscie umowa pożyczki podstawa prawna kredyty bez bik czestochowa kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowe kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o dochodach wzór umowy pożyczki doc kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt kredyt studencki pekao pożyczki od osób prywatnych nowy dwór mazowiecki czy kredyt bank jest czynny w soboty alior bank kredyt dla zadłużonych pożyczki na oddłużenie pożyczki społecznościowe portale zwrot pożyczki ang kredyt chwilówki toruń księgowanie pożyczki zfśs kredyty chwilówki brzeszcze kredyt bank w żorach pożyczki bez big szybki kredyt bez bik dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w biku kredyt bank sa centrala w warszawie przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być pożyczki dla radców prawnych umowa pożyczki pcc kredyt bez biku bielsko kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank opinie spłata pożyczki nieruchomością kredyt bankowy prezentacja umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania wonga pozyczki info linia niespłacenie pożyczki vivus pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt chwilówki legnica kredyt bank leżajsk pożyczka online do 60 dni kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator wkład własny pożyczki forum najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd pko bp kredyt studencki druki ogłoszenia pożyczki za darmo kredyt bank żary telefon pożyczki bez udokumentowanych dochodów kredyt bank w krynicy zdroju warunki pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń dobry kredyt bez bik bocian pożyczki gotówkowe mikropożyczki dla najbiedniejszych kredyt bank kb24 prolongata pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank konto bankowe czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji kredyt bank w ciechocinku pożyczki pomostowe kredyty chwilówki brodnica kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner kredyty bez bik będzin kredyt studencki w banku bph kredyt bank karolkowa oprocentowania w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo pożyczki na weksel na jaki numer kredyt orange pożyczki społecznościowe kokos opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki pożyczki typu bocian ekasa pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki gorzów wlkp umowa konwersji pożyczki kredyty chwilówki przemyśl kredyt lloyds uk 2014 rzeszów grunwaldzka 42 czy warto wziąźć kredyt wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw pożyczki z komornikiem pod weksel kredyt na dowod numery telefonu olsztyn kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat przez internet udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt w banku norweskim kredyt bank ruda śląska optima direct pożyczki kredyt bank w kamiennej górze kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank najtaszy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyt pod zastaw ziemi bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku opinie bocian pożyczki wrocław kredyty w jakim banku najlepiej opłaty manipulacyjne kredyt studencki pko bp umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs dobre pożyczki gotówkowe podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce kredyty chwilówki czebotar kredyt samochodowy sygma bank kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat powiekszenie pozyczki pekao sa konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki pożyczki bez bik i krd niskoprocentowe pożyczki dla firm pożyczki wielkopolska kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór skarabeusz pożyczki opinia santander bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe starego portfela optima pożyczki infolinia kredyt bank warszawska finanse pożyczki bez bik pożyczki prywatne żory pożyczki kalkulator pko bp załatwie kredyt w banku pro domo pozyczki ile trzeba oddac wzór umowy pożyczki udziałowca kredyt bank inowrocław godziny otwarcia bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bez bik wejherowo wzór umowy pożyczki od brata szybki kredyt bez przelewu ustna umowa pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczki online bez biku pożyczki dla pracowników banków kredyt bank tczew kontakt kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla firm kredyt bank warszawa zeromskiego żyrowanie pożyczki kredyt bank o ktorej sa przelewy oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód charakter umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank skawina godz otwarcia pożyczki na dowód gorlice kredyt na samochód używany bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny boś kredyt bank ełk słowackiego pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen lukas bank kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla nowych firm warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe kto bierze pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bilateralne pożyczki bez bik sopot kredyt bank słowackiego gdańsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wyzwolenia szczecin pożyczki bez bik big krd erif gdzie znajduje siedziba bocian pożyczki szybkie kredyty chwilówki parametry pożyczki pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki oddłużeniowe kredyt 20000 pożyczki chwilówki wołomin kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys kredyt bez biku do 50000 kredyt bank kraków godz otwarcia oszuści pożyczki prywatne udzielenie pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki w lombardach kredyty bez biku i komornika tanie kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim pożyczki prywatne zawiercie opodatkowanie nieodpłatnej pożyczki umowa pożyczki treść kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż opinie 2012 kredyt bank lublin narutowicza pożyczki chwilówki na dowód olsztyn pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej torun pożyczki chwilówki tomaszów maz kredyt bank poraj pożyczki provident kontakt kredyt w banku agricole pożyczki prywatne kołobrzeg pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia pożyczki na dowód szczecinek pożyczki gotówkowe dla emigrantów pożyczki chwilówki stargard szczeciński koszty pożyczki w provident sprawdzone pożyczki dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki między udziałowcem a spółką kredyt bank brzeg dolny kredyty bez bik 30000 wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik kredyt w eurobank kredyt bank prowizja bankomat kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk kredyt bank warszawa wiatraczna pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyt samochodowy bez bik gdzie umowa pożyczki z córką pożyczki bez bik włocławek multibank kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt bank warszawa praga południe pożyczki na dowód radom wzór umow fm bank kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank sa oddział rybnik pożyczki konsolidacyjne z komornikiem pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin kredyty bez bik lębork pożyczki dla niepracujących kredyt bank w płońsku kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyty forum dyskusyjne kredyt gotówkowy alior bank mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ kredyty chwilówki ile trzeba oddać kredyt bank 224 pożyczki bez oprocentowania kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bankier kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wroclaw profi kredyt przedstawiciel pani bozena kredyt dla firm bez bik kielce pożyczki bez biku ciechanów pożyczki wojciech górski kredyt w get in bank forum pożyczki bez bik internet kredyt bez biku zielona gora pozyczki pozabankowe z dowozem do domu podkarpacie kredyt bank godziny przelewów kredyt bank w lubinie getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt w pko pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt w lukas banku forum pożyczki marka pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bik chwilowki pozyczki w domu bytom pozyczki prywatne przez telefon na terenie lublina pko bp poznań kredyt studencki ewidencja pożyczki udzielonej kredyty bez bik podkarpacie kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu pożyczki na dowód podobne do bociana kredyty pozabankowe żary pożyczki chwilówki warszawa skarabeusz pożyczki olkusz umowa pożyczki spółki ze wspólnikiem najtańsze pożyczki w bankach pożyczki prywatne tablica kredyt bank godziny otwarcia sobota szybkie kredyty bez bik kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie kredyt bank lubin godziny pracy przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa umowa pożyczki z akcjonariuszem kredyt studencki pko bp terminy kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kalkulator toyota bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów kredyt bank mickiewicza białystok pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyt bank w częstochowie godziny otwarcia kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt w gospodarce banku pożyczki prywatne a prawo pozyczki z zadluzeniem komorniczym kredyt bank ostróda kontakt pozyczki w domu dolny ślask pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości asper pozyczki forum drugi kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw kredyty bez bik rawicz kredyt studencki bank bz wbk opłata za obsługę pożyczki w domu abis pożyczki dla każdego opinie witam kredyt bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki infolinia pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 księgowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank katowice kościuszki kredyt konsolidacyjny problemy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator porównanie pożyczki prywatne w lublinie kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety pożyczki chwilówki jelenia góra pożyczki pod zastaw kraków kredyt bank warszawa dział windykacji potrzebna pozyczka opole kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel pożyczki na dowód ruda śląska kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kościuszki kredyty chwilówki jarosław lublin mafia pozyczki kredyt bank mobbing kredyt w niemczech w jakim banku kredyty pozabankowe lubuskie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik forum kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi kredyt w orange jaki numer kredyty bez bik i krd radom kredyty chwilówki tychy windykacja kredyt bez biku opole kredyt bank limit wypłat umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny w ing kredyty chwilówki na raty kredyty bez bik stalowa wola pożyczki chwilówki skierniewice umowa pożyczki forma pożyczki chwilówki żyrardów kredyt bank bezpieczne dziecko kredyty bank pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe katowice getin bank kredyty bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank różana kredyt bank płatności masowe bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank w ciechanowie kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt kredyty chwilówki kraków długa udziele pożyczki prywatnej szybko bez sprawdzania pożyczki biznes forum umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn warunki uzyskania pożyczki kredyt bank world mastercard pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo pozyczki gniezno od zaraz do reki kredyt bank koszalin bankomaty kredyt bank sprzedaż bank pekao kredyt online bez zaświadczeń pożyczki koło idea bank kredyt na start opinie kredyt bank w walbrzychu kredyty bez bik i krd lublin małe pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt studencki w banku millenium abis szybkie pozyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt pko bp opinie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy program oddziały kredyt banku w lublinie pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt w banku a rozwód pożyczki bez bik big i krd kredyt a umowa na czas określony sygma bank kredyty online kredyt w bos banku pożyczki w jeden dzień pozyczki siódemka ząbkowice pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank wzór umowy pożyczki od siostry pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego umowa pożyczki firmie okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej finan pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank cennik przelewów kredyt bank kolobrzeska gdansk pozyczki od reki na dowod bez zadnych oswiadczes kielce

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad