ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt oniliaj kredyty bez bik kraków konsolidacja kredytów z opóźnieniami pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt chwilówki żywiec kredyt bank ełk słowackiego bocian pożyczki jakie raty pożyczki transfer umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie kredyt w m bank umowa pożyczki 777 pożyczki tax care opinie kredyt gotowkowy bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki bez bik ratalne kredyt bez biku bez zaświadczeń pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok kredyt bank gdynia witomino duże kwoty kredytu bez bik dla firm kredyt bank numer rozliczeniowy pożyczki rapida kredyt bank warunki kredyt bank dt kredyt bez bik konin kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bank ostatnia sesja w kredyt banku kredyt bank dni otwarcia finan pożyczki kontakt pożyczki na pół roku kredyt bank sandomierz kontakt kredyt samochodowy alior bank opinie ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt oniliaj odsetki od pożyczki faktura czy nota kredyty chwilówki opolskie bocian pozyczki goleniow promocyjne pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank konto osobiste 7 kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej kredyt bank łódź bednarska pożyczki online szukam pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki chwilówki kielce pożyczki na firmę bez bik bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki bocian na dowód bocian pożyczki konin pożyczki bocian gubin kredyt studencki pko kalkulator kredyt bank jutrzenki lublin pożyczki w 15 minut online kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku czy chwilówki dają pożyczki dla bezrobotnym gdzie kredyt bez bik forum kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik kredyty chwilowki deblin pożyczki pozabankowe grójec kredyt bank konstantynów pożyczki pozabankowe na 2 lata szybki kredyt online bez bik pożyczki chwilówki w pile kredyt gotówkowy w santander kalkulator jaki jest numer na kredyt orange podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec kredyt studencki pko bp termin szybkie pozyczki nysa bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny 40 000 chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyt bank email zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki szybkie pożyczki katowice kredyt bank zniżki kredyt bez biku ełk pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zarobkach pożyczki prywatne dla zadłużonych kredyt bank warszawa komisji edukacji narodowej kredyt bez biku bank kredyt studencki ing bank kredyt w paribas bank opinie pożyczki państwa kredyty konsolidacyjne wrocław szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt refinansowy w alior banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski kredyt na dowod w niemczech kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej umowa pożyczki a umowa użyczenia poręczenie pożyczki w pracy kredyt bank oferta kredytowa wypowiedzenie umowy kredytowej credit agricole wynagrodzenie w kredyt banku kredyt bank lokata z bonusem kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bph pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów pożyczki gotówkowe na konto nalepszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki w domu klienta żnin kredyt bank parytet wymiany pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska pożyczki bez bik cały kraj pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia pożyczki doorfin pożyczki typu vivus pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z urzędu pracy umowa pozyczki z poreczeniem pożyczki na leczenie cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millenium kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia konsekwencje niespłacania pożyczki bocian pożyczki nysa kredyt bank ii oddział katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank czy umowa pożyczki musi być zawarta na piśmie aleksander jodłowiec pożyczki kredyt bank w chrzanowie ślimak pożyczki kraków kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki w uk kredyt bank konto osobiste 7 kredyt bank puławska pożyczki przez internet vivus umowa pożyczki a zabezpieczenie kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt bank sa opole pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us kredyt bank lokata z bonusem kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk kredyt studencki pko czy warto jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki chwilówki piotrków trybunalski pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs wzór pożyczki bez bik mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki online bez bik i krd małe pożyczki na dowód karencja w spłacie pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe krosno kredyt bank katowice kościuszki udzielę pożyczki na procent kredyt bankowy po rozwodzie kredyt bank bez prowizji kredyt samochodowy oferty banków czy trudno o kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp bsribas opinie pożyczki udzielane przez jst pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice pozyczki od osob prywatnych lodz umowa pożyczki przez wspólnika morgis pożyczki opinie kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia kredyt bank franciszkańska godziny otwarcia sennik kredyt bankowy pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku kredyt orange pop kredyt bank kraków długa 4 godziny otwarcia idea bank kredyt forum ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki kontakt udzielę pożyczki prywatnej wrocław kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator pożyczki przez internet 24h kredyt bez biku łódź kredyt bank w kraśniku kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania kredyt bank w kluczborku kredyt w bilansie banku bocian pozyczki walbrzych tanie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki na dowód radom pożyczki prywatne bez bik forum kredyt bank wiatraczna getin bank kredyty gotówkowe forum prywatne pozyczki podkarpacie kredyty chwilówki miechów bocian pożyczki wolsztyn umowa pożyczki z żyrantem kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim kredyt bank kolejowa białystok ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyt bank lokata rentierska pożyczki bez bik online pożyczki gotówkowe słupsk otrzymanie pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyty chwilowki deblin kredyt mieszkaniowy ing bank kalkulator poznań pożyczki prywatne kredyt na mieszkanie w uk forum kredyt bank 3d secure idea bank kredyt online dla firm pożyczki wielkanocne pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz pożyczki system argentyński kredyt chwilówka kutno kredyty chwilówki nowe najkorzystniejszy kredyt w banku pożyczki na dowód ruda śląska najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2013 marek woch pożyczki umowa pożyczki od rodziców wzór kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt studencki eurobank kredyty chwilówki kłobuck prowizja za uruchomienie pożyczki pożyczki na dowód porównanie kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański odsetki od pożyczki wht kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy opinie pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy pożyczki w domu wągrowiec kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego kredyt rodzina na swoim a umowa na czas określony pewne pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank pelplin potrzebna pozyczka na dpwud w kwocie 20 tys bez biku kredyt bez bik krd dla firm umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem kredyt studencki pko wcześniejsza spłata kredyt na 15 lat odsetki karne pożyczki jeremie forum pożyczki pozabankowe finan kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku udzielam pożyczki prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku umowa pożyczki między rodziną wzór alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw cieszyn wymagalność zwrotu pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny jak go dostać kredyt bankowy ryzyko kredyty chwilówki windykacja tychy gdzie kredyt bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki a darowizna kredyt samochodowy fortis bank opinie pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow odsetki od pożyczki w deklaracji vat kredyt samochodowy w banku pocztowym kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik cross pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie bank pko kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach kredyt w banku zagranicznym szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wrocław kredyty chwilówki bielsko biała kredyt bank kondratowicza godziny otwarcia przyrzeczenie udzielenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki od obcokrajowca fundusze unijne pożyczki pozyczki września kredyty bez bik wadowice prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw forum pożyczki dla windykowanych lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie pożyczki gotówkowe w domu pożyczki radomsko chwilówki kredyt 1000 pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki kredyt studencki bank gospodarstwa krajowego jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki u klienta w domu pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dochodach pożyczki ze złym bikiem kredyt bank bankomaty bezprowizyjne umowa umorzenia pożyczki pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe prowidenta kredyt bank chrzanów godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik radomsko pożyczki decyzja online kredyt bank wilanowska godziny otwarcia kredyt online bez biku pożyczki udzielane przez internet korzyści z pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów wrocław przedłużenie pożyczki w ekspres kasa pożyczki społecznościowe co to kredyty bez bik bielsko pożyczki bez bik pabianice getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty banków kredyt bank poleasingowe kredyt ratalny bez biku kokos pożyczki gotówkowe bankomaty kredyt banku lublin kredyt bank w pruszczu gdańskim pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik wrocław kredyt bank emilii gierczak szczecin zawieszenie działalności a kredyt w banku kredyt na dowod gdynia tel kredyty chwilówki definicja kredyt samochodowy ranking 2011 kredyty chwilówki dokumenty pożyczki chwilówki wonga pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw samochodu bank pko bp kredyt dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank rembertów advice financial pożyczki pożyczki w banku bez bik kredyt bankowy ryzyko pożyczki prywatne rypin kredyty bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku opinie kredyt bez bik skierniewice pożyczki dla firm bez bik zus i us pożyczki pod weksel ang pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki wibor pożyczki bez poręczyciela umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat umowa pożyczki między firmami cash pożyczki optima pożyczki lublin bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik kredyty chwilówki w krakowie czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest kredytem konsumenckim pożyczki bez bik plus polskie pożyczki opinie kredyt w banku eurobank kredyt ratalny w getin banku kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia parabanki pożyczki kredyt bank mikołów telefon pożyczki bez bik jawor kredyt pod weksel część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg kredyty konsolidacyjne plock pomocne pożyczki oświadczenie o udzieleniu pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany kredyt bank w lubuskim pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz kredyt bank biuro maklerskie kredyty chwilówki praca windykacja kredyt bank przeźmierowo w ktorym banku oplaca sie wziasc kredyt we wroclawiu pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kalkulator rat pożyczki pko kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza prodomo pożyczki pożyczki walutowe pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank ciechanów godziny otwarcia pozyczki od zaraz bez big i krd przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki dzisiaj pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne kredyty chwilowki grojecka kredyt bank łuków pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku kredyt w uk kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym pożyczki na dowód krosno udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę udziałowcowi kredyt bank otwarcie kredyt bank litwa pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą bez bik kredyt bez biku i zdolności kredytowej kredyt bankowy dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej wonga pożyczki reklama kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kalkulator łatwy kredyt pozabankowy kasomat pożyczki opinie pożyczki dobre miasto pożyczki pozabankowe forum dyskusyjne druki umowa pożyczki ing bank online kredyty z komornikiem forum biedronka pożyczki pożyczki chwilowki grojecka godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez bik ktore mozna wyplacic na poczcie kredyty chwilówki swiebodzin pożyczki chwilówki na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia duże pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska kredyty chwilówki jędrzejów kredyt pozabankowy szybki ogłoszenie pożyczki prywatne kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej santander kredyty bez bijk poznan wilda kredyt bank dane pożyczka na oświadczenie online 3000 udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyt bank w polkowicach uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem na zabezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych rynek wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank zamość ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt samochodowy mbank forum kredyty bez bik z komornikiem rybnik część pożyczki puszczona w obieg w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt kredyt pozabankowy z komornikiem prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław kredyty nordea bank pożyczki na pół roku kredyt orange free kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim kredyty bez bik swidnica potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki dla odrzuconych księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bankowy ksiegowanie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki ostrołęka pożyczki na dowód słupca orange jaki numer na kredyt kredyt bez bik bialystok odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 alior bank kredyt przez telefon plus prowidus pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w aig kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium pożyczki gotówkowe gliwice gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni kredyty bez bik oświęcim wzór druku pożyczki kredyt studencki bank bph pożyczki prywatne starogard gdański kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska szybkie pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt a prawo bankowe kredyt samochodowy getin bank opinie kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen szybkie pożyczki płock darmowe pożyczki bez bik tani kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bankowy jest provident odmowa pożyczki ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki lukas szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole alior bank kredyt online kredyt bez zaświadczeń przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy alior bank kredyt gotówkowy dokumenty odsetki karne od pożyczki umowa pożyczki przelewem wzór pożyczki dla osób które ukończyły 18 lat pożyczki favore pożyczki bez biku wieluń kredyty chwilówki pińczów pożyczki wieloratalne konwersja pożyczki na akcje część pożyczki pożyczki bez bik kasiora pożyczki jeremie forum pozyczki domowe boleslawiec kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje pożyczki dla bezrobotnych online kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe kredyt bank rodzina na swoim dokumenty pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno zmiany w kredyt banku kalkulator rat kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki charakterystyka kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza pożyczki orange kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt bank skrytki bankowe kredyty bez bik i krd sosnowiec wzór umowa pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki poręczenie pożyczki prywatne z ue alior bank kredyt online kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank bank pekao sa kalkulator kredytu pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości częstochowa pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank sa leszno kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowej nowa pozyczka z dostawa do domu

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad