hortus pożyczki umowa pożyczki cel kredyt studencki pko dyplom pożyczki bez bik świdnica umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca kalkulator pożyczki provident pożyczki włocławek pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bez biku na dowód pozyczki z komornikiem kredyty bez biku tychy pożyczki ratalne online kiedy kredyt bankowy ulega przedawnieniu kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko kredyt w ktorym banku kredyty chwilowki zary pożyczki chwilówki suwałki pożyczki pod nieruchomość warszawa fgp pożyczki kredyt odnawialny bez biku kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli 2013 kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wpłata na konto kredyt bank warszawa wlochy pożyczki pozabankowe gryfice umowa pożyczki na zakup mieszkania pożyczki pomostowe kredyty pozabankowe rybnik forma prawna pożyczki kredyt bez bik co to jest kredyt bank wielicka 181 szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt samochodowy dla firmy niespłacanie pożyczki kredyt bank fundusze notowania kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach drobne pożyczki kredyty bank santander santander consumer bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty bez krd do domu getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie pożyczka 25000 kokos kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyt bank w końskich pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska czy łatwo o kredyt w getin banku pożyczki chwilówki świebodzin udzielę pożyczki na procent ranking kredytów banków kredyt bank wrocław bolesława chrobrego pożyczki bez bik i krd głogów umowa pożyczki z poręczycielem pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea opinie pożyczki z najmniejszym oprocentowaniem pożyczki oświecim kredyty bez bik chorzów bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw kredyt refinansowy eurobank kredyt bank lębork godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki kredyty bez bik i zus kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach 4you pozyczki w uk kredyt bank liczba akcji który bank udziela kredytów bez bik kredyt bank w gdyni kredyt bank premia kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenia szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez formalności pożyczki bez bik od 18 lat pożyczki dla policjantów kredyt w banku śląskim pożyczki na dowód inowrocław pożyczki partnerskie dwie pozyczki w takto kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing kredyt bez bik ruda slaska kredyty bez biku radom kredyt bank fundacja warty pożyczki posłów umowa pożyczki a urząd skarbowy konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy pierwsze mieszkanie pozyczka getin bank w 5 minut pożyczki bez bik w radomiu pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy oferty banków kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing pożyczka z obsługą w domu kwota nominalna pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki z pracownikiem pożyczki dla firm forum kredyt bank koscian godziny otwarcia optima pożyczki ciechanów pożyczki dla zadłużonych w krd pożyczki posiadacz kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 ranking kredyty w domu klijenta jarosław pożyczki dla zadłużonych w zus pożyczki vivus opinie kredyt bank godz otwarcia pożyczki w lublinie kredyty bankowe współpraca pożyczki pozabankowe leszno kredyt bank lodz wolczanska pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych forum udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel pozyczki prywatne olsztyn kredyt bez biku płock kredyt bank zgierz kontakt pożyczki w vivus forum pożyczki dla małych firm chojnice bocian pozyczki glogow pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lodz kredyt konsolidacyjny przykład kredyt konsolidacyjny promocja eurobank kredyt bez biku kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy bank bph mbank bankomaty kredyt bank pożyczki przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik do 50000 umowa pożyczki a kredyt konsumencki pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank w sosnowcu pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli bez wkładu tarnów pożyczki prywatne umorzenie pożyczki z pfron wzór oświadczenia pożyczki kredyt bank świebodzin godziny otwarcia kredyt uk forum umowa pożyczki w spółce cywilnej kredyt bank reklama mafia pozyczki walbrzych z bik krd i komornikiem zgoda na umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt lloyds uk 2014 bankomat kredyt banku wrocław darboux pożyczki udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 kredyt bank w nidzicy alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank m1 kraków pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik przez internet kredyt bank luboń kredyt bank w krośnie wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 pożyczki działalność gospodarcza opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem pożyczki dla osób które ukończyły 18 lat pożyczki między członkami rodziny pożyczki prywatne mława pożyczki od zagranicznych inwestorów kredyt studencki pko bp żyrant getin bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator optima pożyczki optima pożyczki reklama bocian pożyczki bielsko kredyty bez weryfikacji w biku kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie arkadiusz nowakowski pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko bp pożyczki kolno umowa pożyczki jaki podatek kredyt w eurobanku dla emeryta kredyty chwilówki śrem kredyt bank warszawa nip kredyt bank warszawa ostrobramska pożyczki myszków pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen nowy sacz pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik słupsk pożyczki online bez bik i krd kredyt bank w płońsku kredyt pocztowy na dowód mikropożyczki nagroda nobla bankomaty kredyt bank stargard kredyt bank warszawa zytnia abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank częstochowa adres pozyczki z dostawa do domu wielkopolska ile można potrącić pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyty dla firm bez biku kredyt bank bankomaty lublin pożyczki katowice bez bik kredyt bank konstancin jeziorna pożyczki ślimak poznań kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pko prawnik niesplacony kredyt w banku kredyt bank wisła kredyt w getin bank opinie 2012 pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp kredyty chwilówki grajewo udzielenie pożyczki a vat kredyt bank lublin godz otwarcia łukta pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki praca kredyt bez bik w krakowie fundusze europejskie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium alior bank kredyt dla zadłużonych kredyt samochodowy ing bank pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat umowa pożyczki wynagrodzenie kredyt samochodowy banki pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod umowa pożyczki obowiązki stron kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator kredyty bez bik poznań kredyt bank żagiel nr tel kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe sezam pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne pożyczka pozabankowa pro collect pożyczki pożyczki bocian formularz pożyczki dla małych firm z unii pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw gruntów pozyczki chojnice pożyczki chwilówki starachowice kredyt bank jastrzębia góra kredyt bank sa z siedzibą w warszawie kredyt bank pl powstańców warszawy umowa pożyczki odstąpienie kredyty chwilowki zary pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik łódź szybkie pożyczki bez bik big i krd kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt kredyt bank jastrowie godziny otwarcia pozyczki mikrokasa opinie kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank blokada karty pożyczki geronimo kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska halemba kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej pożyczki 5000 szybkie kredyty bez bik umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pożyczki online w 15 minut kredyt samochodowy getinbank kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki nowa ruda najnowsze pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank nowy swiat warszawa kredyty chwilówki tychy kredyt bez bik bez konta bankowego kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik opinie pożyczki abrewo udzielać pożyczki translation kredyt bank wizja umowa pożyczki wzór weksla kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem pożyczki profi credit opinie kredyty bez biku i komornika kredyt bez bik 4 tys udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce kredyt bank wałbrzych telefon optima pożyczki śląsk pożyczka tygodniowka elbląg szybkie pożyczki przez internet na konto umowa pożyczki wzór po angielsku pcc od umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank kapital 3 kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2013 kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników kredyty bankowe wstęp kredyt konsolidacyjny co to znaczy umowa pożyczki w lombardzie kredyt studencki opinie kredyt bez bik podkarpacie szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pozyczki bez konta kredyt banku zarobki forum pozyczki prywatne wejherowo kredyt bank łódź ul ketlinga godziny otwarcia mbank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat kredyt bank w bochni godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kalwaryjska kraków godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków kredyty chwilówki płock jachowicza lokata jesienna w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód online kredyt konsolidacyjny bydgoszcz pożyczki olsztyn pieniężnego kredyt bank lodz godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank ile kosztuje przelew pt wygodne pożyczki kredyt bank problem z bankomatem pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności kredyt bank rypin kredyt bank strzegomska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bydgoszcz na dowód pożyczka plus kłodzko alfa kredyt ranking kredyt bank w koszalinie pożyczki pod zastaw działki kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego wady pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe 24h umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy pożyczki dla nieletnich kredyt bank sa bankowość elektroniczna kredyt bankowy rodzaje bocian pożyczki tczew kredyt bank abrahama szybkie pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu umowa pożyczki referat przedawnienie odsetek ustawowych umowa pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób zadłużonych kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt w banku jaki procent kredyt na juz bez bik kościan finan pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach pożyczki na działalność kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki kredyty w uk dla polakow pożyczka bez biku kielce wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pocztowym kredyt samochodowy bez bik forum kredyt bank dane adresowe pozyczka chwilowka elk umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy pożyczka wieloratalna przez internet pożyczki dla firm bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank polkowice godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku barclays kredyt bank nowa europa pożyczki gotówkowe w londynie idea bank pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank ekstrabiznes kredyt bank kadry pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyt w banku pko bp opinie bocian pożyczki kraków kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej pożyczki na dowód z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych pożyczki na innowacje oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 pożyczki bez bik infomonitor kredyt przez internet bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank świętokrzyskie kredyty chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik online kredyty chwilówki samochody kredyt w orange kod pozyczki na dowud lub firme pożyczki na pit 37 pożyczki gotówkowe z dostawą do domu eurocash pożyczki kraków kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie zdrój pozyczki w domu klienta wloclawek kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej kredyt bank zwrot za paliwo kredyty chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki infolinia pożyczki prywatne zasady pożyczka bez biku kielce podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody z zagranicy kredyty pozabankowe na zakup domu kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulacja kredyt bank ken szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt bank bezpieczne dziecko księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki z wfośigw pcc od pożyczki dla udziałowca kredyt bez bik w toruniu pożyczki dla osób bez dochodów alior bank kredyt bez zgody współmałżonka pożyczki do 50000 kredyt bank złotów pożyczki na oświadczenie dla firm kredyt bank kołobrzeska kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki gofin pozyczki inne niz prowident kredyt bank warszawa dział windykacji kredyt mielec kredyty bez bik pszczyna pożyczki gotówkowe mbank kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek udzielę pożyczki na procent szczecin pożyczki gotówkowe na dowud bez biku kredyty chwilówki wymagania gdzie dostane kredyt bez sprawdzania w biku czy mozna umorzyc kredyt w banku pożyczki myszków kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole polecane pożyczki pozabankowe alior bank kredyt dla seniora pożyczki online bez sprawdzania baz pożyczki od udziałowca w bilansie pożyczki online 18 lat pożyczki w domu klienta optima kredyt bank śliska telefon bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank kalkulator pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków kredyt bez bik slupsk kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę pożyczki chwilówki szczytno kredyty chwilówki chorzów rynek szybki kredyt pozabankowy bez bik mikropożyczki wiki kredyt bank gwarancja kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat rodzina na swoim podatek od pożyczki udzielonej przez wspólnika umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc pożyczki od ludzi pożyczki profinet pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs 2012 chwilowki pozyczki w domu bytom pozyczki dla zadluzonych bez dochodu kredyt bank notowania kredyty bez biku wloclawek pożyczki pozabankowe piła zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa warunki udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki literatura pożyczki chwilówki łask kredyt bank w sandomierzu kredyty chwilówki windykator opinie kredyt studencki pko bp forum pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie pożyczki internet pożyczki skok wołomin kredyt bank w strzelcach opolskich umowa pożyczki ściąga pożyczki kredyty bez historii bank pko bp kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank konto internetowe kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę karty kredytowej kredyt bank starogard gdański godziny otwarcia ogólne warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank kredyt bank zakładanie konta kredyt bank oddział w krakowie pro domo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bez bik chorzów przedawnienie umowy pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki oferta kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów bez prowizji kredyt bankowy dziedziczenie cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyt bank adres do przelewu kredyt getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana kredyty hipoteczne lodz pod zastaw domu pożyczki w domu klienta nowe miasto lubawskie umowa pożyczki od rodziny wzór pożyczki do 40000 pożyczki start up kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi pożyczki dla bezrobotnych olsztyn kredyt bank sa bielany wrocławskie pożyczki społecznościowe jak pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy pcc pożyczki chwilówki rumia kredyt bank w warszawie godziny otwarcia

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad