jak wziasc kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki in blanco umowa pożyczki pracownik wzór pożyczki pozabankowe bytom podatek od pożyczki termin pożyczki bez bik bielsko skarabeusz pożyczki krosno kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 kredyt samochodowy w santander opinie kto udzieli kredytu bez bik kredyt bank sa iban pożyczki profinet pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość kredyt bank placówki wrocław godziny otwarcia pko kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny ing forum optima pożyczki online pożyczki czeladź bank credit agricole kredyt prostoliczony czy warto brac kredyt w getin banku lista pozyczek bez bik kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław kredyt w alior banku asper pożyczki inowrocław bocian pożyczki wymagane dokumenty pożyczki bez bik i dochodu pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz gros pozyczki pleszew bez bica pożyczki rzeszów bez bik prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki oscar umowa pożyczki osób prywatnych mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 pożyczki społecznościowe łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy marża banku umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat skarabeusz pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny chf kredyt bank reklamacje pożyczki przez internet nowe kredyt bank nazwa pożyczki kielce pożyczki chwilówki lublin kredyt bank paypass pożyczki forta kalkulator pożyczki w pko bp kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyty gotówkowe bez bik warszawa kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp pożyczki real pożyczki na mały procent pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bank pożyczki kronos pożyczki dla mikrofirm atrakcyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki pod zastaw rtv radom kredyt bank sa wrocław kredyt w pekao sa forum najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat mąż bierze pożyczki bez mojej wiedzy pożyczki na rozwój firmy bezpieczny kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki marka umowa pożyczki wzot ankieta pożyczki gros pożyczki toruń kredyty i pożyczki cesja kredyt bank sa oddział lublin wyliczanie rat pożyczki pomocne pożyczki pożyczki na start działalności pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice kredyty mieszkaniowe pozabankowe kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank w jakim banku brac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet kredyt prostoliczony opinie kredyt bankowy co to jest kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk pożyczki tczew kredyty chwilówki odsetki pożyczki prywatne rypin wzór umowy pożyczki lombardowej kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki charakter pożyczki chwilówki na dowód warszawa kredyty 24 h kredyt bank złodzieje kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt umowa zlecenie szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie kredyt w meritum banku opinie kredyt bank kolbuszowa pożyczki od ręki toruń pro domo pozyczki ile trzeba oddac pożyczki pod zastaw rtv kraków kredyt bank bogactwo metali wycena kredyt konsolidacyjny a rodzina na swoim pożyczki na weksel toruń kredyt bank łączy się z wbk kredyt studencki pko spłata w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki teorie pożyczki publicznej kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez odsetek pożyczki bez bik na rok kredyt bank kondratowicza oferta kredytową firmy optima kredyt bank włoclawek kredyt na samochód w credit agricole opinie kredyt studencki 2012 opinie kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo praca w kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyt bank rada nadzorcza oprocentowanie kredytu fm bank umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczki chwilówki olecko kredyt samochodowy dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt pozabankowy gliwice kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt bank nostro kredyt w eurobanku dla emeryta kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2011 pożyczki na dowód turek bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób bez biku kredyt bez bik który bank kredyt bank bric pozyczka na wysoki procent na dowod nowy sacz hitler pożyczki usa pozyczki kronos kredyt bank zakopane bankomat kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 kredyt bank garibaldiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big i krd pożyczki bełchatów kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie kredyty bez bik wałcz kredyt bank sa praca umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz pożyczki końskie kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki bielsko pożyczki bez krd na dowód pożyczki chwilówki od 18 kredyty chwilówki grajewo pożyczki warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy w banku paribas wzór poręczenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank lokata 6 5 procent kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum kredyt bank w żarach pożyczki luboń pożyczki przez internet nowe wzór umowy pożyczki lombardowej umowa pożyczki w euro pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu pożyczki prywatne ciechanów udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp dokumenty pozyczki od prywatnych osob pożyczki prywatne nowa sól bank pekao sa kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt getin bank samochodowy getin bank kredyt 5000 kangurek pożyczki potrzebna pozyczka na dpwud w kwocie 20 tys bez biku rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki pożyczki do domu optima jak zawiesić kredyt w getin banku optima pożyczki września kredyt bank oświęcim kontakt kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ekstrapremia kredyt bank kalisz pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków waldemar piechota pożyczki w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h kredyt przez internet bez bik zaświadczeń refinansowanie pożyczki provident kredyt bank rachunek spłat kredyt bankowy a kredyt kupiecki kredyt bank bogactwo metali wycena bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy oświadczenie pożyczki wzór czy latwo o kredyt w skok kopernik pożyczki ranking 2013 easy cash pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatne mława kredyt w lukas banku na dowód oprocentowanie pożyczki w skok stefczyka pożyczki pod zastaw kościan pożyczki konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx umowa pożyczki a użyczenia ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z bgk symulacja kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank pocztowy kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku bgż kredyt bank adres e mail pożyczki parabank szybkie pożyczki przez internet ranking kredyt bank świętokrzyskie czy odsetki od pożyczki są opodatkowane kredyty bez bik jaslo kredyt bank lubartów firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 kredyt bank marza szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez odsetek umorzenie pożyczki a przychód kredyt bank chełmno godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma banku kredyt konsolidacyjny windykacja kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph bank pko sa kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o dochodach pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej puck profit pożyczki zielona góra kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika czy kredyt konsolidacyjny sie opłaca pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne z komornikiem kredyty plock bocian kredyty chwilówki lębork kredyt bank call center forum pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej i bik umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek kredyt samochodowy w banku spółdzielczym ekspres kasa spłata pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pożyczki z ue na rozwój firmy umowa pożyczki odsetki podatek kredyt bank bb kredyt bank książkowa citibank regulamin pożyczki kredyt bank chojnice kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw kto bierze pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt bank zagiel adres kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa kredyt bank w gdańsku pożyczki pod zastaw kielce cash pożyczki torun kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice pożyczki chwilówki jak to działa kredyt studencki pko sa opinie amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 kredyt bank płock umowa pożyczki od wspólnika a pcc kredyt bank kalkulator kredyt bank wspiera żeglarzy kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki reklama forum pożyczki bocian przedłużenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tychy opinie kredyt bank w słupsku kredyt bank o lublin żagiel kredyt bank wbk połączenie pożyczki korona konin cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy pożyczki na dowód forum pożyczki kasa stefczyka kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt pozyczki w niedziele kredyty bez bik chwilówki adres kredyt bank warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny okres kredytowania kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie hofman pożyczki kredyt bank świdnik godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kraj pochodzenia getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko pożyczki cywilno prawne kredyt studencki pko bank polski kredyt bank adres do korespondencji mikropożyczki bangladesz kredyt na pit w getin banku forum kredyt bank klienci indywidualni czy umowa pożyczki jest ważna cash machine pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki gliwice kredyty chwilówki nowa huta kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche banku pożyczka całkowicie przez internet pozyczki i kredyty bez bik i krd pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór pożyczki millenium pożyczki brzesko pozyczki online przez poczte kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim czy umowa pożyczki podlega vat kredyt bank bezprowizyjne bankomaty kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki dzisiaj w jakim banku wziąć kredyt obrotowy umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór tęcza pożyczki bocian pożyczki podobne pożyczki bezpośrednie kredyty chwilówki w częstochowie kredyt bank zakładanie konta kredyt dla zadłużonych opole brzeg pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mińsk mazowiecki bocian pożyczki zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank sa włocławek ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank kredyt wspólnoty mieszkaniowe gdzie najlatwiej po pozyczke pod zastaw domu najgorsze pożyczki kredyt studencki umorzenie forum pożyczka wieloratalna przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny notus kredyt zagraniczny z komornikiem umowa pożyczki oszustwo potwierdzenie salda pożyczki wzór kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko kredyt bank dywidenda 2012 kredyt bank elixir pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek bgż pożyczki dla rolników umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim warunki kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty bez bik mikołów pożyczki bez bik bartoszyce kredyt bank sanok chopina pożyczki gros pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt bank w gdyni godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik dla emerytów kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking i wasze opinie kredyt bank pracownicy bank wbk kredyt bez komornika wroclaw gumtree umowa pożyczki konsumenckiej kredyt bez bik stargard kredyt bank rodzina na swoim kalkulator mbank pożyczki dla firm pożyczki dla nauczycieli kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie ofert banków kredyt bez biku pożyczki na samochód bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim ranking kredyty mieszkaniowe 2008 pożyczki będzin skarabeusz pozyczki kredyty chwilówki koszty kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczenie rat pożyczki od osób prywatnych lods kredyty bez biku szczecin pożyczki łódź bez bik novum pozyczki oddział gdańsk kredyt bank włochy kredyt bank akcjonariusze kredyt bank sa warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 pożyczki miechów pożyczki gotówkowe goleniów meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta odsetki od pożyczki w deklaracji vat kredyt bank akcje pożyczki gotówkowe konsolidacyjne kredyty chwilówki ranking pożyczki przez internet lista firm kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bgz kredyt chwilówka przez sms księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt gotowkowy w deutsche bank kredyt pozabankowy oferty alior bank kredyt technologiczny kredyt konsolidacyjny w allianz banku kredyt mieszkaniowy podczas rozwodu pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn pożyczki gotówkowe mbank kredyt bank janów łódź kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy wyposażenie mieszkania ing pożyczka samochodowa kredyt bankowy pod zastaw pożyczki udzielone spółce przez wspólnika w jakim banku wziac kredyt pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyty bez bik dla nowych firm umowa pożyczki od wspólnika pcc pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki bez meldunku chwilówka stargard kredyty bez bik szybko kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk kredyty chwilówki na telefon pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy kredyt online bank pocztowy pożyczki podobne do vivusa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław podatek od pożyczki dla firmy siódemka pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia pożyczki carecash kredyty dla zadłużonych w uk kredyt bez bik polkowice podatek od pożyczki pieniędzy oświadczenie o umorzeniu pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki nowe kredyt bank ipad kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bez bik dla rolników kredyty chwilówki akcja znicz kredyty bez bik w kaliszu alior bank kredyt odnawialny niezarejestrowana umowa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki gniezno pożyczki bocian kościan pozyczki bepozyczki bez bik naklo nad notecia kredyt w uk dla zadluzonych umowa pożyczki realna czy konsensualna kredyt bez bik chełm tani kredyt samochodowy dla firm kasa polska kredyt na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank konstancińska pożyczki gotówkowe sezam oleśnica kredyt bank sa swift kredyty chwilówki fordon kredyt bank artykuł oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego szczecin kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza godziny otwarcia cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm kredyt bank zarobki 2012 provident pozyczka na prawo jazdy pożyczki pod zastaw puławy udzielone pożyczki w bilansie prominent pożyczki lublin kredyt w banku bez bik kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator szybkie pożyczki do 2000 kredyt bank iii oddział w warszawie kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski bankomat kredyt banku warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami wzór partner pożyczki piła kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole profile w kredyt banku pożyczki dla zadłużonych warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny a zły bik kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bankowy proz kredyty chwilówki puławy santander bank kredyty konsolidacyjne szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy kredyt bank focha 4 bydgoszcz placówki kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik bocian pozyczki bez biku oświecim kredyt bank w toruniu godziny otwarcia pożyczki alior bank opinie pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki windykacja gredan pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w biku prawnik niesplacony kredyt w banku pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki bez bik podatek od pożyczki pomiędzy firmami umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 kredyt bank niepodległości warszawa promocyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc kredyty kielce pożyczki chwilówki nakło kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik i krd pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok pożyczki online bez wpłaty umowa użyczenia pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe pod weksel kredyt bank to wbk kredyt 10000 w jakim banku pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad