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tarchomin pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach kredyty pozabankowe kontakt kredyt w ktorym banku kredyt konsolidacyjny plus gotówka oferteo pożyczki warunki spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp profit pożyczki zielona góra kredyty chwilowki janosik kredyt bank rawicz telefon kredyt bank infolinia z zagranicy kredyt mieszkaniowy 2013 pko umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy szybkie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank pelplin godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki warunki przyznania kredyt na mieszkanie w banku millenium pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie pożyczki w tesco kredyt bank lidzbark warm pożyczki w 15 minut pożyczki online panda kredyt bank warszawa mapa kredyt bank myślenice kontakt pożyczki w bankach na dowód kredyt bankowy na oświadczenie kredyt bank janów pożyczki chwilówki wągrowiec umowa pożyczki charakter pozyczka krakow na weksel kredyt w boś banku opinie pożyczki w skoku opinie pożyczki na konto błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt bank walcz szybkie pozyczki w domu kredyt dla banku nabywcy kredyt konsolidacyjny plusy i minusy kredyt w banku pekao kredyt bank w szczytnie pozyczka tygodniowka elbląg kredyt bank oferta kont pożyczki łódź bez bik kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt kredyt bez bik czestochowa pożyczki bez formalności kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia jak wziąć kredyt 5 zł w orange kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator kredyty bez bik w gorzowie wlkp udziele prywatna pozyczka śląsk kredyty chwilówki płock opinie pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno kredyt bank dlugie ogrody kredyt bank wizja pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów pożyczki na wysoki procent wzór promesy pożyczki kredyt bankowy dla msp parabanki pożyczki bez bik tsk pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik kredyt bank sosnowiec modrzejowska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki dla spółki komandytowej wzór kredyt bank kantor pozyczka na pit bez bik w bydgoszcz kredyt bank oprocentowanie konta oszczędnościowego bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm kredyt w ge money bank opinie pozyczka na umowe o prace z niskim oprocentowaniem pożyczki pozabankowe piła szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd niedzielne pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank oddział w krakowie kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach kredyt konsolidacyjny co to takiego kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt bank warka kredyt bank rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny a rozwód pożyczki argentyńskie pożyczki otrzymane w bilansie kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe lokata swobodna kredyt bank lokata z premią 6 5 kredyt bank mafia pożyczki od ręki warszawa kredyty chwilówki łowicz kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki centrala tychy alior bank kredyt dla lekarzy pożyczki społeczne w polsce kredyt bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki kępno kredyt konsolidacyjny firma firmy splacajace pozyczki niebankowe jastrzebie zdroj ranking pozyczek bez bik i z odbiorem na poczcie gdzie pozyczke bez grosza pożyczki w domu klienta sosnowiec bocian pożyczki nowa sól opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej spółce pożyczki typu provident bocian współpraca pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki starachowice bank pko kredyt studencki wniosek udzielę pożyczki prywatnej wrocław banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki art 777 kredyt bank ul wielicka godziny otwarcia kredyt w idea bank forum pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta bankowego od 18lat kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk kredyt bank sa jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec orla kredyt bank żagiel łódź pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd przez internet pozyczka banknot kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skawina nobel za mikropożyczki pożyczki nobiles getin noble bank kredyt opinie umowa pożyczki kiedy na piśmie pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk pożyczki dla firm jeremie kredyty bez komornika biku wroclaw alior bank kredyt online kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank zamość partyzantów 12 kredyty chwilówki trójmiasto kredyt bank kupiony kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa szybkie pożyczki ełk umowa pożyczki dla pracownika wzór pożyczki bez przedpłat umorzenie pożyczki dla udziałowca przedawnienie pożyczki cywilnej czy kredyty chwilowki sprawdzaja bik i krd pożyczki novum kruk opinie umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa kredyt mieszkaniowy banki pożyczki od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty firmowe bez bik pozyczki do domu bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź pożyczki bez bik i krd gdańsk autokredyt pozabankowo kredyt bank lokaty negocjowane szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin kredyty chwilówki online bez bik pcc od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji pożyczki pozabankowe na firme kredyt bank biała podlaska kontakt pożyczki chwilówki na sms kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank pożyczki chwilówki siedlce amber gold pożyczki forum pożyczki ze środków unijnych kredyt w idea bank na start forum pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne kredyt bank cieszyn godziny otwarcia karty płatnicze w kredyt banku kredyt bank zarobki forum pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego godziny otwarcia cetelem bank kredyt przez internet pożyczki kyzoo pozyczka bez bik z obsluga w domu warszawa kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza kontakt kredyt bank warsaw pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat kredyt bank logowanie do konta pozyczki od 18 lat wrocław umowa pożyczki maksymalne odsetki pozyczka 2000 online pożyczki gotówkowe do domu klienta kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa telefon bocian pożyczki gotówkowe forum umowa cywilno prawna pożyczki wzór kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank godziny kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik forum pożyczki na dowód bez poręczycieli pożyczki prywatne jarocin pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank raport roczny 2012 cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej umowa poręczenia pożyczki kredyt bank zyrardow pozyczki inne niz prowident pożyczki chwilówki rumia umowa udzielenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki rejestracja w urzędzie skarbowym kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik kredyt bank automatyczna spłata karty kredytowej pożyczki w kilka minut pożyczki płock online prywatne pozyczki do 50000 wrocław kredyt bank zwycięstwa koszalin kredyt studencki wbk pożyczki bezzwrotne z unii umowa pożyczki a odsetki udzielę pożyczki na procent kredyt w getin bank trudny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty bez bik na 12 miesięcy pożyczki przez internet bez pracy pożyczki gotówkowe bank pekao sa pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt bank uk kredyt bez bik na firme prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow najnowsze pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank braniewo kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole opinie pozyczki od 18 lat wrocław pozyczka chwilowka elk otrzymanie pożyczki pcc kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen szybkie pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki bez bik nowy tomyśl szybkie pożyczki bez formalności pożyczki przedstawiciel kredyt bank w sochaczewie kredyty pozabankowe bez bik us zus w szczecinie kredyty bez bik w krakowie umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy przy niskich zarobkach pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary wonga pożyczka od reki pożyczki bez biku legnica kredyt bank piotrkowska kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont mieszkania kredyt w nordea bank opinie pożyczki 7 pożyczki w kasie stefczyka kredyty parkmar w kt kredyt bank jakie oprocentowanie deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki pożyczki bez bik grodzisk wlkp pozyczki od reki na dowod bez zadnych oswiadczes kielce pożyczki pleszew umorzenie pożyczki byłemu pracownikowi kredyt bank wrocław telefon godziny przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska pożyczki dla mikro i małych firm kredyt bank ranking pdk kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilówki katowice pożyczki pozabankowe brodnica skarabeusz pożyczki w domu kredyt bez bik rzeszów wzór weksla pożyczki kredyt bez bik tarnobrzeg podatek od pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla zadłużonych wymagalność zwrotu pożyczki pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz wroclaw profi kredyt przedstawiciel pani bozena kredyt bank węgry pożyczki bez bik i krd zamość kredyty chwilówki online kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja forum pozyczki do domu świdnica pożyczki dla bezrobotnych forum kredyt bank 24 kursy walut bocian pożyczki nowogard pożyczki od osób prywatnych siedlce kredyt samochodowy ranking listopad 2013 szybkie pożyczki pożyczki tanie czy można dobrać kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt samochodowy santander forum profit pożyczki łódź pożyczki dla rolników warszawa pożyczki w języku polskim odsetki od pozyczki z zfss pożyczki prywatne chwilówki cash machine pożyczki kredyt odnawialny w millenium bank pożyczki bocian bytom oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej w pko sa kredyt bank wałbrzych ul słowackiego abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kredyt studencki bz wbk mariusz lipiński pożyczki pozyczka tygodniowka elbląg szybki kredyt elk 24h omnico pożyczki kredyt bank biłgoraj godziny otwarcia numer telefonu do kredyt banku zagiel kredyt bank w przemyślu w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt kredyt bank gliwice kontakt opty pożyczki koszalin umowa pożyczki ile podatku pozyczki chwilowki pod weksel w jaworznie aig kredyt konsolidacyjny nowe pożyczki online pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic wniosek pożyczki dukat kredyt bank sa w koninie pożyczki barczewo kredyt bank legionowo kontakt kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie pożyczki z małym dochodem kredyt bank marża ile można potrącić pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie zarobki kredyty chwilówki wieluń pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód pożyczki bez bik siedlce umowa pożyczki przed notariuszem prywatny kredyt na dowod bez dochody online pożyczki pozabankowe na dłuższy okres pożyczki chwilówki sms365 kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad