pożyczki abis opinie kredyt bez bik wrocław kredyt bank dział obsługi klienta kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole kredyt pozabankowy olsztyn kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez bank kredyt bank kraków godz otwarcia kredyty bez bik sochaczew kredyt bank blonie kredyt chwilówka bocian warunki otrzymania pożyczki w vivus kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia kredyt bankowy mieszkaniowy pożyczki bemowo maestro kontakt kredyt bank pożyczka kielce online profil aktywny kredyt bank kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami pożyczki kępno raiffeisen bank kredyt samochodowy wzór umowy bocian pożyczki wniosek online pożyczki zfśs w bilansie pożyczki na dowód w banku odsetki od pożyczki obliczenie kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyt bank górczewska 200 kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa kredyt na kąta w 15 minut bez big krd na dowód pozyczka bez big w domu klienta pozyczka bez przelewania 1 gr kredyt getin bank kalkulator kredyty online bez biku kredyt bank sa address kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie eden pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki sanok pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank depozyty abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy optima pożyczki ełk umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska kredyty chwilówki brzeg pożyczki bez bik kozienice szybkie pożyczki cieszyn kredyt bank gora kalwaria impex trade pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy przez internet kredyt bank leasing aukcje kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt na samochód kalkulator getin bank pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez bik udziele pożyczki prywatnie oprocentowanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki indywidualne ekasa pożyczki pożyczki w banku bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego poznań kredyty i pozyczki bez biku pożyczki na dowód toruń skarabeusz pożyczki tarnów umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek kredyt bez baz kredyt obrotowy w idea banku kredyty dla zadłużonych siedlce adresy nr tel pożyczki chwilowki na terenie wyszkowa kredyt bank kolejowa białystok kredyt bank łączy się z wbk umowa przedłużenia pożyczki kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota kredyt bank handlowy kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania kredyt bank rns pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji radom pożyczki prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki chwilówki filarum kredyt bank radom żeromskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki na procent kielce pożyczki prywatne pszczyna kredyt studencki w pekao tfad pożyczki kredyty chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank kiedy sesje pożyczki bankier pożyczki dla firm transportowych bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu na alimenty kredyt na umowe na czas określony kredyt chwilówka 5000 kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2013 przedawnienie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki do domu warszawa regulamin pomocnej pożyczki umowa spłaty pożyczki na raty pożyczki na dowód tuchola kredyt bank jędrzejów kredyty chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki drawsko pomorskie kredyt bank call center forum optima pożyczki praca forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku kredyty bankowe bibliografia pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki wymagania kredyt na firmę bez bik jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu pożyczki na własną działalność kredyt bank bankomaty warszawa rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki spółce najtańszy kredyt bankowy kredyt w banku w holandii szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa klijenta w domu kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł kredyt bank lokaty kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie pożyczki chwilówki w przemyślu kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika pożyczki bez bik jasło kredyt studencki bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank ciechocinek wierzyciel pozyczki bez bik kredyt bank szczecin wyzwolenia godziny otwarcia pożyczki w 24 godziny kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm pożyczki chrzanów pożyczki chwilówki bez baz placówki kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej w pko banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie oferty umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wzór kredyt bank sa swift kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zdolności kredyt bank chorwacja kredyt bank w zorach umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi wzór kredyty gotówkowe bez bik poznań pożyczka bez bik i krd z komornikiem jak wyglądają pożyczki w providencie usługi pożyczki poznań kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 kalkulator umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna wzór termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bielsko lubin pozyczki bocian pożyczki bocian włocławek pożyczki 4000 szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków pożyczki prywatne ciechanów pożyczki do 8000 office pożyczki partner pożyczki opinie kredyt bank pszów godziny otwarcia jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank zaloguj kredyty konsolidacyjne wrocław pożyczki z europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał renoma pożyczki transfery w kredyt banku odsetki od pożyczki cienka kapitalizacja kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 kalkulator jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf look pożyczki słupia pożyczki dla firm kredyt bez bik w lesznie kredyty mieszkaniowe będą tanieć pożyczki w bydgoszczy kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim kredyty trudne bez bik prywatne pozyczki bez umowy o prace na dowod pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik u pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd kredyt bank czy wbk umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem kredyt bank dalekowschodni kredyty chwilówki w kaliszu kredyt chwilówka ulotki optima pożyczki forum kredyt bank królewska kraków godziny otwarcia pożyczki program pożyczki social lending pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi pożyczki wronki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik online pozyczkh chwilowki lodz w domu kliemta pożyczka bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy włocławek pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku oprocentowany kredyt bank nowy sącz aleje kredyt studencki spłata forum dyskusyjne umowa ubezpieczenia pożyczki korzystny kredyt w banku umowa pożyczki bez weksla meritum bank kredyt opinie pozyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen bez bik i krd tczew alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny pożyczki złotów ale po za bankowe kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 forum większe pożyczki bez bik pożyczki do 100 zł kredyty chwilówki tychy windykacja bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 kredyt bank adres siedziby w jakim banku dostane kredyt z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki kalkulator finan pożyczki legnica przedłużenie pożyczki w vivus kredyt bank kołobrzeg godziny otwarcia kredyty oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń provident kwota pożyczki pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki helikon pozyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto bocian pożyczki reklama w tv kredyt bez bik 40000 kredyt bank wałbrzych godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe czy można zawiesić kredyt w banku pożyczki gotówkowe piła abis wniosek o kredyt umowa pożyczki po angielsku wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pekao sa optima pożyczki leszno pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt bank akademia przedsiębiorcy kredyt konsolidacyjny 30000 pozyczki września pożyczki prywatne łódź forum kredyt bank liderzy biznesu kredyt na prawo jazdy kredyt chwilówka uk kredyt gotówkowy bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt prawo bankowe kalkulator obliczania odsetek od pożyczki profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kontakt pożyczki eurocash kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf pozyczki prywatne wloclawek pożyczki przez internet nowe kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator ing kredyt refinansowy bank pko bp pożyczki chwilówki nowe firmy pożyczki prometeusz wrocław pozyczki na raty kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś kredyt konsolidacyjny nowy sacz umowa pożyczki do pobrania kredyty chwilówki wynagrodzenie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla malzenstw kredyt bank marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik śląsk bocian pożyczki bielsko pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp kredyt w deutsche banku opinie pożyczki ślimak szczecin pożyczki nielegalne auto kredyt bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel hasła reklamowe pożyczki kredyt bank lublin narutowicza amber gold pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg finan pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki w najbliższej rodzinie kredyt bank radzymińska 14 kredyty chwilówki dokumenty jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyt bez bik pozabankowe kredyt bez bik puławy kredyt samochodowy w banku pocztowym bez bik kredyt poznań pożyczki przedawnienie pożyczki bez bik w 15 minut pozyczli bez bik na sms kredyty chwilówki internetowe pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa feniks zory pozyczki kredyt bez bik walbrzych kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli www wbkpożyczki srem pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank pożyczki z unii dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy plus gotówka umowa pożyczki wzór darmowy kredyt bez bik na rok marka pozyczki ketrzyn kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi kredyt odnawialny w eurobank pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji kod na kredyt w orange one kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea bank pozyczki gotuwkoiwe lichwiarze udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat pożyczki z obsługa w domu cesja umowy pożyczki pcc santander consumer bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki na prefinansowanie pożyczki chwilówki chełm pożyczki na dowód słupsk bank zachodni wbk sa kredyt studencki potwierdzenie przelewu jako dowód pożyczki dobry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik ubezpieczenie pożyczki zwrot pożyczki 24 pro zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 wzór na obliczanie rat pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki katowice kredyt bank dyrektor finansowy pożyczki pod zastaw jarosław umowa pożyczki w prawie niemieckim pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz zwrot pożyczki ang kredyt bank legnica bankomat prywatne pozyczki bez baz kraków hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki chełm pożyczki siemianowice śląskie kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko spłata kredyt bank w mińsku mazowieckim pozyczka zabezpieczona aneksem komorniczym kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki start up pozyczki dla bezrobotnych bialystok umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną pożyczki bez zaświadczeń słupsk kredyt przez internet bez biku kredyt bank nip pożyczki całodobowe kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej pozyczki gniezno od zaraz do reki przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn pożyczki bocian gryfice kredyt orange jaki kod kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum aneks do umowy kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2013 pożyczki pabianice nowe pożyczki online kredyt pozabankowy na dowód pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki na kopalni pożyczki udzielone bilans pożyczki bez bik grodzisk wlkp kredyt bankowy finansowanie pożyczki firmy bocian kredyt bankowy w rachunku zysków i strat pożyczki udzielane w domu klienta warszawa podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyty mieszkaniowe lipiec 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny na oswiadczenie pożyczki od osób prywatnych katowice pożyczki gotówkowe przelicznik kredyt bank maciej bardan wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik wielkopolska pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania wzór kredyt bank marketing manager kredyt bank minsk mazowiecki pożyczki pozabankowe kłodzko pozyczka online 24h bez przelewu 1 grosza kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń kredyt bez biku orange jaki jest kod na kredyt kredyty bez bik w szczecinie kredyt konsolidacyjny z bik pożyczki pomiędzy członkami rodziny kredyty bez biku w bydgoszczy pożyczki całkowicie prywatne kredyt bez bik i bez zaświadczeń cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bez bik 200 tys doradcy24 pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs praca w kredyt banku opinie 2011 preferencyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe db kredyt deutsche bank pbc sa pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet kredyt samochodowy w getin banku forum waloryzacja pozyczki udziele pozyczki na procent wniosek o umorzenie odsetek od kredytu kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zatrudnieniu kredyt bez bik puławy pożyczki ekspresowe warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny zdunska wola ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy a pcc kredyty samochodowe dla firm kalkulator uruchomienie pożyczki odmowa zwrotu pożyczki umowa pożyczki termin przedawnienia kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk podwale księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik slupsk bocian pożyczki numer tel optima pożyczki oferty pracy pożyczki na dowód tychy pożyczki prywatne chwilówki księgowanie pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie najlepiej wierzyciel pożyczki kontakt ing bank kredyt dla noeo otwartych furm pożyczki chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyt studencki pko czy warto kredyty chwilówki bytom piłsudskiego pożyczki chwilówki mogilno kredyty chwilówki na dowód szczecin kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym idea bank forum kredyt orange numer kredyty chwilowki gdansk ekspresowe pożyczki świnoujście odsetki od pożyczki cienka kapitalizacja zwrot pożyczki urząd skarbowy zdunska wola pożyczki bez bik do 6000 kredyty bez biku opinie kredyt bez umowy o prace bez bik kredyt bank notowania wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d pożyczki opinie kredyt chwilówki głogów odsetki od pożyczki wyliczenie euromax pożyczki kredyt bank wiadomości księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wzór kredyt bank biuro windykacji lublin pożyczki bez bik na telefon kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk bocian pożyczki chełmża kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy skarabeusz pożyczki głogów odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup kredyt bank pendrive kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn kredyt online bank pocztowy kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp pożyczki na dowód katowice kredyty chwilówki knf pozyczki w niedziele pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki chwilówki suwałki kredyt bank inowrocław kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe katowice dobranie kredytu w credit agricole głogowski pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa światowida kredyty w aktywach banku czarnecki pożyczki pozyczki krosno pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe kredyt bank krucza pożyczki chwilówki końskie kredyt bank koszty wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia z kredytu kredyty i pożyczki jst warunki pożyczki provident kredyty prawo bankowe szybkie pożyczki przez internet forum łatwe pożyczki bez bik pożyczki na dowód chwilówki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu katowice pożyczki w vivus forum

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad