pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo credit agricole kredyt w rachunku pożyczki gotówkowe bez big szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki bez biku kraków istota kredytu i pożyczki umowa pożyczki spółka kredyt bank prowizje w bankomatach pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki sms owe pożyczki prywatne gorzów wlkp kredyt bank w jaworznie kredyt chwilowki zielona gora kredyty od 18lat na sam dowod ostrowiec sw pożyczki prywatne biała podlaska umowa o spłate pożyczki unijne mikropożyczki dla firm ruszą kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2014 mikropożyczki olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny procent kredyt bank s a ul kasprzaka 2 8 kredyt bank chełm kontakt referat kredyty jaki kod na kredyt orange kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank abrahama telefon pro domo pozyczki grudziadz kredyt bank rumia gdańska pożyczki osób fizycznych kredyt bez bik opole kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska kredyt studencki w pko spłata kredyty chwilówki koszalin umowa pożyczki firmy pożyczki najtańsze pożyczki przedstawiciel kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ubezpieczenia czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym pożyczki prywatne wałcz pożyczki w banku pekao sa kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyt bank blawatna kredyt bank warta ubezpieczenia pożyczki gotówkowe leszno cesja pożyczki pcc kredyt bank laczy sie z wbk umowa odnowienia pożyczki kredyt orange jaki numer pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank pożyczki lubartów mikropożyczki definicja kredyt bank krakowskie lublin prywatne pożyczki na weksel kredyty bez bik pożyczki szczecin kredyty bez bik glogow czy kredyt konsolidacyjny można skonsolidować opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyt bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki bez bik i krd rzeszów pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno kredyty bez bik w plocku kredyt bez bik co to znaczy umowa pożyczki miedzy członkami rodziny wymagalność rat pożyczki pożyczki preferencyjne śląsk kredyt przez internet bez biku kredyt na dowód w domu kredyt mieszkaniowy sierpień 2012 getin noble bank zdrowy kredyt dukat pożyczki warszawa umowa pożyczki z cudzoziemcem pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów pod weksel bocian pożyczki zduńska wola odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo kredyt bank oferta lokat pożyczki prywatne w krakowie kredyt bez bik jarocin przelewy w kredyt banku wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki kredyt bank zduńska wola kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej forum kredyt w kasie stefczyka a innym banku pożyczki pod zastaw głogów kredyt w idea banku forum sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 kredyt chwilówka bielsko kredyt bank w pile pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki kredyty i pożyczki charakterystyka wzór na odsetki od pożyczki ślimak pożyczki kontakt kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku muzułmańskim kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank pożyczki od ręki opinie wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt samochodowy bez bik warszawa pożyczki od firm prywatnych pożyczki bez podatku podatek umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne podatek kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku pożyczki do domu pcc od pożyczki płaci kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej pożyczki z banku światowego umowa pożyczki ojciec syn pozyczka 20000 bez bik i zabezpieczen umowa pożyczki wzór zabezpieczenie udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2012 odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór pozyczki bez krd kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki kredyt bank wielicka pożyczki na niski dochód kredyt konsumpcyjny bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy plus remont pożyczki dla nauczycieli wałbrzych sesje przelewów w kredyt bank chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów pozyczki dla beezrobotnych pożyczki miechów pozabankowa pozyczka bez bik 20000 kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym konto dewizowe w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie kredyty w alior bank opinie kredyty bez bik i krd kalisz spłata pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe w którym banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec pożyczki pod zastaw kościan kredyty pozabankowe kraków pożyczki ekspresowe przez internet pożyczki w citibank pożyczki 5000 zł pożyczki na dowód tychy pożyczki prywatne włocławek bocian pożyczki jaki procent pożyczki i darowizny w rodzinie kredyt na 5 zł orange umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna wzór kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy santander bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz opinie pożyczki pozabankowe w legnicy umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki dla bezrobotnych poznań kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast pożyczki na dowód lublin kredyt bank program razem kredyt bank miedzyrzec podlaski kredyt bank w leżajsku pożyczki pod zastaw umowa pszczółka pożyczki pożyczki bocian na dowód kredyt studencki forum prawne umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie pożyczki pozabankowe gryfice korzystny kredyt konsolidacyjny banknot pozyczki warszawa okres przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs jak dostac kredyt bez biku banknot pozyczki warszawa umowa o kredyt prosty wzór kredyt samochodowy bez biku kredyt na mieszkanie ing bank slaski pożyczki fiolet pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód wrocław bocian pożyczki mława oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank wrocław pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz kredyt bank białystok ul warszawska kredyt bank platforma walutowa pożyczki bez bik rypin kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa umowa pożyczki partycypacyjnej umorzenie pożyczki z zfss podatek idea bank kredyt dla firm forum kredyt bank zołnierska kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bank pocztowy kredyt w eurobanku przez internet kredyt chwilówka bedzin prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najlepiej forum chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice poręczyciel pożyczki pozyczki dla zadłuzonych wbanku pko finanse kredyty chwilówki chrzanów pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki transfery w kredyt banku dobre kredyty bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyty bez biku kalisz kredyty chwilówki tychy budowlanych pożyczki interes kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki dla pes opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej spółce okres pożyczki pożyczki bez bik świebodzin pożyczki prywatne wrocław forum pożyczki online bez big pożyczki lombard kredyt konsolidacyjny na 12 lat szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt bank ii oddział szczecin pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp kredyt samochodowy jaki bank pożyczki na pit bez bik czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu alex pożyczki getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe getin bank online kredyt samochodowy kredyty chwilówki uokik kredyty chwilówki ile procent kredyt bank garibaldiego kredyt bank skrytki bankowe kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków pożyczki prywatne wyszków pożyczki od amber gold umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką alior bank kredyt przelicznik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka żyrafa pożyczki opinie kredyt chwilówka lodz kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw kredyt bank vii oddział w warszawie pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 27 poznań kredyt bank ii oddział wrocław udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia kredyt w banku z bik przedawnienie pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta bankowego od 18lat kredyt w alior banku jakie dokumenty przestępstwo gospodarcze pożyczki pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard kredyt studencki w jakim banku pożyczki studenckie w anglii pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kraków pożyczki prywatne nowy targ czy umowa pożyczki wymaga formy pisemnej kredyt bank grunwaldzka gdańsk kronos pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik pożyczki koszalin finan pożyczki wrocław konwersja pożyczki kapitał zapasowy pożyczki świebodzice pożyczki bez bik zus kredyt bank w ostrolece kredyt bank jana pawła warszawa pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach lublin kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt nowość pożyczki do domu kredyt bank wirtualna karta kredytowa bank on pożyczki pożyczki tychy kredyt bank centrum bankowości korporacyjnej wrocław ekasa pożyczki pożyczki na dowód sochaczew kredyt pozabankowy z komornikiem kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku umowa pożyczki kiedy na piśmie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilowki kredyt bank wrocłąw bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny jest przeznaczony na kredyty pozabankowe ruda śląska bocian jakie wymagania kredytowe kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie placówki kredyt banku białystok private banking w kredyt banku kredyt bank sa oddział w łodzi kredyt bank kondratowicza kontakt udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez udziałowca umowa pożyczki wynagrodzenie bocian pożyczki krs kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych pożyczki mieszkaniowe z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki dla lekarzy pożyczki od zaraz kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych broniewskiego all money pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock pożyczki w lublinie pożyczki online od 19 lat getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki kredyt bank swidnica ubezpieczenie pożyczki mbank mikropożyczki toruń pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości łódź kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska oddział kredyt banku w łodzi kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108 warszawa pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność najnowsze pożyczki bez biku kredyty chwilówki rzeszów plac wolności kredyty bez bik chełm pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp pożyczki gotówkowe dla rencistów kredyt w banku pocztowym dla policjantów alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyty mieszkaniowe książki kredyt pod zastaw w banku kredyt na dowód bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt bank w pułtusku kredyt bez bik i big pożyczki racibórz kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń kredyt bank w środzie śląskiej pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie gdzie mogę dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia umowy pożyczki gotówki kredyt samochodowy bez bik gdzie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką wspólnikiem kredyt studencki pko bp 2014 potwierdzenie udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki tylko na dowód osobisty kredyt w banku skok stefczyka kredyt na pit bez biku pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach solidny kredyt oddłużeniowy skarżysko umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne eurobank ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok wielkopolska pożyczki kredyt chwilówka zaświadczenie bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw pożyczki chodzież kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard adres telefon pożyczki na dowód kłodzko lokaty w kredyt banku pożyczki argentyńskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp jakie dokumenty kredyt bank certyfikaty inwestycyjne kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie szybkie pożyczki kołobrzeg umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wniosek kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem mały kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat umowa pożyczki pcc a vat kredyty bez biku zielona góra kredyt na dowód najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking kredyt bank gdańsk chałubińskiego godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami wzór kredyt samochodowy dla żołnierzy kredyt bank w lubuskim kredyt bank zmiana danych pozyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank oddział białystok ul mickiewicza kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat pożyczki chwilówki kluczbork pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik idea bank jakie oprocentowanie kredytu czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bez bik oswiecim warta pozyczki pożyczki na pesel kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka pożyczki 24h warszawa konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pcc kredyt bez bik szybko w jakim banku brac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań pożyczki na dowód nysa konfuzja pożyczki pożyczki z efs fgp pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 kredyt bank w strzelcach opolskich kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe kredyt bank w ciechanowie szybkie pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt w banku pocztowym a bik sprawdzone pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania warszawa pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyt bank bezprowizyjne bankomaty pożyczki bez bik ślimak kredyt bankowy koszty alior bank kredyt ubezpieczenie kredyt niemcy forum pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom ltwe kredyty poznan pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowód kredyt bank stargard godziny otwarcia skarbiec pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum alior bank kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki prywatne radom kredyty chwilówki firmy czy istnieją pożyczki prywatne kredyt raz dwa w banku pocztowym wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt samochodowy bez bik 2013 kredyt samochodowy adam lorek pożyczki pożyczki aukcje pożyczki mbank pożyczki prywatne gumtree kredyty bez biku zabrze kredyt bez biku gdynia pożyczki gotówkowe głogów pożyczki online zyrafa podatek od pożyczki termin pożyczki w kruku pożyczki na dowód poznań kredyt bank abrahama godziny otwarcia pożyczki pracownicze pożyczki chwilówki wronki kto płaci podatek od umowy pożyczki umarzanie pozyczek w parabankach kredyt mieszkaniowy pko symulacja pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe wołomin umowa pożyczki darmowy wzór pożyczki od prywatnego inwestora lokata jesienna kredyt bank pożyczki novum kruk s a pożyczki dla budżetówki pożyczki atiz pożyczki gotówkowe banki pożyczki bocian numer telefonu bocian pożyczki opinie pracowników szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt hipoteczny getin pbs kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny z opóźnieniem pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa pozyczki milenium szamotuly pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel kredyt w wbk kalkulator oprocentowania w kredyt banku pożyczki alior sync pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 pożyczki pod zastaw pkd kredyt bank lokaty internetowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 kredyt bank bielsko sixta kredyt bank zana lublin optima pożyczki koszalin kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd pożyczki ala provident bank pko wniosek o kredyt studencki umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyty chwilówki parabank kredyt bez bik szczecinek kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2013 kredyt bank plac zbawiciela godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie kredyt pozabankowe online jaki kredyt bez bik szybki kredyt bankowy kredyt bank jastarnia bocian pożyczki opinia kredyt bank lublin ul narutowicza 55b kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat pożyczki prywatne piotrków trybunalski kredyt studencki anglia warunki potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia za pracę kredyt w orange jaki kod pożyczki bez big kredyty bez bik zgierz kredyty pozabankowe ranking kredyt bez bik konsolidacja pożyczki prywatne w lublinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad