global pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie kredyt bank wodzisław pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask kredyt bez bik i krd online kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce via sms przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt bank poznań garbary godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika kredyty chwilówki rawicz pozyczki na dowod wroclaw od 18 roku zycia banki kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank toruń tel kredyty bez bik slask kredyt bank vii oddział warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe dla lekarzy pożyczka w domu poznań pożyczki w vivus opinie kredyt 15tys bph pożyczki pozabankowe na raty kredyt bank kubusia puchatka kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank twardzickiego kredyty gotówkowe na oświadczenie 2014 kredyt przez internet w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach czy umowa pożyczki podlega vat w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki gotówkowe w uk pożyczki mieszkaniowe pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne pożyczki na dowód szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki inowrocław kredyt bank wiatraczna pożyczki gotówkowe katowice kredyt bank minsk kredyt orange pod nr pożyczki bez bik katowice w domu klijenta pożyczki na procent warszawa pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilowka sosnowiec optima pożyczki współpraca umowa pożyczki od rodziców oprocentowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pozyczki inowroclaw kredyty chwilówki jakie odsetki kredyt bez biku szamotuły pożyczki prodomo kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c kredyty bez bik bank pożyczki prywatne w lubinie umowa pożyczki dla wspólnika pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu kredyt bank katowice pożyczki ekonomia społeczna pożyczki przez internet plus kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem pożyczki eden konsekwencje pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange pan stanislaw wzial kredyt w banku pożyczki pozabankowe na umowe cywilno prawna kredyty bez bik krd na pit 11 kredyt kupiecki w banku alior bank kredyt refinansowy pożyczki bez bik śrem ubezpieczenie kredytu gotówkowego w lukas bank cash pożyczki torun cel pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w pożyczki pod zastaw legnica kredyt pozabankowy z tanimi odsetkami pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 szybkie pozyczki na dowod pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków dobosiewicz kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia pożyczki gotówkowe współpraca kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank pożyczki chwilówki w pile kredyt konsolidacyjny bez formalności jaki jest kredyt do orange pożyczki dla polaków w niemczech pożyczki bez bik i krd lublin globals pożyczki umowa pożyczki z samym sobą kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie pożyczki kalkulator lukas bank pożyczki dorfin asper pożyczki pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy pożyczki bez bik big i krd kredyt bank zmienia nazwe wysoki kredyt bez bik kredyt w aib kredyt bank gdzie wyplacac bez prowizji pożyczki 30 dniowe kredyt bank bródno kyczki radom kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka kredyty bez bik kalkulator pożyczki bez krd na dowód kredyty chwilówki jak działają pozyczki udzielane w domu klodzko termin przedawnienia umowy pożyczki szukam kredytu bez biku i zaświatczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe będą tanieć kredyty chwilówki grójec pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nauczycieli bankowy kredyt gotówkowy pozyczki emeryt z zajeciami komorniczymi krakow pożyczki gotówkowe płock kredyty bez bik gdańsk pożyczki ślimak poznań umowa pożyczki 2012 kredyt bank żywiec godziny pracy pożyczki do 5 tysięcy praktyka w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe lodz pożyczki internautów pragma pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ciołka 10 pożyczki w domu klienta kalisz szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet kredyty i pożyczki gminy pożyczki bez bik na firmę ranking kredytów banków kredyty mieszkaniowe wyszukiwarka pożyczki bezprocentowe dla firm mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków marlena nowakowska pożyczki opinie mg finance pożyczki kredyt w banku brodnickim hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm bez bik stewczyk w słupsk pozyczka na dowód umowa pożyczki spółce z o o wzór jaki bank udziela kredytu bez bik pożyczki wg msr pożyczki w bydgoszczy oddziały kredyt banku kredyt bank falenica kredyt bank infolinia z komórki kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie kredyt bank lokata jesienna bank kredyt dom lębork jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik skok piast kredyt 5000 kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe jak kredyty pozabankowe bez bik przez internet windykacja pożyczki prywatnej bocian pozyczki glogow meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik dla firmy księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki nowe pożyczki chwilówki online wszystkie pożyczki internetowe pożyczki prywatna jak działają pożyczki społecznościowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w pbs pożyczki w domu klienta wałbrzych pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości łódź pożyczki dla wolnych zawodów kredyt budowlany w jakim banku kredyt bank w dabrowie tarnowskiej kredyt w idea banku forum pożyczki prywatne w krakowie kredyt bank bankomaty mielec pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa kredyt gotówkowy bez bik opole kredyt bank wbk kalkulator pożyczka w domu poznań kredyt bank karta kredytowa student pozyczki victoria kredyt 3x33 w santander consumer bank pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez nieruchomości pożyczki bez bik grójec pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową kredyt bank w debicy włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki społecznościowe ryzyko udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2012 kredyty bez bik kwidzyn pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki dla widniejących w krd odsetki od pożyczki wibor kredyt bank wyplata za granica kredyt bank piotrków godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki wbk 2014 pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław pożyczki dla bezrobotnych w zgierzu kredyt studencki pko umorzenie pożyczki internetowe w 15 minut pożyczki pod zastaw sochaczew kredyt bank marcinkowskiego jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zł umorzenie pożyczki spółce powiązanej kredyt konsolidacyjny w lukas banku kredyty dla zadluzonych katowice umowa pożyczki spółka cywilna kto brał kredyt w getin banku umowa pożyczki ze spółką kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach dukat pożyczki warszawa kredyty chwilowki krakow kredyt dla firm bez bik kielce kredyt bank kraków kapelanka reklama pożyczki kredyty chwilówki rozmowa kwalifikacyjna pożyczki prywatne a urząd skarbowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank oddział konstancin księgowanie pieniędzy w kredyt banku kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyty mieszkaniowe zmiany 2014 żyrowanie pożyczki getin bank warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu kredyty firmowe bez biku deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum pożyczki prywatne lubin pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki pozabankowe legnica pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku kredyt bez bik zus us pożyczki z komornikiem katowice kredyt samochodowy mbank warunki kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank paulina gąska pożyczki w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bez biku chrzanow pożyczki ratunkowe opole pożyczki społecznościowe w polsce kredyt dla firm w getin banku pożyczki podobne do bociana pożyczki na dowód chwilówka szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy micro finance pożyczki pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki pozyczki z zadluzeniem komorniczym skok stefczyka pożyczki dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki a darowizna pożyczki prywatne września kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem kredyt bank grochowska kredyt bez bik do 150 tys pożyczki zfśs w bilansie pożyczki pod zastaw motocykla pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela mikropożyczki starachowice firma pozyczkowa kronos szczecin kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie pożyczki grochowska wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok pożyczki blog pożyczki prywatne wągrowiec pożyczki bez bik kwidzyn kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kontakt pozyczka bez biku Środa wlkp orange kod kredyt provident odmowa pożyczki umowa pożyczki wyłudzenie w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa kredyt bez bik gdzie można dostać pomóżcie bankomaty kredyt banku ciechanów kredyt z banku zagranicznego kto udziela pozyczek bez bik kredyt studencki pko wypłata kalkulator procentowy pożyczki kredyty bez bik żywiec pożyczki w lombardzie pozyczki placówki w pabianicach przelewy w kredyt banku pożyczki bocian numer telefonu pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw duże pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt bank płock kolegialna pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa wzór umowy pożyczki zfron przedawnienie roszczeń z umowy pożyczki bankowej kto udziela pozyczek bez bik pozyczki w domu klienta chwilowki poznan alior bank sa kredyt pożyczki unijne na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki online w 15 minut pożyczki na dowód dąbrowa górnicza kredyty bez biku inowrocław kredyt bank rebranding zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang rybnik kredyty bez bik z komornikiem kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego polbank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank oferta dla wspólnot kredyt bank zabrze godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu w santander bank kredyt bocian glogow mikropożyczki na rentę socjalną jaki jest nr na kredyt z orange pożyczki prywatne kraków trudne pozyczki poznan pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie kredyt bankowy obrotowy pożyczki pod zastaw zbąszyń kredyt bank polkowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek kredyt bank chwilówka kredyt w sobotę najtańsze kredyty gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki bez bik 24 opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs oferia pożyczki pozyczki bez biku poznan pożyczki 4000 kredyt konsolidacyjny expander odsetki od pożyczki koszty finansowe pożyczki przez internet bez pracy kredyty pozabankowe pod weksel kredyt bank 7 pcc od pożyczki od firmy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2012 kredyt bez bik malbork kredyt bank zarząd pożyczki płońsk księgowanie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem pożyczki nowy sącz kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin pożyczki golden opodatkowanie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank kondratowicza godziny otwarcia pożyczka przez internet bez sprawdzania kredyt samochodowy dla firm credit agricole pożyczki bankowe dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny a bik ranking pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki online bez krd umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej kredyty studenckie warunki otrzymania kredyt w banku spóldzielczym pożyczki dla firm na start bez bik kredyty chwilówki tychy niepodległości pożyczki poznań bez bik pożyczki bez bik dla firm pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki dla firm łódź trudne pożyczki bez bik asper pożyczki kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyt pozabankowy radom kredyt chwilówki kraków kredyty chwilówki wrocław drobnera bocian pozyczki swinoujscie pożyczki na firme bez bik słupia pożyczki dla firm kalkulator pożyczki provident kredyt bank grodzka szczecin kredyty chwilówki białystok lipowa 45 pożyczki śląskie kredyt bez bik dla każdego pożyczki socjalne w pracy pożyczki gotówkowe na umowe zlecenie pożyczki pod zastaw pkd pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank marki godz otwarcia kredyt bank nip pożyczki pcc pozyczki dla zadluzonych przez telefon kredyt bank sokołów podlaski kontakt ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf chomikuj kredyt samochodowy mbank kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie pożyczki chwilówki łomża kredyt bank iii oddział wrocław kredyty bez bik podkarpacie kredyt mieszkaniowy mój dom pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe w domu klienta kredyty bez bik gorzów wielkopolski pożyczki 24h opinie ogłoszenie pożyczki pożyczki bank pko pożyczki pod zastaw tychy pożyczki bez big i bik getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kod do orange kredyt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2012 konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie pożyczka bez bik i krd mława odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór kredyty chwilówki definicja kredyty w uk po polsku kredyty chwilówki rrso kredyt bank warszawa chałubińskiego umowa pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński trudne pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank w kępnie kredyt chwilówka getin bank kredyt bank oszczędzanie umowa pożyczki z zastawem rejestrowym kod o kredyt w orange kredyty chwilówki piotrków tryb kredyty mieszkaniowe od 2014 roku kredyt bank złodzieje kredyt bank starachowice telefon pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych windykator terenowy kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyty chwilówki samochody darowanie pożyczki obliczanie odsetek pożyczki getin bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój kredyt studencki 2013 banki ostatnia sesja w kredyt banku kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych warszawa pożyczki społecznościowe chwilówki kredyt bank twardzickiego szukam pożyczki łódź kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki pod zastaw olkusz rola kredytów w działalności banku kredyt bez bik kalkulator kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych 25000zl kredyty chwilówki komisja nadzoru finansowego pożyczki przez internet za darmo pożyczki na rok przez internet pożyczki głogowska pozyczki dla pracujacych z komornikiem pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica pozyczki dla pracujacych z komornikiem umowa pożyczki podatek vat kasa stefczyka warunki pożyczki umowa pożyczki cywilnej wzór pożyczki prywatne zabrze kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki w euro konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki z internetu pozyczki chwilowki konkret lomza kredyt bank wałbrzych broniewskiego kredyty mieszkaniowe getin bank pożyczki bez bik ogłoszenia pożyczki bank millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja rat kredyty chwilówki windykacja tychy warunki spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki prodomo prodomo pożyczki starogard bocian pożyczki ostróda bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku kredyt bank nowy sącz jagiellońska kredyt mieszkaniowy dublin pożyczki prywatne aktualne oferty kredyt bankowy a kupiecki w jakim banku w swarzędzu dostane pozyczke z pit kredyty bez bik opole gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem reklama pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy warszawa firma pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór pisma kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki kredyt bank w przeworsku g

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad