udzielę pożyczki pod weksel poznań kredyt bank świętokrzyskie kredyt bank telefon pożyczki bez prowizji kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana pracy pożyczki bez bik dobra pożyczka kredyt bank bonifraterska kredyt gotówkowy credit agricole oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki przemyśl kredyt dla firm bez bik zus us kredyt bank 24 login kredyty bez bik długoterminowe kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyt gotowkowy chwilowka tczew pożyczki złotów ale pozabankowe szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pozyczki w domu klienta bez weryfikacji kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki infinity kredyt bank akademia przedsiębiorcy bezpieczne pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki skawina bocian pożyczki wieluń kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator poszukuję pożyczki pod zastaw abis pożyczki dla każdego kalkulator pożyczki credit agricole pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku kredyt bank oblicz ratę kredyt bank dietla pożyczki w domu klienta inowrocław kredyt bank pyskowice kredyt bank adres optima pożyczki grudziądz kredyt w raiffeisen bank forum pożyczki 20 000 szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big panda pożyczki nysa opinie kredyt w pko sa forum pożyczki od 18 lat pożyczki od rodziny pcc kredyt bank zmienił nazwe przelewy w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki tychy dmowskiego skarabeusz pożyczki będzin kredyt mieszkaniowy bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska 25 pożyczki chwilówki bolesławiec pożyczki w banku bez bik kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce kredyt bank zmiana danych osobowych kredyt dla studenta bzwbk w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód kredyty bankowe rachunkowość actum pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync kredyt bank warszawa polna 11 kredyt bank swidnica umowa pożyczki od kolegi regulamin kredytu studenckiego pko bp udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat pozyczki wonga won kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe przepisy pożyczki 10000 zł jak działają pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd big kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank piła kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe bank pekao sa szybkie pożyczki cieszyn oprocentowanie kredytu fm bank pożyczki dla firm porównanie kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki gotówkowe eurocent helios pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa kredyt chwilówka mbank kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki pozabankowe na pit gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp 2013 pożyczki na świeta opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec kredyt w banku a rozwód kredyt bank środa śląska pożyczki kalkulator lukas bank w ktorym banku najlatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej bocian pożyczki i podobne kredyt bank w elblągu rentowność pożyczki pożyczki w domu gdynia wzór umowy dobrej pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń kredyty dla malych firm bez bik kredyt bank gdynia witomino godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wałbrzych pożyczki w 24 godziny biznes pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kredyt dla firm bez bik us i zus kredyt bank włochy kredyt w bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank grodzisk wielkopolski kredyty bez biku gdansk pożyczki w banku bgż wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia szybkie pożyczki tczew pożyczki pozabankowe lublin kredyt bank poznan krauthofera kredyt bank bławatna gdynia ksiegowanie pozyczki de minimis kredyt rns getin bank opinie pożyczki pod weksel poznań mikropożyczki bangladesz umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc forum kredytowe kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank olsztyn telefon kalkulator pożyczki bankowej pożyczki bez bik i krd olsztyn pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki getin bank kredyty samochodowe forum kredyt bank csv getin noble bank kredyt na start szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław duże pożyczki prywatne żyrafa pożyczki poznań kredyt bank lokata progres szybkie pożyczki bez bik płock kredyt bez biku radom feniks słupsk kredyty kredyt bank zmiana adresu potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki 2014 pożyczki bez bik starachowice kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie ofert banków pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować pożyczki chwilówki online 24h kędzierzyn koźle pozyczki bez biku i krd kredyty dla malych firm na start 2014 kredyt bank powstańców wrocław pozyczki raz dwa trzy bez bik i krd kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty prywatne pozyczki na zaswiadczenie o dochodach kredyty chwilówki 24h kredyty bez biku i zdolnosci kredytowej pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki bochnia pożyczki chwilówki wady prodomo pozyczki piła kredyt bank krasnystaw telefon kredyt bank pilsudskiego lodz pożyczki chwilówki meritum szybkie kredyty online bez bik w jakim banku wziąc kredyt kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest kredytem konsumenckim dobra umowa pożyczki kredyt bank 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości toruń umowa pożyczki działalność gospodarcza kredyt bank marki godz otwarcia pożyczki prywatne busko zdrój tytuł przelewu pożyczki korzyści pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin kredyt gotówkowy banku pocztowym pożyczki bez bik do domu kredyt bank 1 oddział warszawa wyrok umowa pożyczki kredyt bank suwałki godziny otwarcia udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium kalkulator pożyczka plus kłodzko kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pocztowy pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic wniosek oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa i okolice pożyczki chwilówki nowe wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie obcej pożyczki bocian szczytno pożyczki jędrzejów pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki dla firm skok kredyt konsolidacyjny kto może dostać pożyczki typu bocian pożyczki na dowód na raty pożyczki cywilno prawne umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek szybkie pożyczki na umowe zlecenie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 kredyty chwilówki mikołów kody do orange na kredyt udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu kredyt bankowy wstęp pożyczki całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank w rumi kredyt do orange pod jaki numer pożyczki od 20 lat kredyt bank warszawa wawelska umowa pożyczki cywilnej kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie kredyt pozabankowy na oświadczenie pożyczki katowice kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku forum kredyty mieszkaniowe dla emerytów odsetki od pożyczki deklaracja kredyt pozabankowy oferty fines pożyczki opinie kalkulator pożyczki bnp paribas szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry kredyt pozabankowy definicja pożyczki od zaraz wrocław provident kredyt samochodowy w lukas banku kredyty bez bik krd big umowa umorzenia pożyczki wzór pożyczki biłgoraj pozyczki gros leszno jak zwiększyć kredyt odnawialny pekao pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadzczen i limitów wiekowych kredyt bank kontakt lublin kredyt w irlandii bank of ireland kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny z windykacją umowa pożyczki papierów wartościowych kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zabrze godziny otwarcia kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki na czas określony kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa pożyczka bez banku kredyt bank ii oddział wrocław kredyt bez bik przez internet forum kredyty firmowe bez biku kredyty chwilówki telefon oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw tarnobrzeg kredyt bank sa iban umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna chwilowka tczew czy dostane pozyczke na dowod pod jaki numer się bierze kredyt orange pożyczki aviva pożyczki bez bik gumtree pożyczki pod zastaw siedlce umowa pożyczki między matką a synem pożyczki w chf pożyczki parabank kredyty mieszkaniowe szczecin pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych mbank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bez bik kredyt bank ekstrakonto junior pożyczki chwilówki wronki kredyty bez bik lublin umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie pkobp kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bankowy podsumowanie kredyt gotówkowy alior bank forum kredyt bank euro przelew pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna firma wartość pożyczki kredyt na 5 zl orange alior bank kredyt za wyciąg pożyczki bez bik żyrardów kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk pożyczki bez biku przemyśl kredyt bank śliska pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa pożyczki prywatne koszalin banknot pożyczki łódź pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin 24h pożyczki lichwa pozyczki w pko kredyty chwilówki program partnerski kredyt bez bik do 50 tys poznań kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyty bez bik bielsko pożyczki bez bik łódź kredyt w toyota bank udzielę pożyczki na procent warszawa kredyt refinansowy eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp rodzina na swoim kredyt bank lubin godziny pracy bankomaty kredyt banku w krakowie kredyt bank piaseczno godz otwarcia pożyczki geronimo szybka pozyczka z zajeciem komorniczym 2014 pożyczki biała podlaska mikro pożyczki zamiast dotacji pożyczki bez pracy tanie kredyt bank bankomaty rzeszów kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe kredyty bez bik w płocku kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank kredyt bank kosztorys kredyty chwilówki krosno pozyczka bez dochodu skarabeusz pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik pożyczki łomża kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich pożyczki pozabankowe grodzisk mazowiecki kredyt chwilówka bez biku pożyczki na dowód choszczno pożyczki gotówkowe gros umorzenie pożyczki pcc kredyty chwilówki kalwaryjska kraków pożyczki pod weksel kraków udzielenie pożyczki proz w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki pobierz kredyt mieszkaniowy rynek pierwotny pożyczki otrzymane pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg kredyty chwilówki centrala tychy umowa pożyczki jaki sąd pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz mikropożyczki definicja kredyty bez bik 2012 udziele pożyczki prywatnie łódź kredyt bank dalekowschodni kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank konto junior wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyt bank żagiel oddziały kredyty bez biku malbork kredyt bank czynny warszawa skarabeusz chorzów pożyczka na dowód pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem poznań umowa pożyczki osobie prywatnej kredyt bank racibórz mickiewicza pożyczki mieszkaniowe agh kredyt bank gdansk godziny otwarcia standardowa umowa pożyczki kredyt bank radlin godziny otwarcia pożyczki siemianowice śląskie pożyczki prywatne oferty 2013 kredyt bank nr konta pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce kredyt bank wlasciciel kredyt bank oświęcim telefon kredyt bank ogólne warunki kredytowania odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt kredyt bank wrocław telefon ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bocian pożyczki tomaszów maz kredyt bank oferta dla wspólnot pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki kredyt bez bik w łodzi żyrowanie pożyczki w pracy pożyczka dla zadłużonych warszawa kredyt bank olkusz kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe podlaskie kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie prywatne pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary abis pożyczki opinie kredyt bank oddział lublin kredyty pod zastaw auta bez bik prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków kredyt chwilówka sierpc kredyt bank w poznaniu godziny otwarcia pozyczki pod zastaw leszno kredyt bank rachunek firmowy pozyczka pod zastaw kielce pożyczki chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt studencki pko zakończenie studiów kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz ostrów pożyczka od osoby prywatnej pożyczki najkorzystniejsze kredyt mieszkaniowy na oświadczenie o dochodach wzór umowy pożyczki dla syna szybkie pożyczki bez krd gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 kredyty pozabankowe wejherowo kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych dobry kredyt pozabankowy kredyt mieszkaniowy na firmę pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne kredyt bank częstochowa adres pożyczki tygodniowe oprocentowanie pożyczki kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator pożyczki unijne dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw pożyczki prywatne dla osób z komornikiem pożyczki na procent bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki wniosek idea bank kredyt inwestycyjny opinie pożyczki chwilówki częstochowa getin bank wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident kredyt bank w przemyślu pożyczki przez internet na konto pożyczki jarosław pożyczki społecznościowe wiki pożyczki ostrołęka getin bank kredyt gotówkowy online kredyty chwilówki partner logowanie kredyt bank sokółka godziny otwarcia pożyczki 20000 zł kredyt bank kursy walut chf kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zatrudnieniu pożyczki chwilówki gorlice kredyty bez bik w rybniku pożyczki biznesowe symulacja kredytu w credit agricole kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi kredyt na dowód kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilówki janosik witam kredyt bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki kadry kredyty bez biku piła umowa pożyczki z siostrą pożyczki pozabankowe 30000 pożyczki dla firm bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach szwajcarskich kredyt na firme bez biku kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników bank spółdzielczy odsetki od pożyczki właściciela pożyczki na dowód skok stefczyka status pożyczki kredito24 kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt bank pakiet aktywny szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania na dowud pożyczki na dowód tuchola prodomo pożyczki opinie skarabeusz pożyczki przemyśl pożyczki dla obcokrajowców pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident oprocentowanie pożyczki krótkoterminowej kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko bp pożyczki kalkulator ing pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych kredyt kielce kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat bank bedzin ktory udzieli kredytu na dowod pożyczki chwilówki bez bik lublin kredyty chwilówki bez biku pożyczki chwilówki wodzisław śląski kredyt bank jarosław godziny otwarcia pożyczki oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyty w uk dla polakow kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator pożyczki bez bik bank kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki bez bik 5000 pożyczki na dowód mbank kredyty chwilówki malbork kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik kredyt bank wielun kontakt firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 procent termin przedawnienia umowy pożyczki bocian pożyczki windykacja kredyt bank leżajsk targowa umowa pożyczki bez procentu kredyt bez bik zawiercie kredyty chwilówki prokuratura kredyt bank euribor zwrot pożyczki pokwitowanie wzór pożyczki bzwbk meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt na mieszkanie w jakim banku forum kredyt bank łączy się z wbk pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt samochodowy a firma kredyt bank polaczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko sa bocian pożyczki opcja przelew pożyczki 48h kredyty dla firm bez bik forum kredyty bankowe sciaga szybkie pożyczki bez bik szczecin

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad