najkorzystniejsze pożyczki umowa pożyczki w działalności gospodarczej pożyczki chwilówki wąbrzeźno kredyt bank sa warszawa kontakt skarabeusz pożyczki rawicz kredyt bez bik oswiecim pożyczki prywatne jaworzno kredyt niski procent w santander consumer bank kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie banków szybkie pożyczki 0 pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk umowa pożyczki od firmy kredyt lombardowy banku komercyjnego kredyty chwilówki online bez bik kredyt bank jasło kontakt kredyt bank w pulawach pożyczki dla zadłużonych łódź eurocash pozyczki poznan kredyt bankowy definicja kredyt bank śliska umowa pożyczki pieniędzy doc umowa pożyczki z pracodawcą auto kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank pila sikorskiego pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz pożyczki multika pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie potrzebuję pożyczki 2012 umowa pożyczki bez procentu pożyczki na dowód jawor pożyczki socjalne w pracy kredyt bez bik dla rolników kredyt bank oszukuje alior bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik kredyt samochodowy bez bik krd kredyt bez bik idea bank pożyczki dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyt bank nowe środki agnieszka wąchała pożyczki pożyczki papierów wartościowych pozyczki w domu klienta bez bik kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bytom kredyt bank chełm godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lublin zana 39a kredyty bez bik ruda śląska getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy jaki procent kredytu w vivus kredyt bank zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy ubezpieczenia bocian pożyczki zg kredyt bank lokaty 6 5 chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów kredyty chwilówki szczecin wyzwolenia prominent pożyczki lublin pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 minut kredyt bank białystok radzymińska godziny otwarcia pożyczki skok chmielewskiego pożyczki na weksel lublin pożyczki pod zastaw jawor pożyczki pod zastaw polisy kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon pożyczki ebc kredyt pozabankowy szybki kredyt bank przelewy wewnętrzne kredyty mieszkaniowe pdf pożyczki 1000 nadpłata pożyczki ing pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie pożyczki chwilówki sieradz kredyt rodzina na swoim getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa żelazna pożyczki bez biku na oświadczenie pożyczki na dowód chwilówka pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów kredyt bank warszawa wola opodatkowanie pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph pozyczki 7 w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyty bez bik wodzisław śląski podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki pozabankowe do domu kredyt bank hr alior bank kredyt bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt bank wpłatomat kredyt bank stradomska godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp kredyt bank limit wypłat pozyczki wonga won kredyt bank mmz złe kredyty w działalności banków pożyczki na prefinansowanie kredyt studencki jakie banki szybkie kredyty bez biku kredyt bank lokaty negocjowane profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki pożyczki dla rolników 2012 pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa bocian pożyczki tarnów pożyczki franczyza kredyt bank piła sikorskiego wydawnictwo zaciągnęło kredyt w banku na druk kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne dla firm kredyty plock bocian kredyt na dowod w credit agricole jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange finan pożyczki kalisz pcc od pożyczki między firmami kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań pożyczki żuromin w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez spółkę pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku kredyt bank hr umowa pożyczki 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank w kolobrzegu pożyczki w banku ing kredyt bank kontakt tel kredyt pozabankowy na firmę sprzedaż wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki optima pożyczki malbork kredyty bez bik i krd szybkie pożyczki chorzów kredyt samochodowy alior bank wyciągi w kredyt banku pozyczki prywatne kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny ulga odsetkowa umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem kredyt chwilówki końskie kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa kredyt w lukas banku pożyczki prywatne w bogatyni scarabeusz pozyczki piotrkow daily finance pożyczki kredyt w paribas bank opinie pożyczki oblicz ratę kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki lichwa pożyczki chwilówki bez odsetek kredyty siódemka czechowice kalkulator kredyt chwilówka uk pożyczki pozabankowe w piotrkowie trybunalskim kredyt bank chf kurs oblicz ratę pożyczki pekao kredyty bez bik pszczyna kredyt w banku zachodnim pożyczki dla młodych przedsiębiorców pożyczki żywiec umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o eurocash pożyczki lublin bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie kredyty banku pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe credit agricole 30 tysiecy pozyczki dla zadluzonych w poznaniu gdzie znajduje siedziba bocian pożyczki pożyczki online bez sprawdzania baz kredyty bez bik i krd slask pożyczki dla zadłużonych toruń ing bank kredyt samochodowy pozyczki bez bik ciechanow kredyt bank wiceprezes niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us pożyczki bez bik cała polska pożyczki bez bik provident kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu kredyty gotowkowe lodz prywatnie najtańsze kredyty gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki chwilówki grójecka kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wałbrzych kredyt gotówkowe na dowód warszawa pożyczki w bedzinie kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście 37 pożyczki 5000 definicja pożyczki bankowej mikropożyczki online kredyty bez bik lodz naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank maestro kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator kredyt bez bik co to znaczy kredyty chwilowki pinczow kredyt bank łowicz telefon bocian pożyczki żory eurocash pożyczki toruń kredyt w orange pop numer kredyt bank zadłużenie przeterminowane kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych szybkie pożyczki przez internet dla zadłużonych pożyczki gotówkowe na pit sprawdzone kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe pożyczki odnawialne kredyt bank krakowska opole kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank kredyty bankowe definicja opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziców kredyt bank lipowa 4 białystok kredyt na nowa firme bez bik prywatna szybka pozyczka zywiec kredyty dla nowych firm bez biku warunki pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik online pożyczki prywatne chełm bank millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb pożyczki społecznościowe co to kredyt bez bik w parabanku kredyt bez bik wbk certus pożyczki warszawa pozyczki chwilowki szczecin kredyt bezzwrotny idea bank opinie kredyt bank w swarzędzu getin bank kredyt samochodowy infolinia jaki jest kod do kredytu w orange zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc szybkie pożyczki wyszków kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas bank pko sa kredyty konsolidacyjne pokwitowanie zwrotu pożyczki getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy max nowe pozyczki pozabankowe kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking symulacja kredytu w credit agricole kredyt bez bik i krd online pożyczki dla prawników kredyt bez bik do 50 tys kredyt za kredyt w getin banku kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew kredyt bank w skawinie pożyczki bez poręczycieli opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach szwajcarskich kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych mikropożyczki definicja wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziny kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki pożyczki ala provident kredyt online bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki na dowód zduńska wola gdzie można dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie kod w orange na kredyt kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa kredyt bank legnica godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe sms alior bank kredyt przez internet opinie umowa pożyczki zastaw kredyt banki sieradz kredyt bez biku bielsko pożyczki do domu legnica pożyczki bez bik kępno pozyczki pozabankowe w euro w holandii pożyczki gotówkowe łódź kredyt bank wisła nowe szybkie pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki wspólników fides pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank retkinia tarnów pożyczki prywatne pożyczki chodzież kredyt bank przedłużona gwarancja księgowanie pożyczki w stowarzyszeniu kredyty gotówkowe bez bik przez internet pożyczki kasa amber gold pożyczki pcc umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt bank piotrków tryb kontakt el global rzeszów grunwaldzka kredyty opinie kredyt studencki pko bp termin umowa pożyczki z wekslem firma kronos pożyczki kontakt pożyczki żary kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa kredyt bez bik na juz kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 żyrafa pożyczki śrem getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyt bank wrocław bielany wrocławskie pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyty chwilówki przez sms pożyczki do domu optima kredyt bank bankomaty białystok kredyt bank centrum bankowości korporacyjnej wrocław pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt na dowód getin bank kredyt dla firm bez bik us zus kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin w jakim banku brac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty bez bik dla firm kredyt pozabankowy opole facebook pożyczki pożyczki prywatne 24h kredyt bank lista bezpłatnych bankomatów kredyt bank poznań garbary godziny otwarcia gdzie kredyt bez bik opinie potwierdzenie salda pożyczki pozyczki dla kazdego kontakt lomza kredyt bank warszawa chałubińskiego kredyty bez bik us zus kredyt w toyota bank kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice kredyt samochodowy mbank kredyt bank galaxy szczecin szukam pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank nowy targ godz otwarcia kredyty bez biku ikrd pozyczka dla 18 latków bez bijk brak zwrotu pożyczki przestępstwo cel umowy pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta elbląg umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bez bik w jakim banku pożyczki bez oprocentowania kredyt bank gdynia skwer eurocash pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank ostrow maz kredyty mieszkaniowe a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bocian zielona góra pożyczki chwilówki żary pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem kredyt gotówkowy banku bph artur kobus pożyczki pożyczki gross toruń kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora zastępczego kokos pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bank kredyt bank wieliczka godziny otwarcia pożyczki w vivus opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach prywatne pożyczki pod weksel poznań udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi umowa pożyczki druk darmowy kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe kredyt bank czechowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki kamienna góra pożyczki bez bik przeworsk pożyczki dla nowych przedsiębiorców kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe kredyt bank w krynicy zdroju magdalena boczarska pożyczki promocja pożyczki pożyczki zaciągane przez państwo pożyczki gotówkowe w rodzinie pożyczki biznes pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt bank władysławowo pożyczki prywatne aktualne oferty siedziba kredyt banku warszawa kredyt bank w tczewie pożyczki wrocław na dowód pożyczki chwilówki inwestowanie kredyt samochodowy dla firm oprocentowanie podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kredyt studencki lista banków zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt samochodowy w santander opinie pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck czy mozna umorzyc kredyt w banku kredyty pozabankowe szczecin umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wzór kredyty bez biku gdańsk kredyt dla firm bez bik i zabezpieczeń nr tel pożyczki bocian stargard szczeciński kontakt banki które udzielają kredytów bez biku udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat umowa konwersji pożyczki pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem kredyt studencki forum opinie prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe forum pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt kredyt bank regon kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 pożyczki chwilówki zary kredyt bank dt czy kredyt konsolidacyjny można skonsolidować koszty kredytu mieszkaniowego w angli kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety i wady kredyt bank warszawska białystok kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik wielkopolska kredyt bank zambrów kredyt pozabankowy lodz kredyty chwilowki sprawdzają bik pożyczki koło kredyt bank włoclawek odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota jak dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank departament finansowania handlu kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank kod na kredyt w orange mix wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt bank grójecka 45 kredyt bank białystok pożyczki skarabeusz kolbuszowa kredyt w banku irlandzkim wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyty bez bik banki pozyczka prywatna veksel dzierzoniow pożyczki bez krd i bez bik kredyt bank liczba zatrudnionych żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe odnowienie pożyczki w koncie udzielenie pożyczki spółce komandytowej kredyt obrotowy w alior banku pożyczki od osób prywatnych katowice kredyt samochodowy getin kredyty mieszkaniowe w wielkiej brytanii pożyczki z budżetu państwa dla jst poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bankowy warunki kredyt bank wrocław placówki pożyczki prywatne online kredyt bank w koszalinie getin noble bank zdrowy kredyt pożyczki komornikiem kredyt bez bik prywatny kredyt konsolidacyjny ulga odsetkowa umowa pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank płock kolegialna telefon pożyczki bez bik provident kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyt bez bik debica kredyt bank racibórz mickiewicza kredyty bez biku inowrocław kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 godziny otwarcia firma bocian pożyczki kontakt najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla jst źyrafa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki warszawa ochota pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt studencki na jakich warunkach kredyt z przelewem na konto pożyczki bydgoszcz kujawska kredyty konsolidacyjne śląsk pożyczki bez bik do 10 tys oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp pozyczka dla 18 latków bez bijk kredyty pozabankowe katowice umowa pożyczki przedawnienie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyty bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank przelewy zagraniczne wzór umowy pożyczki bez odsetek pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz uczciwe pożyczki bez bik kredyt w gorzowie bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki radom kredyty pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty pożyczki prywatne krotoszyn kredyty bez bik ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyty instytucje pozabankowe kredyty bankowe literatura pożyczki bez big i krd kredyt bank warszawa sobota przejęcie kredytu przez firme kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl promocje w kredyt bank kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki gofin pożyczki gros kapitał kredyt bank kolobrzeska kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator pożyczka w domu klienta śląsk przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania bocian pożyczki karta kredyt w getin banku 2013 pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bank pekao sa kredyt wpis w big mikropożyczki lubuskie rafał konarski pożyczki kredyt studencki w bz wbk

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad