nowe pożyczki chwilówki 2014 udzielę pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki bez biku pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik skarbiec kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra kredyt bank rozana kredyt bank pełnomocnictwo kredyt bez biku dla firmy kredyt bank augustów kontakt wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank w kępnie kredyt pod zastaw w banku pożyczki grójec kredyt bank warszawa al krakowska getin noble bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 kredyt na mieszkanie jaki bank skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyt bank grójecka 186 godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa kredyt bez bik skarbiec bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt studencki pko 2012 księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki prywatnej wzór kredyt bank wołomin pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi kredyt w bank pocztowy opinie kredyt samochodowy mbank historia pożyczki pożyczki na konto umowa pożyczki rewolwingowej wzór pod jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange pożyczki gotówkowe telefon odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne szybko kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik kredyty w uk forum pożyczki bezpłatne kredyt bank nr regon pozyczka chwilowka bez krdbikbig kredyt bank warszawa radość kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej w ing kredyty chwilówki pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku mały kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki na dowód osobisty bez zaświadczeń kredyty pożyczki gotówkowe bip pożyczki zielona góra kredyt bez bik białystok kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki na dowód przez internet bez bik oferta pożyczki czestochowa pozyczka pod zastaw auta kredyt bank wschowa kredyt konsolidacyjny co to kredyt bez bik poznań bocian pożyczki olsztyn telefon kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia gliniana bez bik kredyt poznań kredyt bank z kim się połączył te pożyczki opinie kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe wzór umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem druk pcc umowa pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne warunki kredyt w uk na dom pożyczki daiglob finance bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyty bankowe literatura kredyt na mieszkanie jaki bank forum kwota pożyczki bez podatku wzór umowy pożyczki z pracownikiem pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa pożyczki z ratami tygodniowymi czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki pcc od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy przedawnienie umowy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik rawicz certus pożyczki warszawa pożyczki jak provident udzielę pożyczki prywatnej poznań koszty pożyczki prywatnej eurobank kredyt w 15 minut termin przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka kredyt bank zmienia nazwe kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych kredyty bez bik pozabankowe umowa pożyczki między rodziną kredyt bank kwidzyn godziny otwarcia www optima pl do ilu daja kredyt kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw umowa pożyczki a zwolnienie z pcc pożyczki współpraca kredyt bez bik 100 tys skarabeusz pożyczki ostrów wlkp pożyczki trzydziestki najszybsze pożyczki online kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2013 pożyczki dla służb mundurowych kredyt studencki pko sa dokumenty pozyczki w domu klienta na dowód warszawa pożyczki chwilówki płońsk optima pożyczki wrocław udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2012 kredyt bank placówki warszawa mokotów kredyt bez bik do 2000 getin bank kredyt opinie klientów pożyczki movum szczecin pożyczki prywatne rypin pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki dla firm opole pożyczki bank śląski optima pożyczki słupsk pożyczki na dowód lublin druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp bocian pożyczki druga pożyczka szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank olecko bocian pożyczki tarnobrzeg umowa pożyczki pomiedzy firmami umowa pożyczki w lombardzie pozyczki w niedziele kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk regulamin dobrej pożyczki pożyczki przez internet getin bank pożyczki dla policjantów pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznań bocian pożyczki provident po zabankowe pożyczki nowa ruda pożyczki środa wlkp powiekszenie pozyczki pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe w domu kredyt bank warszawa marki szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej forum kredyt bank w chełmie pożyczki z unii dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy pożyczki włocławek bez bik szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt idea bank dla firm umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn kredyt w banku na dowod pożyczki dla małych przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank jutrzenki godziny otwarcia konwersja umowy pożyczki obligacyjnej latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow kredyt w banku pocztowym forum kredyty chwilówki fundacja kasa stefczyka kalkulator pozyczki jakie oprocentowanie pozyczki gotowkowej w pekao bp kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza bandrowskiego kredyt w banku warunki pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin bank opinie ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice kredyt w alior banku a bik kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku kredyty bez bik wadowice pożyczki prywatne radom pożyczka bez bik na samochód kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny pożyczki od osób prywatnych częstochowa latwy kredyt pozyczki publiczne zalety przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk kredyt studencki warunki kredyty pozabankowe dla bezrobotnych potrącenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank bps kredyt konsolidacyjny raiffeisen pożyczki bez podatku podatek mikropożyczki lubuskie bocian pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki pozabankowe żywiec odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup kredyt bank kontakt centrala jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowod kredyt bank bełchatów godziny otwarcia do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn w prodomo pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki sms kredyt bank wielkopolska kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa kredyt pozabankowy zielona góra kredyty bez biku ikrd bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd pożyczki pozabankowe gniezno kredyt bank oddział w zamościu kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum pożyczki lombardowe oprocentowanie placówki kredyt banku w białymstoku szybkie pożyczki internetowe bez bik kredyt kwidzyn pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach pożyczki dla pracowników biedronki pożyczki optima praca dyrektor kredytbank zamość wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym kredyt bank sa email kredyt bank w biłgoraju pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec pożyczki bez bik pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank lipno godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe piła kredyty chwilówki strzelin kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b jak wziąć kredyt w orange na 5 zł szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredytowa warunkowa umowa pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem pożyczki chwilówki lista pożyczki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank sa dane do przelewu pożyczki ranking przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał kredyt bank historia banku kontrakt pożyczki w prawie rzymskim godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik prywatne pożyczki kraków prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kredyt chwilówka 2000 kredyt bank plac solny wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyty chwilowki na oswiadczenie pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok pożyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej pożyczki żyrafa opinie kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole opinie pożyczki namysłów kredyt bank oszuści kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium oprocentowanie jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs getin noble bank dział kredytów samochodowych kredyt bez bik w lublinie umowa pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami wzór pozyczki dla beezrobotnych getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt bank numer bic kredyty bez bik dla nowych firm marek woch pożyczki pozyczka onlain lubuskie szybki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt eurobank opinie autokredyt pozabankowo pozyczki pozabankowe 7 ledziny pozyczki bez bik chelmno kredyt gotówkowy online bez bik kredyty chwilówki szczecinek kredyt bank glowna siedziba pozyczyki atiz wzór umowy zawarcia pożyczki pożyczki graniczna lublin bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kontakt kredyty chwilówki sieradz pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać kredyt bank w gorlicach kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz centrala kredyt banku lublin money ok krakow pozyczki kredyty oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń przyznawalność kredytów w credit agricole aig bank polska sa kredyt kredyt bank kozienice kredyt konsolidacyjny tani podatek od odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 kredyt bank adresy w warszawie pożyczki chwilówki umowa kredyt bank kostrzyn nad odrą kredyt bez biku w rybniku nowosc pozyczki do donu pozyczki do domu klienta ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki na dowód złotów kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe standard przedłużenie pożyczki vivus preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin kredyt bank skawina kontakt pożyczki prywatne bez bik i zaświadczeń gdzie uzyskać kredyt bez bik pożyczki z nfoś wzór umowy pożyczki na raty umowa pożyczki oszustwo kredyt konsolidacyjny 60 tys pożyczki bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki kraków szlak pożyczki de minimis umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami pożyczki na dowód bez biku kredyt bank kalwaryjska szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki licytacja kredyt bank janów łódź pożyczki pozabankowe wołomin udzielę pożyczki na procent warszawa kredyt chwilówka krakow pożyczki prywatne wrocław forum opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 pożyczki chwilówki gotówkowe kredyt dla mundurowych w banku pocztowym pożyczki pozabankowe gdańsk kredyt bank dekabrystów kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem skarabeusz pożyczki praca kredyt gotówkowy skok chmielewskiego pożyczki chwilówki od 19 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny chojnice wziecie pozyczki od mafi kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż pożyczki w domu klienta nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe rzeszów pożyczki żagiel kredyt gotówkowy alior bank leasing a kredyt bankowy praca magisterska kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum kredyt bank sa iii oddział we wrocławiu prywatne pożyczki dla nieletnich olsztyn pożyczki legnica kredyt w lukas banku kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw tychy pożyczki bez bik ruda śląska kredyt bank żagiel warszawa pożyczki z urzędu pracy 2013 kredyty chwilówki w tychach kredyt chwilówka rawicz kredyt bank kierownik filii pożyczki konsolidacyjne kredyty bez bik jarocin bocian pożyczki gorzów pożyczki bez bik we włocławku bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie pożyczki w domu klienta piła pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości łódź kredyty chwilówki samochody kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty wbk alior bank przelicznik kredytu spłata kapitału pożyczki kredyty firmowe bez bik czy dostane pozyczke w ei global kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski czy warto brać kredyt studencki forum kredyty bank pko bp kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny pracy najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy na rynku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyt w banku sygma kredyt konsolidacyjny z opóźnieniami kredyt bank radzymińska kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie konta kredyt bank warszawa ochota pożyczki bez weryfikacji online kredyt bez bik bolesławiec kredyt bank powstancow slaskich pożyczki chwilówki nowe kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kontakt kredyt bank w krosnie kredyt mieszkaniowy szybsza spłata kredyt bank łódź aleksandrowska pożyczki chwilówki pruszcz gdański kredyty banku pko bp kredyt gotówkowy w banku wbk bank pko sa kalkulator kredytowy pszczołka pożyczki kontakt kredyty chwilówki lublin umowa pożyczki pcc 2011 kredyt bank wojska polskiego kredyty chwilowki godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty banki spółdzielcze kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt bank wysokie mazowieckie kredyty chwilówki na czym polegają pragma pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki jako przychód umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej 2012 najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank pożyczki i chwilówki umowa pożyczki gotówki kredyty na dowod 18lat olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny z żyrantem kredyt bank sa nip przewalutowanie kredytu w banku millennium pożyczki bocian kościan preferencyjny kredyt studencki opinie zarejestrowanie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kredyty chwilówki windykator kredyt gotówkowy w raiffeisen bank pożyczki na dowód kontakt kredyt bank gorzów godziny otwarcia konsolidacja kredytu w wbk optima pożyczki zarobki pożyczki pod zastaw zgorzelec cesja umowy pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla firmy pożyczki bez opłaty rejestracyjnej pożyczka dla młodych firm bez bik zgorzelec pożyczki prywatne holandia przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt od ręki bez bik i zaświadczeń szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet getin bank kredyty gotówkowe forum niezgłoszenie pożyczki w terminie kredyty i pożyczki jst kredyt bank departament windykacji warszawa umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej podatek pożyczki radziejów przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki pozabankowe puławy kalkulator pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym kredyty chwilowki czestochowa pożyczki bez bik 15000 umowa pożyczki forma pisemna kredyty chwilówki libiąż szybkie pożyczki bez bik przez internet kredyt bank piotrków telefon pożyczki brzozów pożyczki starogard gdański pożyczki dla zadłużonych poznań pożyczki prywatne wypelnij wniosek kredyt w credit agricole forum oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku optima pożyczki śląsk pożyczki od osób prywatnych rzeszów kredyt bankowy konto kredyt bank knurów obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki firma żyrafa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe prudnik bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej credit agricole kredyt w koncie credit agricole pożyczki wąbrzeźno kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej firma bocian pożyczki kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego konwersja pożyczki na udziały kredyt bankowy wiem kredyt bank 1 maja płock pozyczki pozabankowe bez bik w powiecie kutnowskim kredyty mieszkaniowe dopłaty pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 kredyt bank kierownik kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców pozyczka bez bik w mbank kredyty skok stefczyka kredyt bank warszawa ul giełdowa 7 9 kredyt na dowód bydgoszcz kątakt pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk skarabeusz pożyczki kościan kredyt bank zmienia nazwe takto pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki radom kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyt bank śląski kalkulator pożyczki oświecim pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyt chwilowka bez sprawdzania zdolnosci kredytowej koszty udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank gostyń wlkp kredyt bez bik leszno bocian pożyczki numer tel

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad