kredyty chwilówki nowa huta kredyt w jenach banki pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki chwilówki łask kredyt bank w kościanie kredyt pozabankowy obliczenie raty pożyczki zarobki w kredyt banku 2011 kredyt konsolidacyjny niezabezpieczony najtańszy kredyt w którym banku cel umowy pożyczki pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki prywatne gryfice jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc pożyczki gdańsk pożyczki pabianice kredyt na oświadczenie w banku pocztowym kredyt bank zaświadczenia pożyczki chwilówki wołomin pożyczki kieszonkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy porównanie w którym banku łatwo dostać kredyt gotówkowy keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych kredyt bank zytnia 15 umowa pożyczki kiedy pcc wzór oświadczenia pożyczki optima pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki prywatne ciechanów kredyt bank gorlice godziny dobranie kredytu w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki praca kraków pożyczki internetowe w 15 minut iii optima pożyczki do domu kredyt bank bonarka kredyt bank przelewy przychodzące godziny mikropożyczki wiki kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia kredyt bank debet na koncie kredyt bez bik skok stefczyka umowa pożyczki ngo kredyt bank suwałki godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy w trakcie rozwodu kredyt mieszkaniowy w multibanku pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pożyczki finanse ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku świdnica kredyt bank wąwozowa bank pko sa kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bez bik od reki na jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange kredyt bank z kim się połączył pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki na nieruchomości pożyczki na telefon 24 wady pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z poręczeniem w jakim banku korzystny kredyt kredyty mieszkaniowe open finance pożyczki pcc czy vat pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic kredyt studencki porównanie banków kredyt bank kupiony przez umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie bilansowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego własny kąt forum pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank pilsudskiego lodz pożyczki pozabankowe do 20000 pożyczki piaseczno kredyt bank sa piła kredyt bank obsługa kart kredyt bank sa w warszawie departament windykacji kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank forum promocje w kredyt banku pożyczki do domu klienta pożyczki do 10 000 kredyt dla firm w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank prabuty poszukuję pożyczki pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie pożyczki typu wonga kredyt bankowy a emisja obligacji druk pcc od umowy pożyczki pożyczki mennica jelenia góra pożyczki pod zastaw olkusz w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki buk pożyczki prywatne sosnowiec pozyczka 50 000 przez internet kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt bank lublin pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident kredyt bank krynica morska patryk raczkowski pożyczki pożyczki w niedziele kredyt bank które bankomaty bez prowizji kredyty chwilowki klodzko kredyt chwilówka ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki bez przelewu na konto umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki wzór kredyt w banku komercyjnym praca licencjacka bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku kredyt w bank pko sa kredyt bank wojska polskiego zielona góra promocje w kredyt bank opinie o pszczułce kredyty kredyt konsolidacyjny dla każdego pożyczki chwilówki głogów pożyczki nowe kredyty mieszkaniowe poznań pożyczki chwilówki września kredyt samochodowy bez bik warszawa chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd umowa pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia kredyt bank łódź kościuszki godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu kredyty chwilówki gryfino pożyczki bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank jelenia góra godziny otwarcia zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2013 pożyczka od rodziny a decyzja kredytowa kredyt w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa kalkulator kredyty bez biku i zdolnosci kredytowej umowa pożyczki bez daty zwrotu kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości nieruchomości mikserek pożyczki kredyt bankowy to pasywa kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki zgorzelec mariusz tierling pożyczki kredyt bank piekary śląskie wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt w nordea banku szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki dla kolegi kredyt bank lokata 6 5 kredyt bank częstochowa lokaty pozyczka pieniedzy plock jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać jaki numer na kredyt do orange kredyt bank krucza warszawa umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór kredyt bank busko zdrój kontakt kredyt bank warszawa mapa kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki szybkie kredyty bez bik kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk pożyczki chwilówki gostyń kredyt bank w śremie kredyt z banku zagranicznego umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc niespłacany kredyt w banku pożyczki inwestorskie rzeszów grunwaldzka 42 czy warto wziąźć kredyt pożyczki provident oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat kalkulator alior bank kredyt gotówkowy online alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kredyt ratalny przez internet bez bik kredyt bank geneza jak księgować odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki skok wybrzeże pożyczki kredyt bank m1 kraków w jakim banku wziąć kredyt studencki credo pożyczki kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny przetarg kredyty mieszkaniowe dla emerytów abil pożyczki pożyczki 24 na dobe pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław kredyt bank glowna siedziba kredyt konsolidacyjny zasady umowa pożyczki pieniędzy druk druk pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki pozabankowe na spłatę zadłużenia czy trudno dostać kredyt w getin banku pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki chwilówki mława kredyt bank polna warszawa kredyt bank pko sa pożyczki bez bik lubin kredyty bez banku druk spłaty pożyczki pozyczki do domu klienta pcc od pożyczki od firmy w jakim banku brac kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty bez bik zawiercie 18lat na dowod kredyt olsztyn kredyt pozabankowy bez bik alior bank kredyt oferta pożyczki chwilówki firmy kredyty chwilówki siedlce kredyt bank 10 kredyt bank oszukuje kredyt studencki 2012 pko sa lokata rentierska w kredyt banku kredyt bank mieszkanie pożyczki świebodzin pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach kredyty pozabankowe 50000 wonga pożyczka od reki przelew własny w kredyt banku pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kalkulator kredyt na mieszkanie w banku spółdzielczym w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochod pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa kredyt bank rns pożyczki profi credit kalkulator kredyty w skok bez bik pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto kredyt pozabankowy koszalin w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2012 forum pożyczki prywatne konsolidacja kredytu gdzie najlepiej pozyczki na wysoki procent od ludzi prywatnych kredyt konsolidacyjny ulga odsetkowa pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach pozyczka 3000 gdansk kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world fundacja kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyt bank godziny otwarcia gdynia pożyczki na sam dowód osobisty blyskawiczne pozyczki dobry kredyt kalisz w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke pożyczki końskie kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza pożyczki bez biku dla rolników udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia kredyt mieszkaniowy w irlandii forum kredyt bank kasprowicza kredyt bank reklamy alior bank pożyczka dokumenty pozyczki bocian radom pożyczki od osób prywatnych śląskie kredyt studencki oferty banków kredyt studencki bank pekao sa kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2012 oferta kredytową firmy optima kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku pożyczka w domu klijęta elbląg kredyt bank sa cieszyn pożyczki na dowód chwilówka orange kod kredytu kredyt na dowód bez bik i zaświadczeń poznań pożyczki pozabankowe forum dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank sa lodz gdzie kredyt bez bik i krd kredyty na samochod bez biku kredyty mieszkaniowe książki kredyt na pit kredyt bank brzeg dolny kredyt bez bik krd przez internet pożyczki od ręki opinie kredyt bank różana kontakt kredyty dla firm bez bik forum kredyt mieszkaniowy singiel na swoim kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie umowa pożyczki opłata notarialna kredyt bank w janowie lubelskim pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki od osób prywatnych siedlce kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator kredyt bank w lublinie ul krakowskie przedmieście kredyt pozabankowy lodz pożyczka przez internet bez sprawdzania pożyczki na dowód na raty wszystkie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 wzór umow fm bank kredyt inwestycyjny bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza kredyty pozabankowe tychy jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik kredyt bank włocławek kredyty bez bik w kielcach kredyty pozabankowe bez biku szybka pozyczka w uk bez formalnosci do 2000f poszukuję pożyczki pozabankowej kredyty chwilówki poznań głogowska pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulacja kredyt bez bik do 2000 profit pożyczki bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice kredyt bank kostrzyn szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa kredyt bank w sosnowcu szybkie pożyczki vivus pożyczki chwilówki jak otworzyć bocian pożyczki wieluń przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być kronos pożyczki praca szybkie pożyczki bez prowizji preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana kredytobiorcy kredyt bank w rankingach pozyczki łodz kontakt firma udzielająca pożyczki pozyczki bez umowy o prace sanok banki dziedziczenie pożyczki getin bank warunki udzielenia kredytu pożyczki chwilówki internet pożyczki pozabankowe świnoujście pewny kredyt bez biku kredyty do firm parabanki pożyczki dla zadłużonych w krd oferty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank prowizja bankomat kredyt na dowód w banku pocztowym bank pko sa kredyty kalkulator kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw kredyt bank nowy sącz aleje bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pozyczki w pko kredyt bank marketing kontakt kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik katowice kredyty chwilówki bełchatów pożyczki chwilówki uk umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki pożyczki inowrocław kruk kredyty w puławach kredyt bank kępno godziny otwarcia kredyt millenium bank opinie kredyt bank zana pożyczki chwilówki bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe płock pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w bph opinie kredyt bank wołomin kontakt kredyty chwilowki krakow kalwaryjska kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia tanie pożyczki na dowód bocian pożyczki starachowice kredyt bankowy bez biku pożyczki niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank multima przelewy w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki kasprowicza pożyczki chwilówki bartoszyce tanie pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyt bank wałbrzych broniewskiego pożyczki infinite banki kredyty online pożyczki bez bik lublin kredyt na dowód jaki bank pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg szybka pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie pożyczki bez bik jawor spłata pożyczki po niemiecku lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a godziny graniczne w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem kredyt bank łódź kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kalkulator kredyt samochodowy dla firm alior bank prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań pożyczki bez bik chojnice kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty kredyt studencki pko wysokość pożyczki z parabanków kredyt bank bławatna kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki kredyt bank nysa kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe lębork pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia na życie niespłacony kredyt bankowy alior bank kredyt bez zgody współmałżonka uzasadnienie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bank mickiewicza kredyty chwilówki szczecin opinie pożyczki typu wonga pożyczki na pierwszy biznes kredyt samochodowy ranking marzec 2014 kredyt bez bik i krs kredyt bank z kim się połączył kredyt samochodowy credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki w domu klijeta na umowę o dzieło kredyt bez bik sosnowiec kredyt bank bric konsolidacja bez zdolności kredytowej umowa pożyczki jak wypełnić pozyczka z komornikiem lublin pożyczki społecznościowe online pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu bez bik pożyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem bydgoszcz pożyczki wolska umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia kredyty bank santander pożyczki morgis pożyczki bez bik sopot pożyczki opinie przedawnienie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez bik białystok kredyt bez biku katowice kredyt studencki bank zachodni tęcza pożyczki pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach kredyty chwilówki gorlice pożyczki bez bik żyrardów kredyt bank warszawa gocław kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium bank mikropożyczki na otwarcie działalności umowa pożyczki świadek w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy unicredit pożyczki pożyczka do domu płock wzór poręczenia pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe porównanie pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku umowa pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank kozienice kredyt bank i oddział warszawa kredyt pozabankowy szybko kredyt bank infolinia z zagranicy kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą 2013 pozyczki prywatne przez telefon na terenie lublina trust pożyczki kredyt bez biku na oświadczenie pożyczki na rozwój działalności kredyty bez bik wadowice kredyt bank wibor 3m pożyczki świebodzice pożyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej kredyt bez bik na działalność kredyt konsolidacyjny ing getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe kontakt pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe pożyczki pozabankowe od ręki kredyt chwilówka windykator kredyt konsolidacyjny bs w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank w bochni godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla początkujących firm kredyt gotówkowy getin bank forum kredyt bankowy z bik kredyt w alior banku kalkulator bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki prywatne gdzie kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator mbank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat bank udzielajacy pozyczki z dochodami z zagranicy kredyty pożyczki gwarancje bankowe visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód pożyczki bocian praca pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kalkulator proximus pozyczki pozyczki w domu klienta bez bik kredyt bank numer banku open finance krakow pozyczki poza bankowe kredyt bank warszawa grojecka koszt pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki na pit kredyt w tesco na dowod opinie kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik finan pożyczki kwidzyn pożyczki dla firm bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank oddział piła gowork kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy warunki uzyskania pożyczki kredyt bank m1 kraków kontakt

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad