kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach usługi pożyczki białystok kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku najlepiej kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole opinie pożyczki na dowód pleszew luk pożyczki pozyczka bez bik krd bez dochodu spłata pożyczki z amber gold pomocne pożyczki opinie pozyczki scarabeusz praca biala podl pożyczki pod zastaw rtv radom kredyty w idea bank opinie kredyt bank 7 procent kredyt bank klienci indywidualni kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa pożyczki typu bocian pożyczki łuków dobry bank belgia kredyt forum kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat kredyt bank czestochowa godziny otwarcia w jakim banku kredyt na otwarcie firmy euro pożyczki kredyty bez bik skok pożyczki urząd skarbowy pożyczki pod weksel prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe na sms kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyt w getin banku 2013 kredyt bank brzeg godziny otwarcia kredyt bank nr iban kredyt bank augustów kontakt kredyt bez zaświadczeń prywatna pozyczka na zakup mieszkania kredyt bank fundusze kredyty chwilówki bez bik kredyt bez bik 7 kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt pozabankowy kraków bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nowych firm kredyt bank lokata progres kredyty chwilówki nobiles pożyczki dla każdego na dowód przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał czy warto brac kredyt w getin banku umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym wzór prywatne pozyczki na zaswiadczenie o dochodach kredyt bank warszawa zeromskiego kredyty chwilówki zasady pożyczki bez bik przez internet w 15 minut kredyty chwilowki slupsk umowa pożyczki i poręczenia kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń słupsk alior bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank kostrzyn jaki jest nr na kredyt w orange kredyt bez bik debica money now pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw bez bik kredyt bank konferencja kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu pożyczki kórnik umowa pożyczki osób prywatnych nobilon pożyczki gdansk kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyty bez bik i krd poznań kredyt bank opłata za przelew kredyt bank opłata za monit pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń pożyczki na weksel śląskie pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny 50000 czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym polbank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik online pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz kredyt w wbk forum prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań czy umowa pożyczki jest umową wzajemną kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp parabanki pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa nip zwrot pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe kredyty bez bik od reki kredyt samochodowy mbank forum bocian pożyczki lębork kredyt konsolidacyjny dla ludzi z komornikiem kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki wezwanie do zapłaty umowa pożyczki wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe jaki bank wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank leszno al krasińskiego szybki kredyt bez bik krd kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bankowy a pożyczka różnice w jakim banku najtaniej wziac kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny na angielskie zarobki wycena pożyczki w walucie kredyty chwilówki gorzów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow pożyczki bez bik wrocław kredyty studenckie bzwbk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pracujacych w norwegii kredyt konsolidacyjny angielski pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach pożyczki chwilówki poznań głogowska aneks do umowy kredyt studencki pko bp zmiana oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń pozyczki bez baz gdansk kredyt bankowy pekao pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa kredyty chwilówki pożyczki kredyt bez bik eurobank pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik gorzów kredyt 20 lat oddłużeniowy ze zła historia kredytowa data wymagalności pożyczki pozyczki z marr jak ksiegowac kredyt dodatkowy w getin banku bocian pożyczki szczecinek kredyty chwilowki ledziny dobre szybkie pozyczki bez biku i krd kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator euro kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph kredyt bank lokaty opinie karty debetowe w kredyt banku dobre pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyt bez bik w skok profi credit kredyt dla bezrobotnego kredyty mieszkaniowe dane statystyczne wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie pozyczka lubsko bez bik kredyt bankowy wikipedia najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pożyczki bez bik śląskie umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach kredyt eurobank opinie kredyt bank s a centrala kontakt kredyt bank w bialymstoku kredyt studencki 2013 banki kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe w domu klienta uznanie pożyczki pożyczka na uwowa zlecenie czwa kredyt bez bik kościan pozyczki do domu czestochowa kredyt na mieszkanie w wbk kredyt bank grudziądz godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2013 kredyt bank online logowanie szukam osoby do wziecia kredytu ostrow wlkp kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyt bank infolinia 24h kredyt bank koło pożyczki z pracy pożyczki bez bik rypin kronos pożyczki tarnowskie gory telefon wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pekao sa kredyt bank kontakt kredyt na oddłużenie kredyt konsolidacyjny gotowkowy kredyt na komornika na oświadczenie pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki pożyczki bezzwrotne z urzędu pracy umowa pożyczki druk aktywny kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 optima pożyczki warunki bank pko sa kredyt rodzina na swoim pewne pożyczki pozabankowe przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być minimalna rynkowa wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyty chwilówki gowork pożyczki pod zastaw legnica kredyt bank sopot godziny otwarcia jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank rachunek spłat pozyczka do domu gdynia umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór otwock pozyczki chwilowki kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg z konta bank pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny do 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt pozabankowy na dowód kredyt bankowy praca magisterska pożyczki bez bik w kielcach wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny pożyczki pozabankowe łódż kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking banków pożyczki prywatne białystok kredyt rodzina na swoim bank pocztowy opinie rekrutacja w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki loan agreement ciągnienie pożyczki przedmiot pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nowy sącz pozyczki pozabankowe bez bik w powiecie kutnowskim darowizna zamiast pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli bez wkładu duo pożyczki chwilówki pcc od umowy pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki prywatne łomża kredyty bez biku opinie kredyty bankowe klasyfikacja umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit nowakka pożyczki online pożyczki na weksel oferty pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy pozyczka bez bik krd bez dochodu kredyt bank dług kredyt bez zaswiadczen jelenia gora pożyczki na dowód w płocku pożyczki na lichwe kredyt bank śląskie pożyczki prywatne od inwestorów pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt bank w świdnicy kredyt bank kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór pozyczka bez przelewania 1 gr udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie kalkulator pożyczki bank śląski ekspresowe pożyczki bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp pożyczki na weksel kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego kredyt bank garbary godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym szybkie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe bocian pożyczki głogów pozyczka pod weksel czestochowa oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 pożyczki dla każdego 48 nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank w jakim banku brac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki bez biku łódź pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa kredyt w toyota bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm 2013 wzór umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ergo hestia pożyczki bez biku tarnów pożyczki dla firm katowice pożyczki agh kredyt bank warszawa swift kredyt chwilówka jastrzębie zdrój pozyczki pozabankowe pszczyna od 18 lat kredyt bank kod aktywacyjny kredyt bez bik i krd kraków kredyt w banku millenium kredyt w banku na dowod pożyczki prywatne na terenie gostynia kredyt bank zwycięstwa białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy banki ranking kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku najlepiej cechy pozyczki pożyczki jako źródło finansowania pożyczki chwilówki buk które banki dają kredyt w euro obliczanie wysokości pożyczki pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami powiązanymi pożyczki dla firm kraków pozyczki dla zadluzonych od lat 19 przez internet pożyczki przez internet za darmo gdzie kredyt bez biku gdzie kredyt bez bik opinie fines pożyczki kalkulator rat kredytu gotówkowego alior bank zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie pożyczki tak to kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kredyt bank gniezno kontakt kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator jaki jest numer do finan pozyczki kredyt bank rawicz ul sarnowska udzielę prywatnej pożyczki katowice pozyczki z komornikiem boleslawiec kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja pożyczki skok chmielewskiego kredyt samochodowy w ing kredyty chwilówki świecie bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 pożyczka do domu podkarpacie kredyt bank przejmuje kredyt bank punkty karta kredyt bank za granica pożyczki dla 18 latków pożyczki bez bik do 20 tys pożyczki gotówkowe telefon kredyt bank ochota kredyty pozabankowe tychy w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum obliczenie odsetek od pożyczki prawo bankowe kredyt konsumencki kredyt bank konto bankowe kredyt bez biku pozyczki u klienta podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej 2012 kredyt pozabankowy 15000 kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank marki telefon umowa pożyczki od jakiej kwoty kredyty bankowe konto pasywne czy aktywne pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych iii optima pożyczki do domu poręczenie pożyczki w pracy kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak kredyt bank włodawa optima pożyczki na dowód kredyt bez biku częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy bez dochodów kredyty dla zadluzonych katowice pożyczki bocian rzeszów kredyt bank warszawa żytnia oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim proste pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku pko sa forum pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód pożyczki na dowód osobisty bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik starogard gdański umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny pożyczki prywatne opolskie kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje kredyt bank filia jastrowie pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku pko bank polski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard wycena nieruchomości w kredyt banku kredyt bank toruń telefon pożyczki prywatna kredyt studencki pko zakończenie studiów pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pożyczki prywatne forum opinie pożyczki pozabankowe żagań kredyt bank fuzja forum kredyt bez baz kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator obliczenie raty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank placowki katowice kredyt bez bik krd online kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie spółdzielcze kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana kredytobiorcy kredyt w banku lukas pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 umowa zawarcia pożyczki pozyczki do domu inowroclaw ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ergo hestia kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big i krd kredyt bank praca białystok pcc od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy kredyt w banku millennium forum pożyczki nbp pożyczki gotówkowe bez dochodów auto kredyt bez biku kredyt w banku meritum kredyty bez biku inowrocław kredyt dla bezrobotnych bez bik i krd pożyczki prywatne chorzów pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie szybkie pożyczki firmy porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki społecznościowe działalność gospodarcza umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt bank rydla szczecin umowa pożyczki pobierz kredyt bank forum 2011 kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 bank kredyt dom lębork kredyt w pekao sa kalkulator kapitalizacja odsetek od pożyczki udziele pożyczki prywatnej szybko bez sprawdzania kredyt bankowy obrotowy pożyczki społecznościowe kraków credit pożyczki w jakim banku brać kredyt bank pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyty chwilówki elbląg kredyt studencki pko wzór umowy kredyt bank szczecin dąbie godziny otwarcia pożyczki do 40000 pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik kredyt bank raszyn godz otwarcia kredyty bez biku płock kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny kb w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank wolontariat kredyt bez biku do 50000 kredyt pod samochód bez bik pożyczki tak to skarabeusz pożyczki krs pozyczka dla pracujacym w czechach umowa pożyczki słownik wzór umowy pożyczki osoby fizyczne kredyt w banku zagiel opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 dorota król pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego szybki kredyt dla firm online kredyt w bank pko sa kredyt studencki pko bp termin kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn pożyczki w internecie łatwe pożyczki bez bik pozyczki w domu klienta kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie limit pożyczki kredyt bank łochów pożyczki pozabankowe chorzów pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach online kredyt bank gryfice kredyt samochodowy dla rencisty pożyczki bocian wałcz kredyt bank bankomaty tarnów kredyt bank koniec pożyczki zfśs w bilansie pożyczki toruń wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa kredyt bank bankomaty rzeszów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla zadłużonych oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph kredyt bank 2001 kredyty bez biku ikrd pożyczki chwilowki grojecka godziny otwarcia spłata pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe nowe firmy pozyczkowe w domu klienta w swidnicy idea bank kredyt na start opinie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd kredyt bez bik do 10 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank umowa pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu pożyczka dla zadłużonych w big puławy kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata kredyt bank litwa pożyczki bez biku zabrze kod kredytu w orange kredyt bank lokaty kwiecień 2012 kredyt bank lubuskie kredyty chwilówki knf kredyty chwilowki konskie pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański pożyczki prywatne busko kredyty chwilówki złotów kredyt bank bps kredyt bank kto kupił pożyczki bez bik do 20 tys kredyt bez bik warszawa bank bph kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szczecin zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko kredyty bez biku dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank praga północ pozyczki ostrow wlkp nie bocian gros i prowident kredyt bank koszt przelewu zagranicznego kredyty konsolidacyjne bank pocztowy umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna wzór kredyty chwilówki 5000 kredyt samochodowy idea bank opinie vivus limit pożyczki osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki kredyt bank raty żagiel pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow kredyt bez bik i krd poznań kredyt bank dywidenda kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys pożyczki eden pro domo pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku kredyt bez biku katowice pożyczki pozabankowe kłodzko jak zaksięgować pcc od umowy pożyczki kredyt bank krakowska opole bocian pożyczki chełm pozyczki gniezno od zaraz do reki konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy a pcc pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad