kredyt bank w krosnie pożyczki morskie umowa pożyczki między firmami wzór kredyty chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój zaświadczenie o dochodach pko bp kredyt studencki w pewnym banku zaciagamy kredyt pożyczki bez bik dlugoterminowe pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłużonych kontakt tel umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzory pożyczki darowizny pożyczki bez bik leszno pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra pożyczki chorzów pożyczki na dowód bez konta bankowego pewne pożyczki dla każdego kredyt pozabankowy bytom kredyt bank krakow wielicka kredyt bank wolontariat kredyty dla osob z zajeciami komorniczymi tel orange kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór pożyczki chwilówki starachowice szybkie pożyczki bankowe pożyczki decyzja online pożyczki 4you kredyt bez bik wniosek kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata kredyt bank rzgowska pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyty gotowkowe lodz prywatnie termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki świebodzin ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych październik 2012 kredyt bank karta kredytowa student kredyt bank w katowicach pożyczki żywiec umowa pożyczki stawka podatku kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok promocje w kredyt banku kredyty pozabankowe i prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra kredyt bank zielona góra bankomat kredyt bank białystok pozyczka pozabankowa 20000 kredyt w banku w irlandii kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank długa kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank 10 kredyty chwilówki grójec alior bank kredyt odnawialny kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarzy kredyt bank kapelanka kontakt kredyt bank w kętrzynie skok pszczyna wniosek o kredyt online kredyt bez bik w bph lubin pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank wolbrom kredyt bank wrocławska warszawa pożyczki mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik myszkow forsa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska kredyt walutowy deutsche bank pożyczki dla firm jeremie kredyt bank bierz co chcesz firma pro domo łomż pożyczki kredyt chwilówka 18 lat kredyt alior bank forum kredyty chwilówki w warszawie wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp wzór kredyt bank żagiel numer telefonu pożyczki unijne jeremie potwierdzenie zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyt bank nr swift pożyczka na dowód choszczno kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas bocian pożyczki turek umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych kasa jowisz pożyczki kredyty banków komercyjnych kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ceny walut kredyt na samochód bez bik kredyty poza bankowe bez big siedlce adresy i nr tel kredyty w banku pocztowym forum pożyczki nauczycielskie kredyt bank prabuty kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym kredyt bank nowy sącz aleje wolności pożyczki śląskie kredyt bank iii oddział łódź kredyt bank powsińska pożyczki marka opinie pożyczki ustka kredyt bank opłata za pakiet koszt całkowity pożyczki kredyt banku pko przedawnienie pożyczki z zakładu pracy umowa pożyczki do wydruku pożyczki zła historia kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne darmowy kredyt na sam dowod bez zaswiadczen cel przeznaczenia pożyczki jak odmówić pożyczki oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych pożyczki pod weksel poznań pożyczki bez bik zgorzelec jaki jest kod na kredyt z orange kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej wycena pożyczki w walucie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet kredyty bez bik kalisz pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki bankowe dla emerytów formularz pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzaje kredyt bankowy pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny a rozwód kredyt konsolidacyjny warto skarabeusz pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg szybkie pożyczki na dowód wrocław alior bank kredyt kontakt termin przedawnienia pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy kredyt bank dział zakupów kredyty bez biku wałbrzych kredyt bank akademia lidera kredyt bez bik ostrołęka umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór pożyczki ratunkowe opole pożyczki bez bik w domu wniosek o preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp kredyty chwilówki rrso provident pożyczki online pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank radom kontakt użyczę pożyczki pożyczki białystok pożyczki płońsk kto da pożyczkę lub kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt od ręki rybnik szybkie pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank warszawska białystok pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank rachunki bankowe bocian pożyczki bolesławiec podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013 kredyt w banku eurobank kredyty chwilówki pit kredyt w banku umowa zlecenie pożyczki bez bik 10000 kredyt bank legnicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny kredyt bez bik zus us wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu kalkulator pożyczki w profi credit kredyty pozabankowe gliwice praca pożyczki chwilówki skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator open finance krakow pozyczki poza bankowe kredyt bank zielona góra kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 pożyczki łódź opinie kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bank kredyt bank obsługa kart w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt bank w przeworsku pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu legnica pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident kredyt przez internet bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank opinie kredyt bank ekstrakonto student bocian pożyczki myślibórz kredyt bank zamość godziny pracy pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking kredyt w euro jakie banki pro invest pożyczki pożyczki bez bik przez telefon lendon pożyczki opinie pt wygodne pożyczki kredyt bankowy ewidencja kredyt bez bik dębica kredyt w meritum bank opinie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy a odsetki pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe pożyczki w banku kredyt bank lokata progres kredyt bez bik w lublinie pożyczki prywatne nowa sól kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora pożyczki gotówkowe śląsk umowa pożyczki do spółki czy można umorzyć pożyczkę cywilną pożyczki lubań kredyt bank w nidzicy szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod optima pożyczki śląsk kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania kredyt bank konstancin jeziorna kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2012 pożyczki dla zadluzonych z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki filemon pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty szybka pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank mobilny kredyt bank warszawa ul grójecka 186 kredyt bank ii oddział katowice pożyczki gotówkowe jelenia góra kredyt studencki pko bp regulamin preferencyjny kredyt studencki w bz wbk rata pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bez biku w poznaniu kredyt bank łódź kredyt bank zagiel warszawa pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew kredyt konsolidacyjny pko opinie kredyty bez bik elblag santander kredyt ratalny a bik kredyt bank zywiec godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki od brata wzór kredyt bank kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bez bik pożyczki kredyty dla nowych firm eurobank ubezpieczenie pożyczki bz wbk bankomaty kredyt bank pożyczki dla zadłużonych kielce kredyty bez bik big i krd pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup nieruchomości pożyczki podporządkowane kredyty chwilówki uwaga tvn kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska 2 umowa pożyczki termin spłaty alior bank kredyt na start kredyty samochodowe santander bank kredyt bez bik dla emeryta podatek od pożyczki kto płaci kredyt w idea bank na start forum kredyty bez bik kalkulator kredyty mieszkaniowe bez bik pożyczka od ręki katowice pożyczki dla zadłużonych z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank rybnik tel kredyt bank zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 ktory bank da kredyt bez bik obliczanie raty pożyczki ing pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia pro domo pożyczki praca opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki osoby fizyczne pożyczki na dowód mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki na start dla firm kredyt chwilówka 20000 kredyt bank marza pożyczki białogard getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny gotowkowy kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki opolskie kredyt bank bic kredyt bank prepaid pożyczki bez bik big i krd cechy pożyczki kredyt na samochód a umowa na czas określony pożyczki na dowód siedlce oblicz koszt pożyczki pożyczki wolska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator pożyczki 3000 zł kredyt bank skok pożyczki z bikiem i komornikiem pożyczki kruk sa pozyczki słupsk 24 do 5 tyś słupsk umowa pożyczki szablon kredyty chwilówki kraków kod kredyt w orange pożyczki jak vivus pożyczki internetowa księgowanie pożyczki otrzymanej pożyczki od zagranicznych inwestorów opodatkowanie nieodpłatnej pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ursynów godziny otwarcia zgoda na umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kontakt szybkie pożyczki bez weryfikacji pożyczki sł margonem kredyt bank forum pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 kredyty bez bik bankowe kredyt na dowód bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank zytnia pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis pożyczki z obsługą w domu warszawa szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt odnawialny w alior banku opinie pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 kredyt studencki pko 2012 pożyczki udzielane w domu pozyczki pozabankowe plock na dowod kredyt bank pendrive kredyt samochodowy w banku pko bp kredyty chwilówki żagań kredyt bank nowa lista haseł kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego kredyt bank nowe konto 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank pożyczki bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt bez bik forum kredyt bank założenie konta realne pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank wykupiony pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyt studencki banki firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik pożyczki społecznościowe zakra kredyt bank galibardiego pożyczki pozabankowe forum dyskusyjne slimak pozyczki alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczki bez sprawdzania baz jaworzno kredyt bank kantor internetowy pożyczki bez bik żyrardów pożyczki dla porozumienia centrum oszukańcze pożyczki kredyt bank kondratowicza kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe poznań potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości forum pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin pilne pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny wikipedia ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód pozyczki gotowkowe holandia 2014 kalkulator podatku od pożyczki kredyt bank gwarancje kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank bielany pożyczki dom finansowy kredyt bank brzeg rodzaje kredytów w banku pko bp kredyt studencki pko kalkulator pożyczki bez krd lublin wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pozyczki pozabankowe 7 ledziny zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową jakie oprocentowanie pozyczki gotowkowej w pekao bp pożyczki bocian świdnica kredyt chwilówka grochowska promocyjne pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra kredyt bank numer telefonu pożyczki aviva ewerest finase raciborz pozyczki w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki gotówkowe bgż kredyt bank 2013 pożyczki chwilówki panda pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz kredyt bank cena akcji karty kredytowe pozabankowe gdansk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy 110 procent pożyczka pod zastaw auta zdunska wola przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być kredyt mieszkaniowy przy niskich zarobkach kredyt bank lokata srebrna kredyt bank piaseczno godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe współpraca pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego kredyt bank blz pożyczki dla nastolatków chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów zywiec prywatne pozyczki alior bank kredyt na pit kredyt bank ii oddział olsztyn pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd kredyt bank 24 zaloguj kredyty chwilówki sms kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie pożyczki kredyty bez dochodów przelewy w kredyt banku kredyt bank warszawa ul grójecka opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej spółce pozyczki atiz w miescie krotoszyn kontakt punkt pozyczek bocian w swiebodzinie kredyt bank wrzutnia pożyczki konsumenckie kredyt konsolidacyjny w tym samym banku kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński umorzone pożyczki kredyt bankowy forum kredyt bank konto bankowe pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank nowa lista haseł dlugoterminowe pozyczki pod zastaw kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator millenium kredyt na start kredyt bank ikze alior bank kredyt gotówkowy jakie dokumenty pożyczki gotówkowe vivus kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego 77 kredyt w pko oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej bankomaty kredyt banku kielce kredyt bank karty zbliżeniowe kredyt chwilówka 4000 zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kazdego pożyczki bez bik radom pożyczki dla ludzi w bik pożyczki toruń placówki kredyt banku warszawa udzielone pożyczki aktywa obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank mateusze kredyt bank niemcewicza kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt w postbanku kredyt bank sa ciechanów kredyty chwilówki grudziądz umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór kredyt w banku uk kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana bip pożyczki zielona góra prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat pożyczki z dotacji pożyczki z budżetu państwa dla jst podstawa opodatkowania pożyczki umowa dot pożyczki kredyty bez biku zielona gora gdzie wziąć kredyt bez bik lublin pozyczka na dowod bez dochodu przedłużenie pożyczki ok money kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne poznań jak otrzymac kredyt bez biku najtańszy kredyt w banku konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyty chwilówki tychy tel kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych kredyty chwilowki w lodzi kredyt bank niepołomice kredyt chwilówki zabrze kredyty chwilówki tarnów kurs chf w kredyt banku kredyt bank płock ul kolegialna godziny otwarcia pożyczki gorzów wlkp pożyczki chwilówki od 20 lat udzielenie pożyczki a podatek pcc fgp pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp opinie gdzie dostane kredyt bez biku kredyt bez bik debica capital partners pożyczki pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki pod zastaw domu umowa pożyczki od brata pozyczki w lodzim z dojazdem do klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny co to ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze pożyczki bez bik w bogatyni pożyczki chwilówki dzierżoniów pożyczki prywatne cieszyn pożyczki pozabankowe długoterminowe poznań jak zwiększyć kredyt odnawialny pekao kredyt bank placowki katowice pożyczki chwilówki ruda śląska kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń szybkie pożyczki krosno kredyt bank nysa szopena iban w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki bytom jagiellońska czy od pożyczki bankowej płaci się podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny na 120 miesięcy pożyczki wołów

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad