abis pożyczki kontakt pożyczki międzychód udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyty bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik jastrzebie zdroj pożyczki dla zadłużonych katowice atiz pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz pożyczki podobne do bocian kredyty chwilowki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kalkulator szybkie kredyty chwilówki zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik zabrze pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree kredyt w banku centralnym szukam pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia 24 oszuści pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez biku dla firm pożyczki pod zastaw śrem kredyt konsolidacyjny rybnik kredyt na pit bez biku kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp oświadczenie oddania pożyczki kredyty bez bik sieradz kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank nowe konto cesja umowy pożyczki pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel pożyczki prywatne lubin wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkodawcę kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego kredyt bank kraków godz otwarcia potrzebuję pożyczki wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt bankowy aktywo czy pasywo pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa pożyczki gotówkowe płock pozyczki pozabankowe mieszkaniowe bez zaswiadczen kariera w kredyt banku kredyt bankowy bez bik placówka warszawa kredyty w uk po polsku bankomaty euronet pozyczka kredyt w banku w niemczech kredyty chwilówki tychy jana pawła ii bank pko bp kredyt odnawialny kredyt na start w idea bank forum wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum wałbrzych pożyczki bez bik bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki w tychach kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt kredyty chwilówki toruń getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego pożyczki bez udokumentowanych dochodów pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki na pit 37 kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki uzyskania kredyt bank sa zagiel kredyt bank sanok chopina szybkie pożyczki przez internet na raty kredyty bez bik lubuskie umowa pożyczki forma pisemna kredyt gotówkowy bez bik krd pożyczki 2000 kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gdańsk credit agricole pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bez bik skierniewice kredyty bankowe funkcje pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w ostrołęce kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza telefon umowa pożyczki zwrot w ratach kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat kredyt bank iii oddział kraków kredyt bank dział reklamacji kredyt bez bik siedlce pożyczka 20000 w lesznie bez bik tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki prywatne bez bik szczecin umowa pożyczki pisemna wzór umowy pożyczki osób prywatnych alior bank kredyt dla emerytów oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyty bez bik erif krd kredyty dla małych firm 2014 jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki bez sprawdzania bik umorzenie pożyczki przez wspólnika kredyty bankowe ekonomia kredyt bank w zamościu pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św kredyt bank logowanie do konta reklama pożyczki vivus pożyczki chwilówki chełmno umowa pożyczki zamiast darowizny kredyt bank legnica rynek pożyczki bez bik katowice pożyczki społecznościowe jak pożyczki gotówkowe katowice kredyt w koncie bank pocztowy kredyt bank ketrzyn kredyty bez bik mława pożyczka kielce online kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienie pożyczki dla firm suwałki pożyczki w cieszynie kredyt gotówkowy w meritum bank pożyczki na dowód kalisz kredyt studencki bank polski pożyczki z budżetu państwa kredyt samochodowy dla firm dokumenty jak wziąć kredyt w orange na 5 zł kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowania kredyt z banku ochrony środowiska pożyczki długoterminowe na dowód kredyt w db bank pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach umowa pożyczki dla szpitala kredyt bank sa w białymstoku pożyczki pod weksel prywatne kredyt santander bank 3x33 kredyt bank czechowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa foksal pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank waluty w którym banku wziąć kredyt na budowę domu pożyczki bez bik amber gold pożyczki sezam całą polska pożyczki społecznościowe opinie 2012 kredyt bank x oddział w warszawie kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza kredyt bank augustów kontakt przedawnienie pożyczki odnawialnej kredyt bank szczecin matejki 8 pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu śląsk pożyczki kraków bez bik kredyt bank w gdyni kredyt bez bik 50000 kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy kredyt pozabankowy w banku kredyty mieszkaniowe alior bank kredyt bez bik biała podlaska gwarant pożyczki chwilówki skok pożyczka bez bik wykop pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe pozyczki kredyt 24 kredyty chwilówki złodzieje pozyczki bez bik i krd na oswiadczenie kredyty chwilówki internetowe kredyt bank minsk pożyczki pozabankowe dzierżoniów pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników warszawa oprocentowanie kredytu fm bank dobranie kredytu w credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny renta socjalna pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica jak wziąć kredyt w banku kredyt w banku credit agricole kredyt bank emilii gierczak szczecin niskie pożyczki kredyty bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredytowej kredyty sms bez bik kruk kredyty w puławach kredyty chwilówki skawina kredyt bank to wbk kredyt bank jakie dokumenty preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko sa pożyczki w domu łódzkie pożyczki bez bik we wrocławiu kredyt bank lokata terminowa econstans pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności kredyt bank ul mickiewicza białystok jaki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt chwilówka 24 pożyczki gotówkowe z obsługą w domu pożyczki na dowód bez bik online pozyczki pozabankowe na kazdy dochod siedlce monetia pozyczki warszawa kredyt bez bik debica kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych dobre pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki z poczty pożyczki bez bik big krd erif kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank opinie alior bank kredyt obrotowy dla firm getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu dla firm prywatne pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyt bank deutschland kredyt bank bedzin obliczanie odsetek pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bochnia kredyt bank raporty bieżące pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika kredyty chwilówki wągrowiec pożyczki chwilówki płock pożyczki chwilówki żywiec w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki od rodziny skarabeusz pożyczki tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki brzesko jak dostac pozyczke w atiz mikropożyczki na założenie firmy finan pożyczki kłodzko kredyt bank piotrków tryb godziny otwarcia wniosek o kredyt bankowy wzór pożyczki pozabankowe bytom kredyty chwilówki bez bik białystok pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze kredyt bank nowa dęba na jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange kredyt w banku pko sa forum firma optima pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach wzór umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank żeromskiego 41 kredyt bank tychy kredyt w rachunku bieżącym getin bank kredyt bank lokata internetowa kredyt bank bonifacego kredyt budowlany w jakim banku kredyty bankowe online kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2013 kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c w którym banku jest najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2012 kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia pożyczki złota rybka kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem przez internet kredyt bank w jarocinie potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia za pracę kredyt bank otwarcie kredyt bez bik do 50 000 pożyczki 10000 kredyt bank zgubienie karty pożyczki w 15 min bez bik bocian pożyczki chełmża pożyczki prywatne od prywatnych inwestorów pekao sa wniosek o kredyt studencki kredyt w niemczech w jakim banku finan pożyczki forum pożyczki umowa co lubuskie kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 procent pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko kredyty chwilówki katowice mikołowska pożyczki dla ludzi bez pracy kredyt bez bik kalkulator wierzyciel pożyczki opinie pożyczki nidzica umowa pożyczki matka córka ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 kredyt bank tychy pożyczki z nigerii pożyczki bez zaświadczeń leszno kredyt bank wielkopolska czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie pożyczki barcin kredyt bank godziny otwarcia gdynia status pożyczki kredito24 pożyczki prywatne wągrowiec kredyt bank międzyzdroje kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt bez biku jaworzno pożyczki dla pracowników ze środków obrotowych kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2013 pożyczki bez bik provident skarabeusz chorzów pożyczka na dowód kredyt bank gdańsk zaspa godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń zawieszenie raty w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu pożyczki bez bik września pożyczki na agroturystykę pożyczki przedawnienie pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej wrocław pożyczki do domu poznań kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod kredyt bank myślibórz kredyt prywatny z komornikiem skok wybrzeże pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online kredyt bank żagiel lubin idea bank kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie pożyczki między firmami pcc kredyt orange pod numer kredyt bank oddział warszawa centrum pożyczki prywatne gorzów wlkp poręczenie pożyczki przez gminę kredyt w danske bank pożyczki dla urzędników kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko bp placówki kredyt banku w rzeszowie kredyt bank cash4you pożyczki pozabankowe z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki bocian koszalin pozyczki łodz kontakt pożyczka bez bik w pko bp oferty pożyczki prywatnej getin bank kredyt samochodowy tel pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku zachodnim wbk kredyt bank oswiecim godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wrocław plac solny pożyczki do domu spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp na jakie konto kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko pożyczki dla fundacji kredyt bank opłata za listę haseł kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym umowa pożyczki z zfśs kredyt dla studenta bzwbk kredyty bez bik lubuskie cech pożyczki cesja umowy pożyczki wzór firma uzyskała kredyt w banku pożyczki bez bik słupsk kredyt bank bankomaty włocławek lew pożyczki renta wojskowa a kredyt gotówkowy pko bp pożyczki na projekty unijne kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy na firmę korzyści kredyt konsolidacyjny wymogi kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki łódź bez bik druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp kredyty i pożyczki charakterystyka kredyt bank zmiana tokena pożyczki meritum bocian pożyczki zduńska wola pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 pożyczki brzeg pożyczki bez bik koło kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt studencki pko spłata pożyczki udzielone spółce przez wspólnika umowa pożyczki pcc 2011 pożyczki gotówkowe chorzów kredyty chwilówki system partner pl kredyt hipoteczny getin pbs kalkulator pożyczki online bez bik ranking kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych www kredyty pozabankowe bełchatowie pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji pożyczki prywatne na procent szczecin pożyczki ślimak kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik w bph pożyczki ewidencja księgowa kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny a komornik umowa pożyczki opracowanie pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia kredyt obrotowy w idea banku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny a umowa na czas określony kredyty chwilówki kierowca umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem euroloan pożyczki opinie kredyt bank gdańska bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki u notariusza przedmiot umowy pożyczki i kredytu pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń extra kasa pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy od reki pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód kredyt bank poznań morawskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla młodzieży kredyt w banku warunki kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki krapkowice umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spółce kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty bez bik forum prywatne pożyczki pod weksel poznań umowa pożyczki gotówkowej doc pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bez bik big krd komornik pożyczki bez bik w radomiu pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask podatek od umowy pożyczki w 2012 kredyt bank w tarnowie kredyt bez biku na samochod kredyty bez sprawdzania bik i krd kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bzwbk pożyczki na dowód płock kredyt mieszkaniowy banki ranking przelewy walutowe w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego kredyty chwilówki krs kredyt na dowód bydgoszcz kątakt koszt pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank łódź kredyt bank bonarka umowa ramowa pożyczki oddluzanie kredytow w tychach kredyt bank pyrzyce pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt obrotowy w idea bank opinie kredyt bank logowanie santander kredyt z kuponem pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik łódź kredyt na rok kredyt bank lokaty opinie żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie kredyt bank w kętrzynie credo pożyczki pozyczka bez big w domu klienta wołow kredyt bez bik i krd bydgoszcz kredyt bank kanały dystrybucji kredyt bank bok kredyty bez bik mława szybkie pożyczki na umowe zlecenie kredyty bez bik stargard szczeciński pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny jak uzyskac pożyczki starogard gdański kredyty chwilówki wadowice kredyt na pit w credit agricole kredyty konsolidacyjne na 30 lat nysa pozyczka online na dowod bez krd i bik alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki na pierwszy biznes pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodu symulacja kredytu na kamienice mikropożyczki bydgoszcz santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe tczew kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna parabanki pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyty chwilówki wrocław praca czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest opłacalny pożyczki chwilówki jarocin kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki spółce z o o wzór pozyczki bez sprawdzania baz jaworzno nowe pożyczki bez bik i krd pozyczki prywatne wejherowo pożyczki na procent radom przeniesienie pożyczki pożyczki profi credit kalkulator umowa pożyczki nie stwierdzona pismem czy umowa pożyczki jest ważna adres kredyt bank warszawa kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank karta multima wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy pożyczki pod zastaw diamentów kredyty parobankowe udzielajacy miesieczne raty kredyt bank akcjonariusze kredyt bank mobilny pożyczki limanowa kredyt w przeźmierowie pożyczki od wspólnika już bez podatku kredyt bez bik czestochowa warszawa arkadia kredyty kredyt bank kto jest właścicielem pożyczki bez bik komornik pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 pożyczki bez bik piotrków trybunalski kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt konsolidacyjny z bikiem pożyczki na rozkręcenie firmy pożyczka kielce online bocian pożyczki łódź pożyczki eden finance kredyt bank łeba reklama pożyczki przez internet

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad