podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyty w getin bank opinie umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika kredyt przez telefon bez peselu umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie kredyt samochodowy mbank forum ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyt studencki eurobank kredyt pozabankowe poznan wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie warunki spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty bez bik w domu kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator kredyty bez bik w szczecinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach kredyt bez bik tarnobrzeg getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie kredyt bank polna warszawa alior bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kody na kredyt do orange bocian walbrzych kredyt kredyty chwilówka rzeszów pożyczki na samochód bez bik czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie kariera w kredyt banku kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty kredyty bankowe pko sa kredyt bez bik sieradz kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb umowa pożyczki brak spłaty kredyty mieszkaniowe money optima pożyczki na dowód mikropożyczki 2013 udzielenie pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd dobranie pożyczki w providencie wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami pożyczka na dowód choszczno kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie pożyczki gotówkowe w santander pożyczki na rynku międzybankowym pożyczki na dowód bank kredyt w banku pko sa kredyt bank pabianice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa wikipedia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik poznań kredyt bank metro wierzbno inpost pożyczki jak obliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki kredyt bank pszczyna telefon kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 ing bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum pożyczki dla pracowników ze środków obrotowych umowa pożyczki lombardowej bocian pożyczki grudziądz kredyt bez bik big i krd kredyt w banku na mieszkanie kredyt bank w sopocie umowa pożyczki w spółce komandytowej kredyt bank partnerzy deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki kredyty chwilowki glogow pożyczki prywatne uk umowa pożyczki banku pozyczki na dowód nysa kredyt bank mikołów kontakt szybka kasa pożyczki kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia kredyt bank chf kurs kredyt w banku bph kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz danych bedzin kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bankowy księgowanie pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet kredyty bez biku lodz pożyczki bez bik do 3000 kredyt bank konta osobiste wałbrzych piaskowa góra kredyty na oddłużenie kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu umowa pożyczki właściwość sądu kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny kredyt bank warszawa wilanów pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla pracowników kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online pozyczki chwilowki zyrafa umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit pożyczki bez bik oława pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank ul długa kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa olsztyn umowa pożyczki na raty wzór umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych orange kod na kredyt mikropożyczki opinie pożyczki ebroker mąż bierze pożyczki bez mojej wiedzy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych bocian pożyczki bytom kredyt bez bik 2013 kredyt w credit agricole opinie żyrafa pożyczki windykacja daily finance pożyczki kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku pożyczki ala provident pożyczki chwilówki słupsk wojska polskiego kredyt bank biskupiec kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca pożyczki lublin lubartowska umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą umorzenie pożyczki podatek kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka preferencyjne pożyczki ue kredyt bez bik prywatny kredyty mieszkaniowe bph kredyt bank reda pozyczki przez telefon na oswiadczenie kredyt na orange kod udzielenie pożyczki firmie kredyt bank w oleśnicy kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza kredyty bez biku szybko oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt w banku pocztowym dla policjantów kredyt bank w głogowie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident kredyt bank mikołów kontakt pożyczki bez bik 15000 getin bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kontakt bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy mikropożyczki przez internet kredyt bez bik do 30000 pożyczki nielegalne kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku spółdzielczym gwarant pożyczki opinie asper przyznawalnosc pozyczek pożyczki od zaraz kredyt konsolidacyjny na 30 lat pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód kredyt bank cinema city kredyt bank placówki warszawa mokotów kredyt bank marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus pożyczki gotówkowe szybkie kredyt studencki warunki pko pozyczka na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski bank pko sa kredyty gotowkowe umowa o spłatę pożyczki pożyczki na dowód oprocentowanie kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa kredyty bez biku konin credit agricole klodzko druczek na kredyt kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych rynek kredyt hipoteczny bez zaświadczeń oswiecim kredyty samochodowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank spółdzielczy kalkulator linia kredytowa w kredyt banku szybkie pożyczki 24h kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp kredyt chwilówki głogów pożyczki bez bik w łodzi kredyty bez bik oświęcim kredyty chwilówki jaki procent kredyt bank 24h pożyczki bez bik na telefon kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów bocian pożyczki szczecinek kredyt bank millenium opinie getin noble bank kredyty ratalne kredyt bez bik do 3000 kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kredyt bank warszawa ul patriotów kredyt bank raszyn telefon kredyt samochodowy mbank forum szybki kredyt bez big pożyczki pod zastaw nidzica pożyczki bez bik starachowice kredyt refinansowy bank pko bp kod do orange na kredyt umowa pożyczki podatek 2013 kredyt samochodowy oferty banków pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w bik pożyczki na dowód ostróda pożyczki nowy dwór mazowiecki kredyt bank sa oddział w pile banki kredyty bez zaświadczeń szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław kredyt bank oliwa pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności kredyt samochodowy fiat bank kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd betgang pożyczka kredyt bank lokata junior kredyt bez bik przez internet forum kredyt samochodowy banki odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo kredyt pozabankowy 50000 pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego skarabeusz pożyczki bytom kredyt studencki zasady udzielania pożyczki dla nowych firm kredyt bank księgowanie wpłat kredyt samochodowy mbank oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od brata pożyczka bez bik i krd 5000zl 15000 i więcej kredyty bez bik lub prywatne w nowym sączu szukam pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt na mieszkanie w jakim banku forum kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme kredyt bank warszawa praga północ pożyczki pozabankowe pomorskie pożyczki na rok przez internet kredyt orange yes kredyty chwilówki starachowice kredyt konsolidacyjny alior kalkulator kredyt bank sa bielany wrocławskie kredyty konsolidacyjne bz wbk kredyt gotówkowy w paribas bank kredyt bank częstochowa oddziały kredyt bank warszawa grójecka godziny otwarcia omnico pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet skok kujawiak pożyczki oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bez biku rzeszów opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki kredyt bez bik chojnice kredyty bez bik ruda slaska kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa warta gwarancja umowa pożyczki jeremie kredyt bank pabianice ul zamkowa kredyt bank kondratowicza kredyt konsolidacyjny a śmierć karty płatnicze w kredyt banku pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach bankomaty kredyt banku kielce szybkie pożyczki tczew kredyt bank warszawa centrala pożyczki notarialne tsk pożyczki kredyt bank dział marketingu w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu gros pożyczki inowrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik forum szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd kredyt bez bik chełm przedłużenie pożyczki wzór na obliczenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank w starogardzie gdańskim oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pozyczki bez biku slupsk numer kontaktowy kredyt bank warszawa ul abrahama gdzie szukać pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko opinie umowa pożyczki i pcc kredyt bank wyciągi bankowe kredyt bank godziny księgowania wysoki kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty gotowkowe lodz prywatnie prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz pożyczki atut skarabeusz pożyczki gliwice pozyczki na procent pila umowa pożyczki z podmiotem zagranicznym bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bez bik radomsko kredyt orange nr koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej pożyczki lukas kredyty w pko sa forum wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt konsolidacyjny okres kredytowania pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla ludzi z komornikiem cesja umowy pożyczki wzór kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania kredyt bank sa biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kredyt bank przejęty przez santandera kredyt bez biku pabianice kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew oferta pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi a pcc pozyczki na procent słupsk kredyt bank wschowa udziele pożyczki prywatnie gdansk kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy opłata za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pożyczki w domu bydgoszcz pożyczki z komornikiem śląsk kredyt bankowy praca magisterska kredyty chwilówki blog pożyczki na dowód złotów pozyczki pozabankowe plock na dowod bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik kredyty w uk dla polakow kredyt studencki pko bp forum umowa pożyczki przeniesienie własności pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa szybkie pożyczki bez bik forum kredyt bank ii oddział białystok kredyt na komornika na oświadczenie pożyczki bez bik dla rencistów kredyt studencki bank pko kredyt bank profil zdobywcy kredyt bank kurs walutowy pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pod zastaw świdnica kredyt bank popularna telefon pożyczki dla widniejących w krd pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank gostynin umowa pożyczki spółka z oo kredyt bank lokaty bankowe pożyczki lukas banki które udzielają kredytów bez biku pożyczki pruszcz gdański kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny ing kredyt w eurobank forum pożyczki online na dowód bez bik abis pożyczki telefon udzielę pożyczki na procent kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik pożyczki bez bik big krd lublin pożyczki 20000 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe przelicznik kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas pożyczki pod zastaw rtv tarnów kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia gdzie mozna w sieradzu dostac pozyczke bez dochodu kredyty bez bik krd z komornikiem kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pozyczki bez bik pozabankowe pożyczki przez internet bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody współmałżonka pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt studencki pko terminy oddziały kredyt banku białystok umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank prowizje pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe odmowa pożyczki vivus pozyczka bez umowy o prace na dowod szczecin kredyt bank krotoszyn rynek pożyczka bez infomonitora pozyczki w domu klienta na dowód warszawa pożyczki w 15 minut kredyt mieszkaniowy minimalny wkład własny szybkie kredyty bez biku pożyczki prywatne suwałki pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem przyznawalnosc kredytu obrotowego w banku bps kredyt bank lowicz wypowiedzenie kredytu w eurobanku kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim pozyczki chwilowki od osob prywatnych mielec kredyt bank sochaczew kontakt kredyt odnawialny w banku pko bp kredyt bank wrocław plac solny podporzadkowanie pożyczki kredyt w pekao sa opinie firmy udzielajace kredytu bez sprawdzania bik i krd umowa pożyczki ze stowarzyszeniem umowa pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki kaska najkorzystniejsze pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki mieszkaniowe ranking kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny otwarcia elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyt bank kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kredyt bank obotrycka akt notarialny umorzenie pożyczki dla syna kredyt bez bik big krd kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski kredyty pko bp opinie kredyt bank ruda śląska kredyt pozabankowy bez bik krd kredyt inwestycyjny w idea banku kredyt bank pekao sa kredyty chwilówki koło pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik jastrzebie zdroj kredyt bank kraków wielicka godziny otwarcia pozyczki do domu bydgoszcz getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 tys pożyczki bez biku częstochowa zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd odsetki od pożyczki płatnik kredyt bank lokata avocado kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra pożyczki ii rp pożyczki w domu bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc pożyczki bez bik sms pożyczki w jeden dzień pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pko bocian pożyczki mielec pożyczki chwilówki śrem pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank dokumenty udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe bilans pożyczki z funduszu efs skok wesoła pożyczki bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne z opóźnieniami obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 bank pko bp preferencyjny kredyt studencki kredyty pożyczki bankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank kredyt bez bik zus i us kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa pożyczki bez bik ostrowiec św kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank transza pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat kredyt bank lubaczów tani kredyt bez biku pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec kredyt bank janów łódź kredyt bank charakterystyka pożyczki prywatne skarżysko kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet kredyt bank wawelska pożyczki pozabankowe w rzeszowie kredyt bank z siedzibą w warszawie kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia kokos pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez biku łódź pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz udzielenie pożyczki proz kredyty bankowe pko sa heropolitańska kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyty bez komornika biku wroclaw kredyty pożyczki legionowo pożyczki na dowód ostróda kredyt bank www kredyt bez bik krakow niespłacone pożyczki co to znaczy kredyt bez bik kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń forum pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin kredyt konsolidacyjny uk pożyczka całkowicie przez internet małgorzata iwańska pożyczki podatek od pożyczki nieoprocentowanej getin noble bank kredyt ratalny symulacja kredytu w banku wbk umowa pożyczki definicja pożyczki na dowód w 15 min kredyt w banku bgż opinie pożyczki częstochowa szybkie pożyczki śląskie pożyczki jeremie koszalin pożyczki bzwbk kredyty chwilówki dzierżoniów pożyczki na wysoki procent odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat pożyczki 30 dniowe pożyczki na dowód głogów kredyt bez bik na 20 lat pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe szybki kredyt bez biku pozyczka wierzyciel kredyt bank profit plan pożyczki 4000

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad