kredyt bez bik w pko kredyt bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki bez bik olsztyn kredyt bez bik dąbrowa górnicza pożyczka do domu płock kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyty i pożyczki jst kredyt bank forum dyskusyjne czy umowa pożyczki jest umową wzajemną pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu rzeszów proste pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki żary na dowod pożyczki prywatne w płocku kredyt bank sa chełm dułet pożyczki rzeszów bank pekao kredyt studencki 2012 chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzory pożyczki chwilówki tczew pożyczki bez bik kontakt bankomaty kredyt banku w pile szybkie pożyczki wyszków kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki mikropożyczki 2013 bocian pożyczki forum pracowników kredyty mieszkaniowe 2009 mikropożyczki klon kredyt gotówkowy bez umowy o pracę kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie rachunku kredyt studencki pko 2012 13 pożyczki na dowód płock pożyczki bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt pozabankowy na firmę umowa pożyczki 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cechy pożyczki odróżniające ją od kredytu promocyjne pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki finansowej bank pko bp warunki kredytu pożyczki provident kalkulator kredyt bez bik na kilka miesiecy pożyczki bez bik i krd lublin kredyt chwilówka czechowice kredyt bank ken 19 kredyt bank wroclaw chrobrego kredyty chwilówki piekary kredyt ustawa prawo bankowe dlugoterminowe pozyczki pod zastaw pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej getin noble bank przewalutowanie kredytu zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki akt pożyczki dla mundurowych kredyty pozabankowe w poznaniu kredyt ing w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank siedlce godz otwarcia kredyty chwilowki windykatorzy szybkie pożyczki poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny firma kredyt bankowy chomikuj uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki kredyt bank zakopane godziny otwarcia kredyt bank siedziby warszawa kredyt bank wypłata bez prowizji cechy pożyczki kredyt w banku pko kalkulator pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie marr pożyczki dla firm marka pozyczki ketrzyn obliczanie rat pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu pożyczki na dowód kutno pożyczki od ręki przez internet kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank abis pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla firm kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyty konsolidacyjne olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat pozyczka z dojazdem do domu ostrołęka chwiluwka kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia centrala kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny windykacja pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz pożyczki vivus forum kredyt bank chrzanów tel pożyczki online bez odsetek kredyt bank prabuty kredyt bez bik rzeszów umowa pożyczki powtórnej szybkie pożyczki bez bik łódź kredyt bank obotrycka kredyty dla studentów mbank umowa pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki bez banku kredyt bank gliwice kontakt pozyczki z komornikiem kredyt bez bik 5000 online pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe wzór umowy pożyczki zabezpieczonej wekslem kredyt bank gostyń tel kredyt bank multima kredyty w pko bp sa pożyczki prywatne bytom kredyty bankowe wady i zalety szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny ustawa pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw pożyczki bez bik dla prowadzących działalność pożyczki chwilówki sms365 kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank pożyczki w banku pekao sa bocian pożyczki zachodniopomorskie pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyt bank ul długa kraków godziny otwarcia chwilowki pozyczki w domu bytom kapitał obcy pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki koszty podatkowe odsetki od pożyczki a przychód adler pożyczki kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty kredyt bez biku banki pożyczki internetowa spłata pożyczki z amber gold kredyt bank bonifacego kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym idea bank opinie kredyt bank oswiecim umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy tomasz kotłowski pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs kielce kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner umowa pożyczki w spółce cywilnej czy ubezpieczenie pożyczki jest obowiązkowe umowa pożyczki pcc 2012 kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność kredyt bankowy bez umowy kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska kredyty bez bik i krd slask kredyt bank w płocku potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt bank opłaty za konto kredyt bez bik jastrzebie kredyt konsolidacyjny na długi okres kredyt bank w żarach tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bytom kredyt bank b stok kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska pożyczki pułtusk okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej kredyt samochodowy w santander bank na jaki numer kredyt w orange pożyczki w domu klienta głogów pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski podatek dochodowy od nieoprocentowanej pożyczki pożyczki między rodzeństwem pożyczki chwilówki kłodzko pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego msp pożyczki na dowód bielawa kredyt bank lodz godziny otwarcia eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb pozyczki bez pracy kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony kredyty pozabankowe kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe białystok kredyt gotówkowy bank bph kredyt bez wizyty w banku pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń online gdzie daja kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie pożyczki z komornikiem śląskie pożyczki prywatne a urząd skarbowy kosiński pożyczki umowa pożyczki spółce jawnej kredyt bank psie pole pozorna umowa pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne w getin banku vivus pożyczki na dowód pożyczki bez bik bez meldunku w dowodzie umowa pożyczki przewłaszczenie na zabezpieczenie pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty kredyty chwilówki partner kredyt bank mafia kredyty od reki od 18lat ostrowiec sw pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła kredyt bank poznań godziny otwarcia wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki bocian koszalin internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku sgb pożyczki z komornikiem nowy sącz kredyt na samochód bez bik krd pożyczki zamiast dotacji alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt bankowy w rachunkowości biznes pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki poza bankowe turek kredyt bank w jastrzębiu zdroju druk umowy pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank fieldorfa szybkie pożyczki bez bik przez internet kredyty chwilówki rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez biku gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 bankomaty kredyt banku w pile pożyczki chwilówki kasomat pożyczki 500 zł umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi bocian pożyczki tarnów umowa pożyczki przedawnia się kredyty bez bik szybkie wycena pożyczki wg zamortyzowanego kosztu szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd kredyt chwilówka bochnia umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne wzór kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia pieniężnego kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob mieszkajacych za granica kredyty pozabankowe bez biku oferty pozyczek we wrzesni umowa pożyczki wzór rodzina kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały umowa pożyczki pożyczki prywatne z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty pożyczki od osób prywatnych słupsk kredyty dla nowych firm bez biku kredyt bank myślibórz kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku ak group pożyczki kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy pożyczki prywatne z ue umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór pożyczki w skoku stefczyka pożyczki a pcc credito pożyczki ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing kredyt mieszkaniowy w kredyt banku opinie bankomaty kredyt banku bez prowizji pożyczki typu provident w jakim banku najlatwiej dostac kredyt bez bik korzystne pożyczki zwrot pożyczki udziałowcowi kredyty banków komercyjnych pożyczki na niski dochód pcc od pożyczki a koszty podatek od pożyczki cywilnej provident pozyczka na prawo jazdy pożyczki ratunkowe świdnica pozyczka z komornikiem numery telefonu bocian pożyczki odstąpienie od umowy kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego kredyty chwilówki uwaga pożyczki cywilne wrocław podatek od pożyczki formularz kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy kredyt bank 24 kursy walut kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań pożyczka kielce online kredyt konsolidacyjny w polbanku opinie pożyczki od 18 lat pożyczki na dowód krosno bocian pożyczki logo kredyt dla firmy bez biku bank wbk pozyczka indywidualna wymagane dokumenty lodz umowa pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu pożyczki chwilówki na raty pożyczki takie jak w provident kredyt bank bankomat prowizja kredyt bank kupon 2 kredyt chwilówka 24 infolinia pożyczki pro domo bocian pożyczki oddziały kredyt bank warka pożyczki zfśs w bilansie asper pożyczki forum kredyt na dowód w getin banku kalkulator pożyczki pozyczka na dlugi pod weksel pożyczki prywatne bez przedpłat walbrzych pozyczka w domu mg finance pożyczki drugi kredyt w tym samym banku forum kredyt bank archiwalne kursy walut kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank pożyczki artykuł kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko bocian pożyczki druga pożyczka wypowiedzenie umowy kredytowej credit agricole kredyt bez bik złotów gdzie mogę dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki bocian bielsko biała pożyczki alior sync kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin kredyt bank karta do bankomatu kredyt studencki 2012 pko sa pożyczki jeremie opinie wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyt studencki bank bps banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt bocian pożyczki przyznawalność kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku opinie pożyczki pozabankowe na rok czym uzasadnic pozyczke na remont atiz pożyczki opinie kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie pożyczki chwilówki internetowe kredyt bank koszalin godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyt gotówkowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki bez bik wieluń pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 pożyczki pozabankowe wniosek online pod jaki numer kredyt w orange umowa pożyczki a us pszczółka pożyczki opinie pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary pożyczki bez bik głogów kredyty chwilówki pabianice atiz pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki kraków kredyt bank kantor internetowy kalkulator kosztów pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy pracuje za granica centrum pozyczki24 kredyty bez bik chojnice gross pożyczki opinie kredyt sms orange pop oferty pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie pożyczka na dowód w lesznie banki pożyczki w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp opinie lew pożyczki pożyczki citibank pożyczki w domu klienta optima pożyczki rynek podgórski bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie pozyczki online przez poczte kredyt bank białystok radzymińska kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum pozyczki do domu czestochowa kredyty chwilówki bez opłat pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku wykaz placówek kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki ranking umowa o udzielenie pożyczki z zfśs skok pożyczka bez bik kredyty samochodowe alior bank kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku gdzie wziac kredyt kielce pożyczki dla nieletnich alior bank kredyt internetowy umowa pożyczki od siostry wzór kto udzieli kredytu bez bik pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe prowidenta bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie kredyty pożyczki dla firm kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie kredyt na dowod w domu klienta kredyt bank biała kredyt w euro banki kredyt samochodowy w banku millennium kredyt bank radlin tel kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt dla bezrobotnych bez bik i krd jak wziąć kredyt w banku pocztowym bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie pozyczka na konto bez przelewania grosza umowa pożyczki z ratami kredyt mieszkaniowy a komornik kredyt bez bik raty miesięczne kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem nieruchomości kredyt bank w polsce kredyty chwilówki gdańsk pożyczki pomorskie pożyczki pod zastaw kalisz kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować kredyt bocian glogow pożyczki w różnych bankach kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 pożyczki w bilansie kredyt banku kursy walut pożyczki bez bik na pit w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód błyskawiczne pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe z komornikiem pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe nowy targ kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2013 pożyczki 100 przyznawalności fides pożyczki kredyt studencki zasady 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator multibank pożyczki prywatne sandomierz pożyczki 24h warszawa pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań kredyt samochodowy fiat bank kredyt bank call center kredyt w bilansie banku charakter prawny pożyczki pewny kredyt pozabankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyty bez biku olsztyn pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator pożyczki internetowe wzór umowy pożyczki pienieżnej kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza kredyt na dom w uk forum pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne kredyt bank bankomaty łódź kredyt samochodowy bez bik wrocław bocian pożyczki o firmie kredyt bank toruń godziny otwarcia kredyt w lukas banku forum banki które daja kredyt bez bik kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyty mieszkaniowe konsolidacyjne pozyczka bez big w domu klienta dolnosląskie kredyt bank zambrów kontakt praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp kredyt bank import przelewów pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacje kredyt w euro jakie banki kredyt bank mastercard world umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pracownikowi kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka kontakt pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki takie jak provident pożyczki bez bik w toruniu zwrot pożyczki podstawa prawna pożyczki bez bik wągrowiec kredyty pozabankowe pomorskie pożyczki gotówkowe uk kredyt bank w krynicy zdroju kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bgz kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie porównanie kredyt bank zgierz godziny otwarcia 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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad