pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową uk kredyt bank zmiana logo kangurek pożyczki kredyt bank olsztynek godziny otwarcia pozyczki września kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik kredyt zagraniczny z komornikiem kredyt online bez bik wymagania kredytowe barclays czy warto brac kredyt w getin banku kredyt bankowy ksiegowanie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od brata profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu kredyt bank w krakowie ul kalwaryjska kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bez bik pożyczki z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt bank goleniów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank polonia kredyty bez bik krd katowice kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator getin bank pozyczki w nowym saczu pożyczki chwilówki piła pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie kredyt bankowy forum rata pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki starogard gdański pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy kredyt bank toruń kredyt odnawialny w banku pko bp bocian pozyczki wniosek kredyty bez biku i z komornikiem kurs akcji kredyt bank sa pozyczki od zaraz bez big i krd przez internet druk umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank w gryfinie szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe online kredyt w orange jaki numer najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta kredyt studencki jakie oprocentowanie kredyty bez biku opole kasomat pożyczki opinie podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej kredyt dla firm bez bik big najtaszy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pocztowym pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości katowice kredyty pozabankowe luban pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy kielce pekao sa kredyt wpis w big wycena nieruchomości w kredyt banku potrzebuje pożyczki pozabankowej kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie pożyczka w walucie obcej przez internet złe kredyty w działalności banków kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp forum kredyt konsolidacyjny skok piast w jakim banku mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod kredyt bank transze kredyty chwilówki w płocku kredyt bank radom kontakt w którym banku najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp pozyczki chwilowki bez bik na dowod kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia kredyt studencki w jakim banku 2011 pożyczki w 15 minut na koncie szybkie pożyczki przez internet dla zadłużonych kredyt bank rabka kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny pozyczki bez dochodu kredyt gotówkowy santander kalkulator pożyczki międzyrzecz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór kredyt bank w krośnie ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom pekao sa kredyty studenckie kruk pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki społecznościowe w domu kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator ing kredyt bank mobilny pożyczki pod zastaw bełchatów pcc od pożyczki dla wspólnika kredyt w idea bank opinie kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości w bank bgż kredyt bankowy regulacje prawne pozyczki od osob prywatnych lodz kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego kredyt samochodowy w santander opinie nie zgłosiłem pożyczki od rodziny kredyt w banku żubr pożyczki kieszonkowe kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra pożyczki chwilówka od ręki pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask kredyt bank bielany warszawa pożyczki bez bik siedlce umowa pożyczki a darowizna pozyczki bez sprawdzania baz jaworzno kredyty w idea banku pozyczka wierzyciel kredyt bank getin bank pozyczki prodomo kredyt ratalny w getin banku kredyt w rozumieniu prawa bankowego pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem ogłoszenie pożyczki prywatne pożyczki w domu klienta bez zaświadczeń udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej pożyczki chwilówki bez dochodów kredyty chwilowki pozyczki nowy targ 24h przez telefon prezentacja pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank numer telefonu kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól skok kozienice pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław pożyczki udzielone kredyty bez bik ełk nowe lokaty w kredyt banku czy kredyty chwilówki są ubezpieczone umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca kredyty gotówkowe bez bik forum kredyt bank kiedy przelewy kredyt bank kondratowicza godziny otwarcia istota kredytu i pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe gryfice kredyt pod zastaw domu w banku pro domo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie open finance krakow pozyczki poza bankowe pożyczki na dowód prywatne kredyt samochodowy ranking 2014 kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości nieruchomości optima pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik kredyt mieszkaniowy bz wbk forum bocian pożyczki gdańsk bocian pożyczki wodzisław śląski kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki pozabankowe w bełchatowie pożyczki bocian na dowód kredyty bankowe krakow odmowa przyznania pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt w banku bph kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator kredyt bank koszalin godziny otwarcia pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bik ostrów wielkopolski kredyty pozabankowe bez kard racibusz niespłacone pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe 2014 pożyczki gotówkowe lodz kredyty chwilówki gliwice wniesienie aportem pożyczki kredyty chwilówki sopot kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych praca umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości szczecin konsolidacja kredytów w wbk wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie konsolidacja bez zdolności kredytowej podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika orange pop kredyt kod pożyczki na umowę zlecenie kredyt konsolidacyjny z windykacją pożyczki gotówkowe eurobank przejęcie pożyczki pożyczki wronki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej zabezpieczenie opinie pożyczki pozabankowe instytucje finansowe pożyczki gdzie najłatwiej uzyskać kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki optima piła kredyt bank sa we wrocławiu kredyt 150tys bez bik kredyt bez zaświadczeń kredyty bez bik od dłuż kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator agricole kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank parytet wymiany kraków pożyczki na dowód kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa pożyczki pozabankowe łódż kredyt konsolidacyjny pnb paribas rola kredyt bankowy czy mozna zawiesic kredyt w banku kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyt bank w dąbrowie tarnowskiej alior bank kredyt przez telefon pro domo pożyczki płock kredyt dla firm idea bank forum pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia umowa o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki asper jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki online od 18 lat odsetki od umowy pożyczki a vat konsolidacja kredytu gdzie najlepiej kredyt bank dłużnicy pożyczki pruszcz gdański pożyczki pod zastaw 24h szczecin pożyczki prywatne a podatek umowa pożyczki pieniędzy raty umowa pożyczki przykłady kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy szczecin pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych pożyczki gotówkowe comperia placówki kredyt banku poznań pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki opinie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór kredyt bank b stok kredyt inwestycyjny ranking banków pozyczka dla zadłużonych kredyt samochodowy na firme forum kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin pożyczki kalkulator lukas bank kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem dochodowym pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika mikropożyczki bydgoszcz trudne pozyczki poznan oblicz rate kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyt bankowy klasyfikacja kredyt bank lokaty kwiecień 2012 pożyczki na dowód provident restrukturyzacja pożyczki ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 kredyt bank liderzy biznesu polskie pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez biku w lublinie bank pko bp kredyt studencki pożyczki prywatne grudziądz pożyczki bez oprocentowania pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank wrocław bielany wrocławskie kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank rondo onz godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego bank pocztowy pożyczki bez bik mielec kredyt bank w rawiczu kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłuzonych kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bez biku zachodniopomorskie kredyty duże na dowód wrocław kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pocztowym pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik radom kredyt bank sprzedaż santander kredyt w getin noble bank pożyczka bez bik i krd konin tel pożyczki prywatne od inwestorów pożyczki gotówkowe z obłsugą w domu asper pozyczki lodz przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp optima s a pożyczki kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki do domu białystok pożyczki finan kredyt bank powstańców warszawy kredyt bez bik prywatny pożyczki 60 dni który bank udziela kredytów bez bik wypowiedzenie umowy kredytowej credit agricole pożyczki chwilówki kłodzko pożyczki chwilówki wejherowo kredyt bank lokata na 6 5 podwyższenie pożyczki millenium szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód kredyt bank rachunek umowa pożyczki ustawa bocian pożyczki świecie umowa pożyczki między podatnikami vat umorzenie pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt mieszkaniowy z umową na czas określony kredyt bank nieprawidłowy identyfikator lub pin oblicz ratę pożyczki pko umowa ugody pożyczki kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania bez biku czy podatek pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym kredyt w banku czeskim kredyt bank konto walutowe opinie kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego 27 kredyt chwilówka reklama pożyczki ratalne kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie pożyczki chwilówki rawicz kredyty chwilówki mysłowice grunwaldzka numer tel kontaktowego na pożyczke w chełm kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje udzielenie pożyczki w bilansie kredyty chwilówki słupsk deotymy mikro pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik rybnik pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik przez internet pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt przez internet w credit agricole jak wziąć kredyt w orange za 5 zł pożyczki prywatne w opolu pożyczki społecznościowe 2011 wycena pożyczki na koniec roku pożyczka w domu poznań pożyczki tylko na dowód osobisty kredyt ratalny banki pożyczki wojenne kredyt bankowy encyklopedia zarządzania pożyczki chwilówki artykuły pożyczki na dowód zakopane kredyty chwilówki bez bik online jak dostać kredyt bez bik kredyty i pożyczki ściąga kredyty bez biku i zdolnosci kredytowej kronos pożyczki tarnowskie gory telefon umowa pożyczki pieniędzy chomikuj kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator pozyczka prywatna czechowice amortyzacja pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe na sms kredyty pozabankowe pod weksel pożyczki filemon mikropożyczki mazowieckie pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem kredyt w citibanku kredyt bank łańcut umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wzór kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków kierowca kredyty chwilówki opinie ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyt bez biku gdynia pożyczki pozabankowe bez odsetek kredyt w banku czy przez pośrednika kredyty chwilówki przez sms meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości kredyt jako produkt bankowy umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór pożyczki abis pożyczki z nigerii umowa zawarcia pożyczki szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kraków kredyty bez bik i krd tychy kredyt bank kapelanka kraków godziny otwarcia warunki otrzymania pożyczki w vivus umowa pożyczki koszty notarialne kredyt bank kapelanka godziny pozyczki bez biku i zaswiadczen i dochodach pożyczki dla lekarzy jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór pozyczki poza bankowe bez sprawdzania zdolności kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia kredyt samochodowy bank pko pożyczki nordea niespłacone pożyczki z zfśs kredyt gotówkowy w banku paribas pożyczki lider pożyczki geronimo kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon umowa pożyczki inwestycyjnej wniesienie aportem pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska kredyt 5 zł orange pop kredyt bank rydułtowy kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 kredyt bank wałbrzych godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz opinie kredyty od 18lat na dowod olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki skawina kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki okey pożyczki prywatne a urząd skarbowy umowa pożyczki przedawnia się prowident krakow pozyczk kredyty bez bik pabianice w jakim banku dostanę pożyczkę przez internet wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet mariusz patrowicz pożyczki duomax pożyczki kredyt chwilowki lodz kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 konto junior w kredyt banku preferencyjny kredyt studencki forum pożyczki od ludzi kredyt chwilówka co to jest kredyty chwilówki bieruń kredyt konsolidacyjny chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki w 15 minut na koncie umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo amber kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe wbk kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora zastępczego kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 forum kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem kredyt samochodowy na firme bez bik pożyczki bez bik szamotuły mikropożyczki na założenie firmy do ilu zl bocian udziela pozyczek na dowod pożyczki bez bik zus us kredyt bank otwarcie konta prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bank polski pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan pożyczki na dowód kłodzko kredyt bank warszawa sobota pożyczki gotówkowe bgż pożyczka na rente socjalną odsetki od pożyczki kiedy podatek kredyty na firme bez bik kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w uk pożyczki pozabankowe grójec okres przedawnienia umowy pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez biku wzór aneksu do umowy pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank dyrektor hr kredyt bank pelplin centrala kredyt banku w warszawie niebezpieczne pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki do spełnienia pożyczki na dowód bez krd kredyt bank euro przelew pożyczki świąteczne na dowód kredyt dla emeryta w getin banku kredyty chwilówki bedzin pożyczki od ręki bocian pożyczki bez bik zduńska wola kredyt bez bik zgorzelec kredyty chwilówki kłodzko kredyt bank szczecin matejki 8 bezzwrotne pożyczki dla bezrobotnych szybkie pożyczki bez bik big i krd pożyczki w pko sa kredyty chwilówki lędziny pożyczki pod zastaw stalowa wola kredyt bank departament finansowania handlu pożyczka na pit 11bez bik pożyczki konsumpcyjne porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe świdnica kredyt bank chojnice pożyczki kredyty na dowód pożyczka bez bik i krd mława kredyty chwilówki gdańsk podwale staromiejskie kredyt dla zadłużonych bez bik udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyty dlugoterminowe bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki trzebinia jak napisać wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bankowe oferty pożyczki ostrzeszów małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 pożyczki na dowód bielsko bz wbk bankomaty kredyt bank kredyt bank limit dzienny kredyty dla firm bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 tys kredyt bez biku w skoku kredyt bank radzymińska kredyty bez bik świdnica renata pikuła pożyczki pozyczki kronos kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska kredyt bank konto walutowe opinie kredyt bank zmiana hasła kredyty na raty bezrobotnym ina zasiłku stałym pożyczki chwilówki podatki kredyt bank bankomaty chełm pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad