pozyczka od reki bez biku prywatny inwestor udzieli pożyczki pożyczki domowe na dowód sandomierz wzór umowy pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs krus pożyczki kredyt bank pl bankowosc elektroniczna bocian pozyczki swiebodzin umowa pożyczki zfśs poliso lokata w kredyt banku kredyt bank raporty bieżące kredyt bank lublin godziny otwarcia kredyt odnawialny eurobank pożyczki a kasa fiskalna pożyczki dla jednostek samorządu terytorialnego miś pożyczki w ktorym banku oplaca sie wziasc kredyt we wroclawiu potrzebuję ów kredyt pożyczki całodobowe kredyt bank oferta przedłużenie pożyczki w wonga kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania pożyczki bez bik pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej pożyczki z niskim oprocentowaniem udzielenie pożyczki osobie prywatnej pożyczki chwilówki dla bezrobotnych pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa pozyczka bez big w domu klienta wołow kredyt bank mikołów telefon pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kielce pożyczki gotówkowe rzeszów pożyczki pozabankowe gumtree warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyty chwilówki zgierz odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bez bik brodnica pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław pożyczki w 15 minut na konto kredyt bank praca opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania pożyczki chwilówki sms optima pożyczki numer telefonu pożyczki społecznościowe 2012 pożyczki będzin szybki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt chwilówka bedzin kredyt studencki pko wypłata eurocent podobne pozyczki pożyczki chwilówki wąbrzeźno kredyt bank kluczbork godziny otwarcia umowy pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank arkadia pożyczki portal pożyczki prywatne łódż eurocash pożyczki poznań kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany pożyczki bez bik i dochodu pożyczki na dowód poczta lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank hr pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz kredyt bank rodzina na swoim kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty jak odmówić komuś pożyczki umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pcc mikropożyczki olsztyn pożyczki publiczne kredyt gotówkowy bez bik sosnowiec pożyczki pozabankowe polkowice kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych pokwitowanie pożyczki kronos pożyczki kontakt kredyt bez biku katowice gdańsk pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank warunki pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka kredyt bank mateusze kredyt bez zaswiadczen jelenia gora pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie badanie zdolności kredytowej w banku pko bp pozyczka na termin z komornikiem slask pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt bankowy jak zaksięgować kredyt bank nowa huta pożyczki chwilówki bez meldunku bocian stargard pożyczki preferencyjne wzór wniosku o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp pożyczki pozabankowe mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki prywatne będzin pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko kredyt pozabankowy sosnowiec pożyczki gotówkowe sezam sp z oo umowa pożyczki wspólnika ze spółką kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu za granica kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi pożyczki pozabankowe międzyrzecz kredyty chwilówki komisja nadzoru finansowego kredyt bank zabrze kontakt kredyt bank warszawa bankomaty pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd kredyt bank bps kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie w credit agricole pozyczki prywatne na wysoki procent kredyt mieszkaniowy a komornik kredyt bez bik i zaświadczenia o zarobkach kredyt bank makler umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem kredyt bank brzeg kontakt pożyczki bez zbędnych formalności kredyty bez bik w bydgoszczy kredyt bez bik provident kredyt mieszkaniowy na firmę kredyt bank godz otwarcia kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki online bez wpłaty wzór dokumentu pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe z obłsugą w domu pożyczki łomża kredyt bank raszyn godz otwarcia santander consumer kredyt samochodowy kalkulator profile w kredyt banku pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki bez biku białystok umowa pożyczki między dwoma osobami kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyt chwilówka online przedłużenie umowy pożyczki a pcc wizja lokalna w kredyt banku kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatnie poznań umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka pożyczki polskiej alior bank kraków pozyczki na pit kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw kredyt w orange 5 zl kredyt bank pulawska 303 kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt mbank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki społecznościowe podatki multibank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt bank kod banku kredyty chwilówki sucha beskidzka konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pcc kredyt refinansowy banku centralnego kredyt konsolidacyjny koszty kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator wbk umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą bankomaty kredyt banku kielce kredyty bez bik opolskie kredyt bank zawiercie telefon kredyt gotówkowy w raiffeisen bank sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt oddłużeniowy pozabankowy pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt pozabankowy katowice kalkulator pożyczki pocztowy kredyty bez bik i z komornikiem cesja wierzytelności pożyczki kredyty chwilówki legionowo kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych alior bank kredyt symulacja kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny otwarcia kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk pożyczki bez biku poznań kredyt bez bik w pile kredyt lombardowy w banku kredyt z idea banku opinie pozyczki rodzaje kredyty chwilówki jana pawła warszawa szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto kredyt bank wrocław warunki kredytu credit agricole pożyczki bez bik łódz kredyt bank ostrow wlkp godziny otwarcia marka pożyczki praca kredyt w banku czy u doradcy kredyty bez bik gdańsk kredyt bank puck pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont mieszkania kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki dochód kredyt bank sa piła pożyczki żagań cel pożyczki opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pożyczki udzielone spółce przez udziałowca kredyty chwilówki zaliczka kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania kredyt bank krolewska krakow banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód częstochowa kredyt bank ranking kalkulator kredytowy konsolidacyjny alior bank pożyczki bocian cieszyn numer umowa pożyczki między prywatnymi osobami kredyt bank konskie kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice kredyt bank lesko kredyt bank aleksandrów kujawski kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko kredyt bez bik jelenia góra kredyt odnawialny w banku bgż optima pożyczki kielce kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski kredyt bank bonifacego pozyczki krosos windykacja kredyt gotówkowy z bik jaki kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank sa infolinia kredyt bankowy warunki pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum pozyczki dla polakow w anglii kredyt w lukas banku kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego pożyczki do 3000 zł kredyt bank grunwaldzka rzeszów pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe dla każdego bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu umowa pożyczki do pobrania kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka kredyt bank nowy świat umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wniosek kredyt bank w oleśnicy kredyt bank lista haseł jednorazowych kredyt gotówkowy w bos bank w jakim banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki po niemiecku pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy org żyrafa pożyczki opinie opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziców kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż numer konta w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem kredyt bank dane pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania łódź kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyt bank raszyn gdzie mozna w sieradzu dostac pozyczke bez dochodu meritum bank kredyt na start bez bik kredyty chwilówki biznes wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowud kredyt bank psie pole wrocław eures pożyczki kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 gdańsk kredyt bez bik do 50 tys poznań pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań umowa o udzielenie pożyczki umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bank polski kredyt bank debica kredyt getin noble bank bocian pozyczki swiebodzin numery tel pozyczki gliwice pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pit kredyt bank myślenice kontakt kredyty chwilówki praca śląsk pożyczki konsolidacyjne pozabankowe umowa pożyczki pomiędzy członkami rodziny kredyt bank w olkuszu umowa pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń dzierzoniow pożyczki panda opole kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bank polski kredyt bank bankomaty inowrocław kredyt w mbanku forum bocian pożyczki wymagane dokumenty kredyt sms orange pop pozyczki prodomo do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn pozyczka gratka opinie pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt bank oddział ursynów alex pożyczki czy kredyt konsolidacyjny można skonsolidować pożyczki w domu klienta opole wzór na obliczenie raty pożyczki kredyt bank parasol pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow kredyt bank gdynia pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych kredyt bank sa białystok ul warszawska gros pożyczki opinie renata pikuła pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta optima prywatne pożyczki pod weksel pożyczki bez bik zdunska wola pożyczki online 24 wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa jaki kod na kredyt orange pozyczki atiz ostrow kredyty konsolidacyjne olsztyn kredyty mieszkaniowe rzeszów splaty ratalne pozyczki zdunska wola pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyt bank kamień pomorski bocian pożyczki oddziały pożyczki na dowód wrocław ubezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki gotówkowe telefon kredyt bank rodzina na swoim forum warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej ptp pożyczki mariusz dudziński pożyczki kredyt bank ruda śląska niedurnego kredyt bank wniosek o wakacje kredytowe pożyczki bez bik na konto bocian pożyczki jaworzno pożyczki ostróda pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow kredyt bank gdynia starowiejska pożyczki ze złą historią w bik kredyt bank w lomiankach kredyt bez bik kielce kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt bank rydla szczecin kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja kredyt bank ekstrakonto junior potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt bank sa oddział w pile umowa pożyczki druk darmowy jakie banki daja kredyt w euro kredyt bank ul wielicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik i krd wrocław kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim kredyt studencki warunki spłaty kredyt w godzine uk kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli kredyt bez bik w krakowie pożyczki finanse wzór umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami kredyt w allianz bank szybkie pożyczki głogów kredyt bank sa forum nowe firmy pozyczkowe w domu klienta w swidnicy kredyt bank legionowo telefon kredyt bez wizyty w banku pożyczki bez bik ślimak kredyt bank plac solny kredyt bank w katowicach bocian pożyczki regulamin żagiel kredyt na oświadczenie kredyty bank santander kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś pożyczki prywatne szybko pożyczki pozabankowe w zielonej górze kredyt pozabankowy łódź prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok pożyczki optima olsztyn alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pit kredyty mieszkaniowe najniższe oprocentowanie rachunek depozytowy w kredyt banku pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław kredyty bankowe warunki fałszywa umowa pożyczki konin pozyczka bez bik i krd kredyt bank import przelewów kredyt bank dług kredyt bank kod banku kredyt bank rachunek dla firm umowa pożyczki pcc czy vat kredyty chwilówki windykacja jak dostac pozyczke w atiz konfuzja pożyczki kredyt bank ii oddział olsztyn pożyczki dla zadłużonych bytom bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt bank kraków kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia nowe pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik wejherowo kredyt bank 7 procent marr pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank ostrów wlkp obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bez bik raty kredyt konsolidacyjny na poczcie monetia pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na dowód katowice dar pożyczki działdowo kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław pożyczka do domu podkarpacie umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej podatek pożyczki pozabankowe online bez bik kredyty bez bik we wrocławiu pożyczki europejskie dukat pożyczki czestochowa kredyty chwilówki rrso pożyczki prywatne 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp kalkulator formy pożyczki getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyt bez bik w jakim banku pożyczki łatwe kredyty udzielane w domu udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie kredyt samochodowy fiat bank pozyczki w domu klienta bez weryfikacji kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank zmiana waluty spłaty kredytu pożyczki proszowice kredyt bank rakowicka kraków charakter umowy pożyczki kredyt bank sa rybnik kredyt bank jelenia góra godziny otwarcia kredyt z komornikiem ruda slaska pożyczki prywatne radomsko kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna czestochowa pożyczki gotówkowe bez zdolności kredytowej bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl najbardziej opłacalne pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty bez podatku belki szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt pozabankowy naczym polega kredyt studencki pko zawieszenie pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania warszawa pro invest pożyczki kredyty bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bez biku płock umowa pożyczki prawo właściwe kredyty i pożyczki dla gmin kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 kalkulator kredyt dla studentów bzwbk kredyt bank zespół zajęć egzekucyjnych kredyty bez bik pożyczki szczecin pożyczki brodnica kredyt bank warszawa kosiarzy pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt na auto bez bik duet pozyczka numer tel pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych pożyczki provident gdańsk kredyt bank lipowa białystok kredyt bank rzeszów kontakt anulowanie pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa kredyty dla rolników bez biku latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona nieruchomością nielegalne pozyczki online kredyt bank dt nowe pożyczki chwilówki bank pekao sa kredyt studencki kredyt bank lezajsk kredyt bank częstochowa lokaty pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne umowa pożyczki do spółki prywatne pożyczki weksel ubezpieczenie pożyczki po co kredyt bez bik konsolidacja postea pożyczki przedawnienie roszczeń z umowy pożyczki bankowej kredyt bez biku na dowód kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu gdzie w rybniku dostane kredyt bez biku kredyt na start w lukas bank pożyczki ostrołęka pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań kredyt bank białystok warszawska wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt bank zarobki kredyty pozabankowe radomsko szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat jak zaksięgować udzielone pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny marża pożyczka bez infomonitora kredyt bank pułtusk tel kredyt bank racibórz telefon poznań pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank bankomaty bez opłat kredyt bankowy dla msp kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli forum umowa pożyczki termin spłaty pozyczki pod zastaw leszno

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad