kredyty pozabankowe skierniewice umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc pozyczka bez bik na splate komornika kredyt bankowy wstęp kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie szybkie pożyczki bez bik do domu dolny śląsk najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank payu kredyty konsolidacyjne artykuł zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki czy warto brać kredyt w getin banku poznań pożyczki chwilówki najtańsze pożyczki ranking pożyczki prywatne sanok kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś banku kredyty chwilowki czestochowa kredyt bank biuro obsługi klienta pożyczki bez weryfikacji kredyt na już bez bik kredyt bank leszno konstytucji 3 maja kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emeryta pożyczki pozabankowe legnica pożyczki od właścicieli w bilansie wzór pokwitowania pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe dla bezrobotnych getin bank kredyty bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw pkd kredyt konsolidacyjny teoria kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole opinie bocian pożyczki lubuskie asper pozyczki lodz kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia mariusz tierling pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowod kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 krecik pożyczki kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty kredyty bez biku sosnowiec pozyczka online w niedziele kredyt bank ile kosztuje przelew umowa pozyczki z poreczeniem kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy pożyczki dla młodych rolników kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator kredyty online bez bik i krd kredyt bank fiz ii kredyty bez bik lubuskie kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bank polski akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie pożyczki bez bik piaseczno kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator potwierdzenie udzielenia pożyczki pozyczka bocian bytom rola kredytu w finansach banku kredyt bank oddział ruda śląska umowa pożyczki z jedynym wspólnikiem pożyczki definicja przyrzeczenie pożyczki pożyczki profireal przeliczenie pożyczki polcredit pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji kredyt bank pocztowy pożyczki pomorskie pożyczki bez bik bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank warszawa bielany pożyczki chwilówki radomsko umowa pożyczki dla członka zarządu kredyt studencki w pekao kredyt studencki warunki wiek kredyt dla firm bez bik i zus pożyczki pod zastaw świdnica kredyt studencki pko poręczyciel pożyczki plan kont kredyt bank sa w ostrołęce kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatami kredyt bank złoto pożyczki pozabankowe vivus kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe lokata swobodna kredyt bank marketing potwierdzenie salda pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki na dowód credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek kredyt bez bik z komornikiem opodatkowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty nordea bank bankomaty kredyt banku koszalin kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia ing czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod kredyt bank sa jarosław pożyczki pod zastaw opole pożyczki społecznościowe uk kredyty mieszkaniowe współpraca pożyczki w 5 minut umowa pożyczki jak księgować kredyty chwilówki bytom umowa pożyczki bez pcc odsetki od pożyczki udziałowiec kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyty bankowe na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki na dowód przez internet kredyty bankowe pasywa pożyczki dla pracowników banków kredyt bank bialystok warszawska kredyt w get in bank forum pożyczki na dowód chełmno kredyty chwilówki krosno prywatne pożyczki na dowód pożyczki kamienna góra pożyczki prywatne chwilówki kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej sezam pożyczki krotoszyn kredyty bankowe warunki kredyt bank ełk ul słowackiego kredyty bez bik lubuskie kredyty chwilówki praca kraków kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie rachunku w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy regulamin kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe do 20000 pożyczki społecznościowe zopa pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt bank konstancinska kredyt bez bik sosnowiec kredyt bank kurs usd kredyt bank mokotów pożyczki pozabankowe wspólpraca kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2012 roku kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pro domo pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank w lublinie ul narutowicza polecana pozyczka w systemie ratalnym bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny 100 wartości nieruchomości przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych i w bik kredyt bez bik białystok kredyty bez bik zawiercie umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt bank sa chorzów pożyczki na dowód lubań kredyt bez bik 25000 kredyt bank najgorszy najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank 1 oddział warszawa pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank brian tracy pożyczki dla firm toruń kredyt bank biała podlaska kontakt kredyt bank piłsudskiego łódź godziny otwarcia provident kwota pożyczki pozyczki prywatnych inwestorów pożyczki pozabankowe na pit kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek pozyczki online bez przelewu umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji kredyt bank merger pożyczki bez bik mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki regulacje prawne meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe vivus kod do kredytu orange umowa pożyczki kwoty pieniężnej umowa pożyczki ze środków obrotowych kredyt bank liczba akcji kredyt bez biku kredyt bank zakopane godziny otwarcia kredyt na dowód mbank kredyt w kredyt banku kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank warszawa centrala kredyty chwilówki firma pożyczki w domu łódzkie ranking banków kredyt obrotowy kredyt w getin bank opinie kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód kielce w jakim banku kredyt na dom uk prywatne udziele pożyczki w kościanie kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński pożyczki gotówkowe bez zdolności kredytowej bank pko sa kredyty mieszkaniowe siedziba kredyt banku warszawa agnieszka panek pożyczki kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online księgowanie umowy pożyczki od udziałowca wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem kredyt studencki pko umorzenie kredyt bank warszawa popularna lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko bp pożyczki prywatne szczecin kredyt bank ciechanów telefon kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kontakt umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej advice pożyczki opinie udzielenie pożyczki wspólnikowi przez spółkę pożyczki na dowód jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem a pcc kredyty bank wbk kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne kredyt bank logo eps bocian pożyczki nidzica pożyczki bocian gniezno adam nowakowski pożyczki umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami prywatnymi kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pekao sa niskoprocentowe pozyczki uk kredyt bank ken warszawa bielsko kredyty nie bankowe pożyczki pod zastaw rtv tarnów pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny warunki pożyczki w providencie pożyczki dla firm bielsko getin noble bank kredyt ratalny kredyty bez biku przez internet kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowania pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank obotrycka umowa pożyczki z zagranicy pożyczki chwilówka kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia reklama pożyczki vivus firma żyrafa pożyczki umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie pro domo pożyczki kołobrzeg krótkie pożyczki podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce umowa poręczenia pożyczki pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowej kredyt bez bik złotów kredyt bank lokata na 6 miesięcy kredyt bez bik bez dochodu pożyczki w bilansie kredyty chwilówki płock opinie pożyczki bankowe przez internet kredyt na zakup ziemi w banku spółdzielczym bilans pożyczki udzielone pozyczki poza bankowe bez sprawdzania zdolności pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego bip pożyczki formularz kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia pko bank polski wniosek o kredyt studencki rafał kuryłowicz pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kłodzko kredyty i pożyczki jst kredyt samochodowy bank bph pożyczki na paszport dąbrowa górnicza kredyty dla osob w bik pozyczki pod zastaw w uk pożyczki jedności narodowej wrocław kredyt bank lokaty sierpień 2012 pożyczki bez umowy o prace łodz pozyczki prywatne kielce kredyt bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach forum kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych online kredyty pożyczki bez bik forum kredyt bank zory godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe tczew pożyczki na rentę socjalną kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie forum kredyt bez bik do 5 tys kredyty bez bik zawiercie kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp forum regulamin pożyczki ze środków obrotowych warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe w jakim banku kredyt 20000 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow kredyt bank nfc pożyczki bez dokumentów wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki gdzie najtaniej pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum kredyt w santander consumer bank opinie pożyczki bez bik bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw lombard tarnów pożyczki chwilówki lublin parametry pożyczki zwrot pożyczki przychód kredyt bank wymiana karty kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice pożyczki bez bik gostynin pożyczki prywatne pilne pożyczki bez bik i krd szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk kredyt bank łączy się z wbk kredyt bank chrzanów godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki pożyczki na dowód online szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet kredyt bank sa główna siedziba pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie umowa pożyczki wzór bezpłatny potrzebuję pożyczki łódź kredyty na firme bez biku pożyczki u kruka pożyczki na dowód lubań kredyty chwilówki soho kredyt studencki pko wakacje kredyt bank gdańsk suchanino godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń warszawa kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt pożyczki na umowe zlecenie pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód online kredyt bank mieszkanie dla młodych adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie bocian pożyczki wejherowo oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firmy afera kredytowa kredyt rodzina na swoim bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bankowy w przedsiębiorstwie pożyczki na weksel śląskie jak obliczyć nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki bocian pożyczki forum pracowników kredyt bank bic swift pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna kredyt bankowy oprocentowanie kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator multibank pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bocian pozyczki dla emerytow legnica kredyt bank groupon kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza umowa pożyczki wzór 777 kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń wroclaw profi kredyt przedstawiciel pani bozena kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn podatek od pożyczki cywilnej pożyczki wg msr kredyt chwilówki żary kalkulator zdolnosci kredytowej santander bank kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki w banku pekao sa kredyt mieszkaniowy nadpłacanie ewidencja księgowa pożyczki od udziałowca pozyczka banknot siedlce alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne umowa pożyczki wzór w rodzinie szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst pożyczki mini firma kredyt bank w raciborzu kredyt bank dzial windykacji pożyczki prywatne kłodzko pożyczki na dowód kutno pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem praca w kredyty chwilówki opinie pożyczki online bez bik i krd kredyt bank biskupiec pożyczki jędrzejów pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki bez zameldowania kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik pożyczki cashper wzór umowy dobrej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik kredyty bez biku rzeszow podatek od pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bank autoryzacja pożyczki mieszkaniowe w policji kredyt bank włodawa kontakt pozyczki od reki w ostrolece kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf chomikuj getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych wzór umorzenia pożyczki kredyt udzielany według prawa bankowego kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt toruń pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki ząbkowice śląskie kredyty chwilowki windykatorzy kredyt w uk na rok kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec kredyt technologiczny banki kredyt bank ropczyce franchising pożyczki kredyt bank fuzja z bz wbk banki które udzielają kredytu bez bik kredyt studencki bank gospodarstwa krajowego kredyt dla małej firmy bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg kredyt bank b stok banki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank elblag kontakt getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój szybkie pożyczki przez internet dla zadłużonych kredyt bank pdf pożyczki w instytucjach pozabankowych pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt pozabankowy skarbiec pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy duo pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki łomża kredyt bank reklama adamczyk pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód częstochowa pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy dokumenty pożyczki bez bik lubartów kredyt bank ochota kredyt bank inowrocław kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki wzór pdf kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 pożyczki praca pożyczki zła historia kredytowa pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica kredyt bank w pile getin noble bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego kredyt bez bik chojnice posrednictwo kredyty chwilowki pożyczki chwilówki braniewo kredyty chwilówki krosno kredyty bank wbk kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank pocztowy gdzie pozyczke bez grosza pożyczki kapitał ludzki kredyt bank debet na koncie kredyt bank żagiel kontakt szybkie pozyczki mprywatne na procent warszawa kredyt bank bydgoszcz kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank w grójcu pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kalkulator raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany pożyczki prywatne gdzie kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania kalkulator pożyczki pocztowy umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyt bank wpłatomaty poznań umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kalkulator pożyczki bgż kredyt bez bik piaseczno gdzie po kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki od osób prywatnych lublin kredyt bank nowy sącz aleje wolności likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu za granica uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont mieszkania kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej kredyt bez bik w toruniu prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe katowice pożyczki bez bik w bydgoszczy pomoc publiczna pożyczki kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lublin ul narutowicza 55b kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza kredyt bank prowizje kredyt bank w czestochowie pożyczki bez bik bez dochodów kredyt w eurobanku bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny na karty kredytowe pożyczki andrychów umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór pożyczki abc kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta kredyt w postbank pożyczki pozabankowe bez providenta kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego kredyt w uk jak dostac koszty pozwu o zwrot pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa kredyt bank liczba akcji kredyty chwilówki siedlce eurobank kredyt warunki kredytu w banku millenium pożyczki chwilówki w białymstoku umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw pożyczki piekary poznań najgorsze pożyczki kredyt na dowod gdynia tel wzór oświadczenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyt bez bik bez zaświadczeń

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad