kredyt bank chorwacja pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt studencki bankier pożyczki bez bik kętrzyn śląsk pożyczka prywatna pod weksel kod do orange kredyt pożyczki novum finance pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe concerto kredyt bank żagiel łódź kredyt bank częstochowa piłsudskiego kontakt kredyt bank białystok kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska 25 pozyczki bez bik i krd numer tel kredyty mieszkaniowe blog pożyczki w lombardach bocian pożyczki warszawa pożyczki pruszków kredyt bank warszawa ul grójecka pożyczki od ręki pozyczki w uk po polsku pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki na dowód w bydgoszczy kredyt w paribas bank opinie kredyty chwilówki do 5000 w jakich bankach można wsiąść pożyczkę na dowod kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia kredyt bez biku online pożyczki na dowód oświęcim profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace pożyczki prywatne szybko kredyty dla firm bez bik zus i us kredyt bank oddzialy w krakowie kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia kredyt bank rezygnacja z ubezpieczenia kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony pożyczki pozabankowe piotrków trybunalski pożyczki na pesel kredyty i pożyczki dla jst pożyczki refinansowe pożyczki jeremie pomorskie pożyczki poznań bez bik kredyt bank koniec kredyt bank warszawa rudnickiego kredyt konsolidacyjny legnica kredyt w banku eurobank kredyt gotówkowy bez wizyty w banku pożyczka w domu poznań kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia leasing a kredyt bankowy praca magisterska kredyt bank wroclaw placowki kredyt samochodowy ing kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości z komornikiem obliczenie pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank pożyczki wieruszów pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania inwestycji pożyczki prywatne jarocin ltwe kredyty poznan pożyczki w skoku chmielewskiego w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt forum bank pko sa kredyt rodzina na swoim bocian pożyczki wieluń kredyt bank routing number w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochod kredyty chwilówki ile się zarabia kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki koszt pożyczki kalkulator kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank pocztowy kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe zasady 2013 pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw kredyty chwilówki boguszowice kredyt bank fax kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty banki udzielające kredytów bez zdolności kredyt bank mława telefon pożyczki oddłużeniowe kredyty bankowe współpraca pro domo pożyczki kołobrzeg nr tel zwrot pożyczki pieniężnej za pokwitowaniem wzór pożyczki prometeusz białystok kredyty konsolidacyjne trudne kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia pilnie szukam pożyczki banki dające kredyt studencki pozyczki chwilowki pod weksel w jaworznie kredyt samochodowy getin bank warunki pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń umorzenie pożyczki wspólnika agito pożyczki umowa pożyczki a us pozabankowe kredyty wnioski wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki wzór w rodzinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 ile można potrącić pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pozyczka dla dluznikow warszawa bocian pożyczki adres kredyt obrotowy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki rolowane wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie kredyt orange yes pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt prowizja banku kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie rat pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn kredyt pozabankowy bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik bank bph kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt na alimety bez bik kozienice nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń czy odsetki od pożyczki są opodatkowane kredyty chwilówki lichwa kredyty chwilówki procent pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn rolniczych kredyt bank goldenline pożyczki bez bik współpraca pozyczka od 18 lat częstochowa kredyt bank zana lublin godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków pożyczki gotówkowe bez big jakie kredyty sa bezpieczne pozabankowe odsetki od pozyczki z zfss pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe warszawa pożyczki dla bezrobotnych prometeusz pozyczka gotówkowa na dowód uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej pozyczki z komornikiem w starachowicach kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec 3 maja umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc kredyty chwilówki odsetki kredyt bez bik do domu getin bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki na dowód kościerzyna pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych kredyt bank dluga optima pożyczki wrocław pożyczki prywatne w lublinie kredyt bank wolontariat pracowniczy kredyty eurobank pl pożyczki obliczanie rat kredyt bank lokata z premią 6 5 pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 pozyczki na dowod konin termin przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank warszawa politechnika fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyty chwilówki gniezno kredyt refinansowy w banku centralnym bocian pożyczki kielce forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w kasie stefczyka pożyczki kredyty bez bik kraków warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu w getin bank kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska kredyt bank token problem kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2014 kredyt bankowy bez biku kredyty chwilówki grochowska 332 pożyczki w aig kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt odnawialny w banku pekao sa kredyt bank nordea pożyczki bez banku pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki grajewo pożyczki dla 19 latków umowa pożyczki pieniędzy gofin kredyty banki spółdzielcze pożyczki bez bik 5000 zł pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe kredyty mieszkaniowe co trzeba wiedzieć pożyczki na pół roku pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bank warka pozyczki pod weksel olkusz na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu kredyt studencki w banku kredyt bank lokaty online kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph kredyt pozabankowy kontakt kredyt bank warszawa zytnia kredyt bank dm pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank nowa huta kredyty bez bik na raty kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca kredyt bank siedziba adres kredyt konsolidacyjny na firme kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin kredyt z pierwsza pozyczka za darmo kredyt bank santander 2012 gdzie wziac kredyt kielce warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyty chwilówki kamienna góra alior bank kredyt na oświadczenie kredyt bez bik sochaczew prodomo pożyczki starogard kredyt bez biku na telefon pożyczki internetowe bocian pożyczki reklama w tv pożyczki pod weksel kraków getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy parkmar pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów pożyczki inowrocław niski procent kredyty na dowod 18lat olsztyn kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank efs podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bank w kole calkowita splata pozyczki wzor pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyty chwilówki białystok praca kredyt bank wrocław kontakt kredyt bank świecie telefon alior bank kredyty studenckie my banq pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium oprocentowanie kredyt na dowod bez konta w banku potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt pozabankowy z tanimi odsetkami wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem kredyt marża banku pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie bankomaty kredyt banku bez prowizji pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt bez biku gdynia kredyty bez bik 25000 kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca kredyty chwilówki żywiec kredyt bank polecenie zapłaty kredyt bank świebodzin praca pożyczki unijne na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt pozabankowy gdansk kredyt konsolidacyjny opole pożyczki bez biku grudziądz kredyt bank krosno praca kredyt w banku zagiel kredyt w eurobanku dla emeryta kredyt w nordea bank kapitalizacja pożyczki chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki gąbin kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa kredyt bank hrubieszów godziny otwarcia banki które daja kredyt bez bik kredyt bank ślaski kredyty chwilówki gdańsk podwale staromiejskie forum pożyczki prywatne hortus pożyczki pożyczki dla ludzi bez pracy spłata pożyczki w amber gold kredyt bank spółdzielczy bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin pszczółka pożyczki kredyty bankowe praca pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu warszawa kredyt bez bik na firme kredyty bez biku malbork pożyczki pozabankowe bochnia niskoprocentowe pożyczki dla firm czy poręcza się kredyt z odsetkami czy bez kredyt bez bik i krs pożyczki chwilówki piła pewny kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank sa opole kredyt na dowód w getin banku slimak pozyczki kontakt kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie gorzów pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank pruszcz gdański pozyczki chwilowki konin ul dworcowa pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki chwilówki w przemyślu kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego w jakim banku kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bez biku i zdolności kredytowej pożyczki bez bik do 3000 kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik kredyt bank limit przelewu kredyt bez bik i bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki końskie jaki jest kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank kadry kredyt odnawialny w millenium bank szybkie pożyczki bankowe kredyt bank wrocłąw kredyt chwilowka w przeźmierowie banknot pożyczki łódź koszty pożyczki rafał konarski pozyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik zus umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt bank sa lublin zana pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców śląskich kredyty chwilówki białystok praca pozyczki posrednictwo warszawa bez dochodu pożyczki dla zadłużonych z bik kredyt bank historia bankomat kredyt banku wrocław kredyty bez bik gorzow pożyczki nigeryjskie kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon umowa pożyczki poręczenie kredyt pozabankowy od reki umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą kredyt chwilówka ranking warunki otrzymania pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta śląsk kredyt gotówkowy online bez bik odsetki od pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej kredyt w banku gdzie najtaniej kredyt pozabankowy 20000 kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank online logowanie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń jelenia góra szybkie pożyczki 0 kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gorzów wlkp prywatne pozyczki na procent irlandia kredyt bank mielec godziny otwarcia przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy pożyczki gotówkowe udzielane w domu umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe czy bilansowe druk umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bankowy wikipedia kredyty bez bik sieradz getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum slimak pozyczki gdzie dostac kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyty pozabankowe olkusz kredyty pozabankowe gdynia pożyczki bocian płock szybki kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt samochodowy dla rolnika umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf pożyczki chwilówki sieradz pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości koszalin pożyczki na dowód białystok kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt bank mobbing kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku kredyt bank autodealing istota kredytu bankowego kredyt konsolidacyjny warto kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki przyznania w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki favore bocian pożyczki prudnik optima pożyczki oddziały pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego poznań pozyczka z komornikiem lublin zarobki w kredyt banku forum oddziały dobrej pożyczki ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyty chwilówki częstochowa kredyt w banku pekao sa opinie kredyt bank opole kontakt skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały kredyt bankowy teoria kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki pożyczki bankowe przez internet kredyt bank ostrobramska godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe opole pozyczki pod zastaw auta warszawa kredyt bank kościan godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytów bankowych dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank lokata 6 pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników warszawa kredyty chwilówki jaki procent kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku opinie istota pożyczki pko bp lublin kredyt studencki kredyt bank lokata terminowa econstans pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk placówki kredyt banku poznań kredyty bez bik mielec kredyt bank lokata srebrna kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia pożyczki chwilowki warszawa przez internet kredyty na raty bezrobotnym ina zasiłku stałym zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska 1 pożyczki od 18 lat online banki kredyty ekologiczne kredyt studencki pko zawieszenie pożyczki na dowód zakopane kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia partner pożyczki opinie kredyt bank karty bankomatowe bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy forum wzory pism umowa pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki bez bik i krd gniezno kredyt bank w ciechocinku pożyczki dla rodziny pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód kredyt pocztowy na dowód obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa pożyczki chwilówki zgorzelec polcredit pożyczki gdzie mozna dostac kredyt bez biku kredyty bez bik online pożyczki dla rencistów wrocław mikropożyczki przez internet kredyt bez bik slupsk kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp kredyt bank w przemyślu pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 pożyczki prywatne pilne idea bank konsolidacja konsolidacji kredytu dyskonto pożyczki euro pożyczki limanowa odsetki karne pożyczki dotacje czy pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców po 2013 kredyt jako produkt bankowy banki kredyty z komornikiem kredyt bank piaseczno kontakt kredyt banki 24 kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują pożyczki na weksel śląsk krótkie pożyczki pożyczki remontowe pożyczki na dowód lubuskie kredyt bez bik na start kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie kredyt gotówkowy eurobank forum kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys pożyczki bez biku świdnica kredyt bank nowy sącz godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki białogard pożyczki oddłużeniowe dla rolników pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator kredyt w banku bgż forum kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki bez bik inowrocław kredyt bank wbk opinie warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko kredyty bez biku toruń kredyty bez bik jaworzno pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wrocław pożyczki 300 zł umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 kredyt studencki na preferencyjnych warunkach pożyczka od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń pożyczki morąg bank kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki citibank pożyczki pozabankowe finan pożyczki pewne kredyt bank wpłatomat warszawa pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pożyczki prywatne częstochowa kredyt bank kontakt szczecin pożyczki w domu klijeta na umowę o dzieło pożyczki błyskawiczne cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny jest to umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem pożyczki w amber gold aktualizacja wartości pożyczki aviva pozyczki warszawa mirosław czyżykowski pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad