przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt bank obecna nazwa umowa pożyczki pozabankowej oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki bez bik września umowa pożyczki firmie wzór kredyt do orange na jaki numer kredyt na otwarcie firmy bez bik pożyczki bez pracy tanie kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank polska kredyt w orange na karte kod kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie oprocentowanie kredyt bank bialobrzegi bocian pożyczki warunki kredyt bank a santander pożyczki finan kredyt bank w koscianie kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego pożyczki bocian starogard gdański pożyczki bez bik zus i us umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 pozyczki prywatne jele gora pożyczki bez bik bank pozyczka bez big w domu klienta wołow kredyty chwilówki spłata pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski potrzebuje pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki z funduszu jeremie kredyt bank sa oddzial lublin pożyczki na weksel toruń pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew dobre pożyczki forum kredyt bank wałbrzych kontakt eurocash pożyczki chwilówki umorzenie pożyczki a składki zus kredyty chwilówki starogard umowa pożyczki między firmami a pcc pożyczki posłów pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorców kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe standard pożyczki prywatne szczecinek kredyt bank zaspa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2014 regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bank mikołów telefon warunki kredytu w getin banku umowa pożyczki zawarta pod warunkiem kredyty bankowe gus pożyczki dla urzędników kredyt w jakim banku commodus pożyczki najbardziej opłacalne pożyczki pożyczki prywatne śrem w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko kredyt samochodowy alior bank opinie pożyczki pod weksel adres kredyt banku centrala obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank polen pożyczki fiolet wzór umowy pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt studencki pekao 2012 kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku pożyczki preferencyjne nfośigw kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy provident wysokość pożyczki wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki dla firm oprocentowanie wniosek o kredyt studencki pekao sa pozyczki społecznościowe pozabankowe kredyt bez bik oświęcim kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing kredyt bank chorwacja pożyczki gotówkowe prominent kredyt bank żniwna poznań pożyczki hybrydowe kredyty bez bik bank umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online bezzwrotne pożyczki dla mikrofirm kredyt bank nowy dwór mazowiecki kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc kredyt pozabankowy bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy plus gotówka kredyt refinansowy w jakim banku kredyty bez bik wadowice pożyczki pozabankowe krosno bocian pozyczki dla zadluzonych kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rodziny umowa pożyczki cywilno prawnej nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników gdzie mozna w sieradzu dostac pozyczke bez dochodu kredyt bank wojska polskiego olsztyn pożyczki bez przedpłat kredyt na rok pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców pożyczki bez bik 0 przyznawalność kredytów w credit agricole bankomat kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki z unii dla firm wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank białobrzegi tel kredyt studencki bz wbk 2012 kredyt bez bik w lesznie kredyt konsolidacyjny na budowe domu kredyty chwilówki wonga pożyczki z tygodniowa rata optima pożyczki jakie raty umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne wzór pożyczki w banku pocztowym kredyt bez bik w bph getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaswiadczen udziele pożyczki prywatnie warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet kredyt bank gryfice kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd pożyczki od osób prywatnych podatek kredyt na mieszkanie bank pocztowy pożyczki bocian lublin adres i nr tel kredyt w deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki dla zadłużonych w erif kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank forum kredyt bank lubicz czy łatwo dostać kredyt w credit agricole wziecie pozyczki od mafi kredyt pko sa forum pożyczki online bez bik gdzie moge dostac kredyt bez biku pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator tylko dobre kredyty bez biku kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki zawiercie umowa pozyczki pod zastaw kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób niepełnosprawnych kredyty bez biku wrocław pożyczki chwilówki w domu klienta kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank sokółka godziny otwarcia wycena bilansowa odsetek od pożyczki kredyty od 18lat na sam dowod ostrowiec sw kredyt konsolidacyjny 60000 kredyt bank legnica bankomat wzór poręczenia pożyczki kredyt bank obecna nazwa umowa pożyczki przeniesienie własności pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych pożyczki dla każdego bez bik kredyt bank sa lublin kredyt bank w białobrzegach umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem optima szczecin pożyczki kontakt pożyczki dla będących w bik szybkie pożyczki częstochowa jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa i okolice pożyczki między internautami pożyczka na 60 dni optima pożyczki zawiercie kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku pozabankowe szybkie pozyczki lublin bez bik pekao pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank sa ii oddział w łodzi abis pożyczki dla każdego forum kredyt bank opole krakowska kredyt bank godziny księgowania dobry kredyt bez bik blog pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bocian lubelskie umorzenie pożyczki przez gminę oddziały kredyt banku w polsce kredyt bank konstancin kredyt bank bankomaty kraków pożyczki bez bik gostynin kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci pożyczki 1500 formularz pożyczki kredyt bank toruń kontakt warunkowa umowa pożyczki dobre pożyczki forum kredyt bez bik 20 000 kredyty pozabankowe w poznaniu kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szczecin pożyczki konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych pożyczki w domu wałbrzych pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki na dowód w płocku polsko europejskie pożyczki 24 pożyczki do 2000 zł pożyczki internetowa pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański kredyt studencki pko na rok kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki w słupsku pożyczki przez internet na 60 dni kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia pożyczki wbk kredyt bank w polsce kredyt bank sa lublin zana pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki mława kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk opinie pożyczki pozabankowe jastrzębie zdrój 24h pożyczki chwilówki ranking kredyt bank nowy targ kontakt kredyt bank wołomin kontakt kredyt bank gdansk slowackiego kredyty bez bik bialystok godziny księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola pożyczki bocian płock wzór umowy pożyczki pcc pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników umowa pożyczki art pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej puck pożyczki międzybankowe kredyty chwilówki pruszków pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kredyt pod zastaw auta bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny nowy sacz pożyczki od ręki bydgoszcz kredyt bank spółka akcyjna access pożyczki piaseczno zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik kredyty w banku pocztowym forum szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow poręczyciel pożyczki kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin pożyczki w getin banku umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem wzór wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez bank kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto kredyt bank warszawa grójecka umowa umorzenia pożyczki wzór pożyczki gotówkowe boś pożyczki prywatne augustów kredyt orange jaki nr kredyt na mieszkanie w wbk kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń alior bank kredyt bank gdansk noskowskiego pszczółka kredyt inowrocław pożyczki dla firm przez internet kredyt bank lublin forum pożyczki jak vivus kredyt bank zagan pożyczki literatura mikropożyczki z unii banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie oferty kredyt idea bank opinie placówki kredyt banku białystok kredyt bez bik online 10 lat kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt bez bik gumtree pożyczki gdańsk wrzeszcz bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank białystok ul warszawska szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach kokos pożyczki forum pożyczki katowice tylko dobre kredyty bez biku udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo pożyczka prywatna białystok ogłoszenia kredyt bank rakowicka kredyty chwilówki płock jachowicza kredyt w banku na sam dowod pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 pożyczki w domu klienta optima kredyt bez bik czy warto kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres spłaty kredyt bank koniec pożyczki pod weksel warszawa bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank w żarach pożyczki bez bik bez przedpłat wyliczanie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki online nowe maksymalny koszt pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów radom kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt bank rybnik telefon pożyczki limanowa kredyty chwilówki białystok praca kredyt bank oddział w nowym sączu pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kredyt bank gazele biznesu szybkie pożyczki bez bik płock kredyt bank żagiel lublin kontakt pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok kredyt bank pozycja na rynku pożyczki rumia pozyczki bez bik forum profil aktywny kredyt bank wzór umowy pożyczki z poręczeniem kredyt studencki bank bps skok kujawiak pożyczki konto w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy najlatwiejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank csv kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs kredyt chwilówki żary kredyt gotówkowy bank pko sa kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska koszt pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki prywatne bez bik kraków kto płaci podatek pcc od pożyczki kredyt bank kraj pochodzenia umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej kredyt bank sieradz kontakt kredyt bank giżycko kontakt kredyt bank zielonka telefon wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pracy kredyt bez bik i poreczycieli kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd pożyczki ubezpieczone kredyt bez bik do domu umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek kredyty mieszkaniowe santander pozyczka bez bik kielce kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie pożyczki skok wesoła kredyty mieszkaniowe przelicznik kredyt bez bik firma kredyty mieszkaniowe wkład własny prominent pożyczki lublin kredyt bank międzychód umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej kredyty bez bik włocławek kredyt chwilówka spłata kredyt w banku gdzie najtaniej pożyczki na procent płock szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych pożyczka od ręki bez zaświadczeń białystok kredyt bank punkty pożyczki pod zastaw białystok podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór słowna umowa pożyczki bardzo szybkie kredyty bez bik open finance pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn rolniczych ostatni przelew w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik brzeg przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych kredyt orange pod nr kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank jastrzębie zdrój godziny otwarcia chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto tanie pożyczki częstochowa warunki kredytu w kredyt banku kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik multika zywiec kredyty bez bik kredyty bez sprawdzania biku pożyczki przez internet na konto kredyt bank giżycko kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt pomarańcza owocne pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik forum pożyczki dla wolnych zawodów kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie skarabeusz pożyczki kalkulator alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki bez opłat rejestracyjnych pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa kredyt bez bik białystok fałszywa umowa pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki polbank pożyczki pod zastaw piotrkow kredyt w banku barclays nowakka pożyczki kredyt bank lokata terminowa alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lubin pożyczki puławy kredyt bank bankomaty prowizja szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt bank piotrków tryb godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki zywiec ul dworcowa kredyt w getin banku bik pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną pożyczki w domu kraków credit agricole pożyczki opinie alibaba szybkie pożyczki kredyt z orange jaki nr kredyt bank artykuł pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki akces kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli kredyt bank warszawa wilanów kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu pożyczki prywatne dąbrowa górnicza kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie kredyt bank zastrzeżenie karty dokumentowanie zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę pożyczki bez weryfikacji online kredyt bank rakowicka kredyt bank 245 kredyt w banku na firme pożyczki flisak alior bank kredyt dla seniora kredyt bank rzeszów kontakt kredyt bez biku torun pożyczki pozabankowe przez telefon umowa podporządkowania pożyczki getin bank wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt bank raszyn telefon kredyt bank aktywa wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank krauthofera kredyt na pit bez biku pożyczki bez bik zus restrukturyzacja kredytu w credit agricole kredyt w pko provident oferta pożyczki skarbiec pożyczki opinie pożyczki 5000 bez bik umowa ubezpieczenia pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyt bank zielona góra godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnej matki 2013 kredyt ratalny a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank w bogatyni kredyt bank zyrardow godziny otwarcia pozyczki na dowod radom pożyczki społecznościowe jak pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik do 50000 kredyt bank sopot telefon kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk cesja umowy pożyczki wzór ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z bgk wnioski o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank w przeworsku godziny otwarcia pożyczki pkd pożyczki społecznościowe oferty kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód świdnica umorzenie pożyczki z zfron pożyczki chwilówki z dostawą do domu inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy odmowa udzielenia pożyczki kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb pożyczki dla niepracujących pożyczki bez bik gniezno kredyt studencki pko kiedy przelewy gazeta prawna pożyczki bocian pożyczki pomorskie kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium pozyczka 50 000 przez internet bocian pożyczki bielsko kredyty chwilówki płock pożyczki chwilówki bielsko

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad