kredyt bank gubin pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu kredyt bank w kościanie warunki pożyczki provident kredyty samochodowe bank zachodni kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik oferia pożyczki rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej pożyczki bez dochodów przez internet pożyczka konsolidacyjna w domu klienta pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz raty kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm kto udzieli kredytu bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe z dostawą do domu kredyty chwilówki katowice kredyty chwilówki siemianowice slaskie wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki łomża kredyt studencki pko miesiące wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem obliczanie pożyczki ing pożyczki prywatne zawiercie zabezpieczenie pożyczki na nieruchomości kredyt bank bankomaty piła kod orange na kredyt kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skierniewice wzór umowy pożyczki bez odsetek pożyczki plan kont pożyczki na pit zielona góra kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank w raciborzu umowa pożyczki dla pozoru pożyczki chwilówki starogard gdański kredyt bez bik knurów kredyt bank lomza dworna godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w rzeszowie alior bank kredyty online udzielenie pożyczki firmie udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi zagranicznemu pożyczki 24h na dobę kredyt konsolidacyjny alior kalkulator kredyty bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki chwilówki bez dochodu pożyczki pod zastaw złota lublin otrzymanie pożyczki pcc pożyczka z zakładu pracya bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza kredyt chwilówka telefon pożyczki chwilówki spis kredyty mieszkaniowe dofinansowanie reklama pożyczki vivus pożyczki chwilówki ostrowiec pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych olsztyn pożyczki pozabankowe rawicz pożyczki bez bik mogilno kredyt studencki warunki pko kredyty pożyczki współpraca kredyt bankowy na zakup mieszkania pożyczki na dowód wejherowo kredyt bank w sosnowcu wyliczanie rat pożyczki polcredit pożyczki kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w ktorym banku dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki poręczenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór cash pożyczki torun bocian pożyczki provident pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie kredyt studencki pko bp opinie kredyty bez biku olsztyn kredyt bez bik jasło zawieszenie kredytu bank pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski kredyty chwilówki poznań opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2012 kredyty bez bik jelenia góra pożyczka na procent brodnica pożyczki gotówkowe gros kredyt pozabankowy na kupno domu kredyt bank światowida pożyczki bez bik olecko umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pcc praktyka w kredyt banku opinie kredyty chwilówki gorzów pewny kredyt konsolidacyjny szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt samochodowy dla studenta pożyczki na dowód porównanie pożyczki transfer kredyt konsolidacyjny to pożyczki w wonga bocian pożyczki nip najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt na mieszkanie jaki bank forum pożyczki pozabankowa umowa pożyczki dla siostry pożyczki na które trzeba uważać pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska kredyt bankowy teoria w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2012 kredyt banki 24 kredyty chwilówki wszystkie pożyczki pozabankowe białogard kredyt bank kraków kapelanka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik stargard szczeciński definicja pożyczki pieniężnej pszczółka pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatne na procent płock kredyt bank wrocław plac solny pożyczki społecznościowe wiki odsetki od pożyczki udziałowiec kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki agricole kredyty bez bik i zus kredyt bank sa numer swift kredyt na mieszkanie w wbk kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki pod zastaw rtv lublin pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt preferencyjny banku ochrony środowiska kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl na weksel pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 kredyty mieszkaniowe 2008 nowe pozyczki kredyt bank wejherowo telefon pozyczki na oswiadczenia jak dzialja kredyt bank bezpieczeństwo kredyt samochodowy eurobank pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie o bankach kredyty pozabankowe żary kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator kredytowy eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt studencki pko bp legitymacja kredyty pożyczki i gwarancje bankowe pdf preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska kredyty chwilówki na telefon santander consumer kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla firm pożyczki chwilówki śląskie pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla polakow w uk pożyczki w lublinie kredyt bank w otwocku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłuzonych provident kwota pożyczki asper pożyczki toruń umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny kokos pożyczki opinie pożyczki bankowe na oświadczenie w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy kredyty chwilówki chełm kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel kredyty chwilowki lukow ogłoszenia pożyczki pod zastaw wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki kredyty konsolidacyjne porównywarka kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy pożyczki chwilówki forum opinie kredyt bank w piszu co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs oprocentowanie pro collect pożyczki pożyczki dla młodzieży pożyczki darowizny prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe katowice kredyt bank żwirki i wigury opole kredyt przez telefon bez peselu kredyty chwilówki nowy bytom kredyty chwilówki ile procent pożyczka dla zadłużonych z komornikiem w koszalinie kredyty chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt bank w pruszkowie kalkulator rat kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku 10000 pożyczka 3 lata brak zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka mikropożyczki 2014 niezgłoszona umowa pożyczki pożyczki wg msr kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacja rat kredyty chwilówki poznań praca podatek pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca umowa pożyczki art 777 podatek od pożyczki od rodziny szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe na raty pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki księgowanie pożyczki w walucie oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko kredyt studencki w pko bp bocian pożyczki krs kredyty bez biku leszno odsetki od pożyczki kup kredyt bank mielec telefon numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów bocian pożyczki reklama kredyt samochodowy fiat bank bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki wniosek pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez dochodów pożyczki dla firm forum kredyt konsolidacyjny dla każdego czy istnieją pożyczki prywatne pożyczki na procent poznań pożyczki bez bik oferty pożyczki domowe bocian pożyczki wejherowo w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt samochodowy pożyczka bez baz 2014 kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości formy pożyczki tarnobrzegocian pożyczki opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 commodus pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik pożyczki tarnobrzeg pożyczki dla domu kredyt na remont mieszkania bank pocztowy szybki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik online 10 lat pożyczki całkowicie online kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków kredyt bank opłata za przelew pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej jaworzno kredyt bank toruń tel alior bank kredyt dla firm opinie umorzenie umowy pożyczki kredyt w banku zachodnim kalkulator kredyt bank 9 oddział warszawa kredyt studencki w którym banku kredyt bank wloclawek plac wolnosci kredyt banki grudziądz kredyt w banku pocztowym dokumenty prowizja od umowy pożyczki a vat pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód pożyczki profi credit opinie pożyczki bez bik chojnice pozyczki krotkotermnowe jaworzno umowa pożyczki pieniędzy weksel kredyty chwilówki radomsko pożyczki prywatne lublin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław kredyt bank pakiet medyczny kredyt w bank zachodni wbk żółty jeż pożyczki pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt banku centralnego optima pożyczki poznań lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych pożyczki pod zastaw tczew pożyczki od 18 lat na dowód umowa pożyczki essentialia negotii pożyczki chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bank otwock andriollego pożyczki pod zastaw gdynia kredyt bank zana lublin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w wadowicach konwersja pożyczki kapitał zapasowy pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy warszawa kredyt bank grojecka warszawa kredyty chwilówki zwolnienia kredyt konsolidacyjny w skoku stefczyka zgoda na umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs forum pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank tarnów lwowska pożyczki poznań gumtree pożyczki do domu białystok pozyczki emeryt z zajeciami komorniczymi krakow kredyt bank kod swift pożyczki 24h opinie pozyczki dla bezrobotnych niebankowe szamotuly pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe kredyty mieszkaniowe sgb kredyt bank ketrzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko sa pozyczka bez bik 5000 kredyt konsolidacyjny legnica pożyczki chwilówki łomża kredyt studencki pko wysokość kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów kredyty chwilówki knf szybkie pożyczki na dowód łódź kwota pożyczki bez podatku pozyczki chwilowki bez bik na dowod umorzenie pożyczki przez bank pożyczki zagranicznej a pcc kredyty chwilówki na sms kredyt w pko bp dla firm kredyty w anglii forum kredyty bez bik czechowice dziedzice kredyty bez bik glogow pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie gowork kredyty chwilówki bankomaty kredyt banku lublin umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek kredyt bank w krasnymstawie kredyt bank fundusz global partners umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór doc kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bik i krd udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank wrocław telefon pożyczki z obsługą w domu podkarpacie kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert banków umowa pożyczki dla znajomych kasa pożyczki prometeusz pozyczka gotówkowa na dowód wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie spółdzielcze kredyt bank wykupiony kredyty bez bik w bydgoszczy pożyczki pułtusk pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd pożyczki ewidencja księgowa udzielając pożyczki pokwitowanie pożyczki chwilówki bez baz pożyczki chwilówki krotoszyn pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko bocian pozyczki czelmza kredyt samochodowy na firme forum kredyt pozabankowy gdynia pożyczki bez bik krd i zaświadczeń szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt bank laczy sie kredyty bez bik w tczewie www kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt w orange kod kredyt konsolidacyjny w bph opinie pożyczki przez internet 30000 pożyczki prywatne od ręki gdzie po kredyt bez bik forum kredyt bez bik śląsk pożyczki lider pożyczki hitlera kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki kredyt bank oferta dla firm kredyt dla studenta bzwbk kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty doradcy24 pożyczki kredyty chwilówki białystok pożyczki w niedziele mirosław czyżykowski pożyczki kredyt bank aleje marcinkowskiego poznań kredyt bank bialoleka kredyt bank adres e mail kredyty chwilowki srem optima pożyczki online kredyt bank stalowa wola kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto pożyczki pod zastaw udziałów kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś intercom pożyczki pożyczki w policji kredyty chwilówki tychy opinie kredyt chwilowka starogard gdanski vivus spłata pożyczki kredyt w skok stefczyka bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna umorzenie pożyczki u pożyczkodawcy kapitalizacja odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku kredyt bez bik dla rolnika kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy karty płatnicze w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe ing kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank pozyczki pozabankowe dla zadluzonych w bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy z komornikiem kredyt bank nowa lista haseł opodatkowanie udzielenia pożyczki twój kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp ewidencja księgowa pożyczki od udziałowca getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia pożyczki chwilówki brzeg kredyty chwilówki opolskie pożyczki z komornikiem bocian pożyczki chojnice usługa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kontakt marlena nowakowska pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w sandomierzu szybkie pożyczki internetowe kredyty pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank pułtusk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank leszno kontakt kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyty chwilówki logowanie system partner kredyty chwilówki staszów pożyczki prywatne żyrardów kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a zakładowy fundusz świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki kredyt studencki pko żyranci kredyt bankowy regulacje prawne pożyczki włocławek kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli ewidencja księgowa otrzymanej pożyczki pożyczki prywatne mielec kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet ors pożyczki pożyczki bez biku i z komornikiem pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyty chwilówki zwolnienia kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka kredyt bank lokata swobodna pożyczki filemon kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie żyrafa pożyczki kredyt bank okrąglak bank pko wniosek o kredyt studencki eurocent pożyczki opinie kredyt przez internet bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt pozabankowy forum kredyt bank s a kontakt pożyczki otrzymane kredyt bank warszawa centrala firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank forum pożyczki jeremie wzór umowy dobrej pożyczki pożyczki bez bik kołobrzeg bocian walbrzych kredyt pożyczki z poczty pożyczki społecznościowe smava pożyczki w lukas bank pożyczki pozabankowe stalowa wola pożyczki pozabankowe stalowa wola optima pożyczki wrocław pożyczki typu eurolan kredyt bank dział obsługi klienta umowa pożyczki a podatek dochodowy pożyczki na rozwój działalności udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec pożyczki w banku ing kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk kredyt bankowy co to jest pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank białołęka bez bik kredyt bankowy w niemczech kredyt w boś banku opinie alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na procent pożyczki w inowrocławiu pożyczki prywatne gumtree kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania kredyt bank brzeg umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji czy pożyczki są opodatkowane kredyt z banku centralnego kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych kredyt w ktorym banku najlepiej gdzie pozyczke bez grosza kredyt bank ambicja umowa pożyczki 2013 pożyczki na dowód kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny katowice umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pcc restrukturyzacja kredytu w kredyt banku użyczę pożyczki pożyczki bez bik mława kredyty chwilówki bielsko bankowy kredyt pod zastaw działki pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow kredyt w banku czy przez pośrednika kredyty chwilówki warszawa grochowska kredyty bez bik konin pożyczki hajnówka kredyt studencki bank gospodarstwa krajowego

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad