camperia pożyczki bez big kara za niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki oprocentowanie kredytu w banku millennium kredyty chwilówki żary kredyt odnawialny pko wniosek o kredyt bez bik pożyczki od ręki warszawa magdalena boczarska pożyczki kredyt w banku a komornik pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez dochodu szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bankowy praca dyplomowa umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki firma kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt bank abrahama telefon pożyczki na oświadczenie kraków optima pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik lublin kredyt w pekao sa forum pożyczka na oświadczenie przez internet akropol pożyczki kredyt bez biku z komornikiem umowa pożyczki gotówkowej od osoby fizycznej kredyt w banku online bez sprawdzania pożyczki na oświadczenie bocian kredyt bank pbs czy można dobrać kredyt w credit agricole szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej kredyt bank oferta dla studentów pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczka bez bik na samochód zmiana warunków pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie w wbk kredyt mieszkaniowy od dewelopera kredyt bank łowicz telefon pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika kredyt bank nowa karta pożyczki z obsługą w domu podkarpacie forum pożyczki bez bik pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok kalkulator rat pożyczki pko kredyt bank sprzedaż 2012 podatek od pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt bank karta concerto kredyt bank warszawa infolinia pożyczki całodobowe kredyt chwilowki zielona gora kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredytową kredyt bank patriotów godziny otwarcia kredyty oddłużeniowe bez bik forum alior bank kredyt przelicznik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami reklama pożyczki vivus idea bank kredyt obrotowy oprocentowanie jaka kwota pożyczki jest zwolniona od podatku podstawa opodatkowania pożyczki kredyty chwilówki umowa kredyt samochodowy w banku pko pożyczki gotówkowe chorzów kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy umowa pożyczki komornik kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci kredyty bez biku świdnica pożyczki prywatne bez bik kredyt bank fundusz jumper umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs podatek od umowy pożyczki pieniędzy 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bank pocztowy kredyt bank w siedlcach godziny otwarcia optima pożyczki do domu szczecin pożyczki prywatne gdańsk pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki bank bocian radom pozyczka do 2000zl kredyt bank kielce praca pożyczki dla bezrobotnych wrocław czy kredyty chwilowki sprawdzaja bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm pożyczki prywatne łódź pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyt bez bik legionowo udzielone pożyczki w bilansie umowa zwrot pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej idea bank oprocentowanie kredytów kredyty chwilówki pabianice jak obliczyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bank leasing aukcje formularz do pożyczki podatek od odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki bez bik jasło kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredytową kredyty chwilówki soho szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod pożyczki dla firm toruń kredyty chwilówki rybnik kredyt samochodowy ranking styczeń 2014 pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange kredyt bank w lezajsku kredyt bank payback pożyczki ursynów pożyczki gotówkowe zestawienie pożyczki gotówkowe 50000 jaki jest numer na kredyt orange kredyt bank dg szybkie pożyczki w internecie kredyt bank platforma walutowa w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 kredyt bez bik jarocin kredyt bank poraj udzielone pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki niebankowe kredyt bank wroclaw godziny otwarcia kredyt bank adresy warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kody na kredyt w orange pożyczki marka pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt bank w mlawie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zgody współmałżonka kredyt bank w grójcu pozyczka dla zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 procent skok wspólnota pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyt bank centrala w warszawie pożyczki dla rencistów wrocław kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna waloryzacja kwoty pożyczki schemat księgowania pożyczki kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty podatek od pożyczki cywilnej kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie o bankach kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki jakie opłaty kredyt dla firm w credit agricole kokosy pożyczki sesje przelewów w kredyt bank bank pko bp kredyty opinie kredyt bank private banking kredyty na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw rtv tarnów kredyt bank program razem kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym kredyt bank warszawa centrum godziny otwarcia pekao pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pod zastaw opole kredyt chwilówka sierpc pożyczki bez krd i bik dąbrowa górnicza pewne pożyczki online pożyczki oferty opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej chwilowki pozyczki w domu klienta slask easy cash pożyczki opinie kredyt studencki pko transze szukam pożyczki dla firmy oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej w pko sa pożyczki w uk kredyt bank ketrzyn kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki malbork optima pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki między firmami wzór jakie jest opracowanie dla pożyczki pod konto w pko pożyczki kościan kredyt bank rrso umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez odsetek przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na samochód kredyt bank w mlawie kredyt w banku a rozwód kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki kredyty bez biku inowrocław charakter pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań pozyczka w pko praca zagranica kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyty bez bik w domu pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza pożyczki albert pożyczki prywatne wągrowiec umowa pożyczki us historia umowy pożyczki kredyt bank krosno lewakowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku ing pożyczki na które trzeba uważać kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk kredyt bank gocław pożyczki de minimis wniesienie aportem pożyczki pożyczki konsolidacyjne bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank kto jest właścicielem getin bank kredyt samochodowy wcześniejsza spłata kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank kredyty pozabankowe bielsko pożyczki pod zastaw augustów szybkie pożyczki w internecie kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum pożyczki duże kwoty pożyczki bez bik wierzyciel pożyczka z unii europejskiej na slasku kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego kredyt bank praca lublin pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp kredyty pozabankowe wrocław pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna pożyczki pozabankowe świecie kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kalkulator pożyczki od ręki bocian pożyczki podobne do żyrafy pożyczki chwilówki bez zatrudnienia umowa pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki z jedynym wspólnikiem pożyczki w mbanku opinie pożyczki dla prawników kredyty bez bik dla emerytów fałszywe pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe vivus kredyt bank profil spokojny alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki na dowód inowrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow jak zaksięgować kredyt bankowy kredyt bank w częstochowie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wielicka czy kredyt bankowy jest przychodem kwituję odbiór pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wrocław drobnera żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie kredyty pozabankowe współpraca duże pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik jasło 18lat na dowod kredyty olsztyn pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych kredyt bank m1 kraków kontakt kredyt pozabankowy opole pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach niespłacona umowa pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki śrem w jakim banku kredyt na dowód bocian pożyczki żary pożyczki międzybankowe kredyt bank chałubińskiego pożyczki bez bik kontakt tel ostrów wlkp kredyt bank w goleniowie w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty bankowe rachunkowość umowa pożyczki wolna od podatku niespłacony kredyt w banku optima namysłów pozyczki kredyt w millenium banku opinie kredyt bank warszawa lokaty kredyt bank świebodzin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w dębicy limit pożyczki kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki rumia wniosek o kredyt bez bik mikrokasa pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko bp prometeusz pozyczka gotówkowa na dowód bocian pożyczki bełchatów praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp pożyczki prywatne w luton kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzaje pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód kredyt ratalny przez internet bez bik pożyczki aasa konto pożyczki udzielone kredyty bez bik piotrków trybunalski pożyczki pozabankowe głogów pożyczki chwilówki holandia kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money udzielę pożyczki na procent 2013 getin noble bank kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank autoryzacja sms podatek od umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik głogów kredyt bez bik przez internet forum pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank wejherowo kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy duet pożyczki częstochowa gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik podatek pcc od pożyczki udziałowca ubezpieczenie kredytu gotówkowego w lukas bank kredyt bank zabrze godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe nbp kredyty chwilówki za darmo przedawnienie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik rawicz kredyt studencki pko poręczyciel vivus odmowa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw mosina pożyczka tygodniowka elbląg pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód wrocław kredyt bank sosnowiec modrzejowska godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki tarnów w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt gotowkowy umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek amber gold pożyczki forum kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska kredyt bank kredyt bank wpłatomat udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki tragedia w kredyt banku pożyczki osobiste bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kredyt na start w fm banku kredyt bank wysokie mazowieckie kredyt chwilówka dla firm pożyczki z wojewódzkiego funduszu ochrony środowiska kredyt bank przelewy wychodzące godziny pożyczki z urzędów pracy pozyczki pieniezne z dojazdem pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik szybkie pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank pożyczki do domu bez zaświadczeń i z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy pracujac za granica umowa pożyczki wzór gofin umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej gdzie kredyt bez bik warszawa kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim gdzie najlatwiej o pozyczke pod zastaw domu najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny czy pożyczki pozabankowe są bezpieczne kredyt pozabankowy lodz spłata kapitału pożyczki pożyczki w domu śląsk kredyt orange pop numer kredyt bez biku bialystok kredyty bez bik w czestochowie pożyczki do domu warszawa umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia podatek od pożyczki pomiędzy firmami umowa pożyczki działalność gospodarcza pozyczki na oswiadczenie grudziadz nowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank żagiel oddziały pożyczki krasnystaw pożyczki bez bik w krakowie pozyczka bialystok bez bik pozyczki na dowód nysa kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank opinie mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w zakopanem kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec orla optima pozyczki kredyty grudziadz pożyczki bgż kredyt bank warszawa włochy kredyty bez bik 30000 pożyczki domowe w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na budowe domu bocian pożyczki warunki kredyty pozabankowe 20000 jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki w anglii forum alior bank kredyt dla studenta umowa pożyczki in blanco konwersja pożyczki na akcje pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia pozyczki 7 kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik kredyt bank lokata 6 5 procent umowa pożyczki pcc 2012 kredyt bank numery telefonów pożyczki pod zastaw auta łódź kredyty w banku pko bp oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie kredyt chwilówka międzyrzec podlaski jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej oblicz kredyt w credit agricole kiedy umowa pożyczki jest nieważna kredyt mieszkaniowy uk forum pożyczki prywatne włocławek getin bank symulacja pożyczki kredyt bank lokata na 6 5 wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pożyczka na spłatę komornika pod weksel warunki otrzymania pożyczki w vivus kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy umowa pożyczki lombardowej wzór kredyt prywatny zagraniczny kredyt bank warszawa ul żeromskiego rafał kania pożyczki w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank tarnobrzeg godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki a przychód pożyczki na rok przez internet kredyt chwilówka chojnice kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice umowa pożyczki jaki procent kredyt w alior banku kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy wyposażenie mieszkania pożyczki do 500 zł marka paslek pozyczki pożyczki w domu koszalin kredyty w anglii forum kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen prywatne pożyczki lubin kredyty chwilówki blog kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz cechy pożyczki odróżniające ją od kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki tczew jowisz pożyczki kredyty bez biku płock kredyty na samochód bez bik kredyt bank w zambrowie pożyczki bez bik opole kredyt bank szczecin telefon umowa pożyczki a wspólnota majątkowa kredyt bankowy a koszty uzyskania przychodu kredyt bez biku szamotuły umowa pożyczki notarialna chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice provident dwie pożyczki czy umowa pożyczki musi być oprocentowana pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm pozyczka w bankach na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie udzielenie pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank pożyczka pożyczki bgk kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska pożyczki na długi okres spłaty dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum pożyczki online pożyczki pozabankowe mikołów przestępstwo gospodarcze pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe tychy umowa pożyczki między podmiotami powiązanymi umowa pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik szamotuły kredyt bank lokaty opinie kredyt bank gdynia bławatna pożyczki podobne do providenta warszawa umowa pożyczki pracownik wzór pożyczki mennica jelenia góra podatek od pożyczki ustawa anonse kredyty z komornikiem kredyt bank żywiec godziny pracy banki ktore udzielaja kredytu bez biku uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji rejestracja umowy pożyczki w us pożyczki w banku śląskim skarabeusz pożyczki olkusz pożyczki prywatne sosnowiec umowa pożyczki darmowy wzór nowe pożyczki internetowe kredyty pozabankowe słupsk kredyt bank warszawa ul fieldorfa udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyt samochodowy mbanku kredyt bez bik zabrze kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp 2013 umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy kredyt bank wojska polskiego kredyt bank centrum handlowe warszawa szybkie pożyczki racibórz kredyt w pko bp dla firm kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza 55b opinie o kokos pożyczki kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo pożyczki dla mikrofirm kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet kredyt bank sanok szopena warunki otrzymania pożyczki w providencie kredyty chwilówki na dowód wrocław bocian pożyczki infolinia kredyt bank bankomaty gdańsk konsolidacja kredytów z opóźnieniami kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bez bik 20000 kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie wziecie pozyczki od mafi kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millenium

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad