pożyczki bez prowizji kredyty pozabankowe toruń udowodnienie pożyczki eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny regulamin kredyt bank dzierżoniów godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole kredyt bank banki korespondenci kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie kredyt studencki wbk spłata pożyczki w getin banku opinie pożyczki oświęcim umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne podatek pożyczki chwilówki na umowe zlecenie kredyt w eurobanku forum garr pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe niskie oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz cechy pożyczki pozyczka bocian leszno pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek banki udzielające kredytów bez zdolności pożyczki bez bik częstochowa szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla kogo pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie alior bank kredyt dokumenty kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt w eurobanku forum pożyczki wysokooprocentowane oblicz ratę pożyczki pekao pożyczki jst kredyt orange 5 zł vivus spłata pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd online kredyt bankowy na rozpoczecie dzialalnosci gospodarczej kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe sms pożyczki bankowe dla firm łukasz woźniak pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy bez bik i krd pożyczki argentyńskie pozyczka bez bik 5000 kredyt bez bik nowa sól kredyt bankowy a podatek kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie udziele pozyczki prywatnej na samochód druk pożyczki pkzp idea bank kredyt bezzwrotny opinie kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla pracowników księgowanie pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych pożyczki żyrafa opinie pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto kredyt mieszkaniowy euro oprocentowanie kredyt bank rawicz sarnowska 2 udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec bocian pożyczki kredyty chwilówki fordon kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 pożyczki bez bik internetowe pożyczki chwilówki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard kredyty bez bik czechowice dziedzice pożyczki gotówkowe do 5000 kredyt pozabankowy przez internet pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej torun tani kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki w domu klienta pożyczki prometeusz wrocław kredyt bank leszno kontakt kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt bank m1 kraków kredyty bez bik lubuskie pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi kredyt raz dwa w banku pocztowym pożyczki z wojewódzkiego funduszu ochrony środowiska kredyt w banku bph opinie kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa podatek od pożyczki udzielonej przez wspólnika pożyczki chwilówki poznań eurocash pożyczki toruń deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyt bez bik mława kredyty chwilówki soho ustna umowa pożyczki a pcc pożyczki przez internet darmowe pożyczki bez krd online pożyczki bez erif kredyt konsolidacyjny jst pożyczki bez biku na telefon pożyczki domowe umorzenie pożyczki zfron kredyty chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie bank pko bp kredyt firmowy kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kredyt bank w lesznie kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium kalkulator kredyt bank jana pawła kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pożyczki społecznościowe zopa kredyty i pożyczki ściąga kredyt bank w luboniu santander norwegia kredyty kredyty chwilówki toruń jamontta kalkulator kredytowy konsolidacyjny alior bank w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 kredyt bank warszawa plac zbawiciela udziele pozyczki prywatnej na samochód umowa pożyczki między bratem a siostrą kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp alior bank kredyt gotówkowy dokumenty profit pożyczki bydgoszcz co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam kredyt bank kraków kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank nowe środki kredyt bankowy ustawa szybkie pożyczki dla firm bez bik pożyczki bez bik ostrowiec św kredyty chwilówki końskie kredyt konsolidacyjny w gminach pożyczki kasa kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie kredyt samochodowy dla emerytów pożyczki z niską ratą pożyczki przez internet na dowód kredyt chwilówka bochnia szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt bank rodzaje kont umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla córki getin bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej pekao kredyt bank krosno kredyt bank lomza dworna kompensata pożyczki w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy w alior banku umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy kredyt bank canada pożyczki prywatne żyrardów kredyt bank piła kontakt pozyczki gotowkowe holandia 2014 pożyczki gwarant kredyty chwilówki windykacja pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kraków pozyczki z obsluga w domu gdansk kredyty bez bik tablica wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej pożyczki chwilówki przez telefon kredyt bank wawer umowa pożyczki lombardowej wzór private banking w kredyt banku promocyjne pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt na 15 lat odsetki karne pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem 2013 kredyt bank wielicka godziny otwarcia mbank bankomaty kredyt bank pożyczki społecznościowe appfunds kredyt bank nowogard kredyty bez bik krosno umowa pożyczki z akcjonariuszem kredyt bank cena euro kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry zwrot pożyczki udziałowcowi pożyczki w polbanku pożyczki online bez bik krd umowa pożyczki papierów wartościowych krecik pożyczki kontakt pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt bank profit plan pożyczki prywatne gdzie kredyt w jakim banku najtaniej kredyt bez bik debica kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy pożyczki prabuty pożyczki pod zastaw puławy jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk pożyczki od 18 lat kredyt w banku ing poznań pożyczki chwilówki kredyty chwilówki pracuj pl kredyt bank w łomży pożyczki wikipedia kredyty pozabankowe z dojazdem do domu w krosnie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla bez wkładu szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pozyczka z up dla pracujacych kredyt bank susz godziny otwarcia oddział kredyt banku w łodzi pożyczki w czechach pożyczki w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt studencki pko bp wymagane dokumenty niespłacanie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki katowice orion pożyczki santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt szybkie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyty chwilówki bez bik krd pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu umowa pożyczki opłata skarbowa potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez dochodów kredyt mieszkaniowy pko rodzina na swoim kredyt bank bełchatów żyrafa pożyczki bielsko kredyty nie bankowe pożyczki ekspresowe bocian pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki pozabankowe przepisy pożyczki marka idea bank kredyt bezzwrotny opinie pożyczki bez historii kredytowej kredyty chwilówki warszawa grójecka pożyczki prywatne opinie kredyt bank 24 login poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem szczecin gwarantuje zwrot pożyczki krzyżówka kredyt bank oferta dla studentów kredyt w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie alior bank kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki w różnych bankach kredyty gotówkowe bez bik przez internet pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań kredyty chwilówki siedlce kredyt bank akcjonariusze jak udzielać pożyczki kredyt bank najgorszy pożyczki przepisy kredyty pozabankowe 50000 pożyczki zamiast dotacji santander kupił kredyt bank luty 2012 kredyty bez bik ostrow wlkp kredyt bez bik ciechanów kredyt konsolidacyjny ang kredyt bank w krynicy umowa pożyczki przewłaszczenie na zabezpieczenie bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum pożyczki pozabankowe koło kredyty pozabankowe rybnik pt wygodne pożyczki opinie kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 kredyt bez bik od ręki kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie konsolidacja kredytów gotówkowych mbank kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu pozyczka dla zadluzonych w biku umowa pożyczki wspólników pożyczki gotówkowe z obłsugą w domu szukam pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości amortyzacja pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt konsolidacyjny forum umowa pożyczki wzór kredyty bez biku w plocku banknot pożyczki opinie lider pozyczki kredyt bankowy symulacja pożyczki na dowód gdańsk pożyczki filarum pożyczki na dowód toruń pożyczki gotówkowe bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki od ręki łódź szybkie pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz kredyt bank marża pożyczki chwilówki bełchatów kredyt bank gdansk chelm godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd pożyczki bez bik wągrowiec kredyt do 15000 bez bik kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego deutsche bank dobre pożyczki bez biku preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin pożyczki kalisz bez bik narutowicza umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko bp pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka kredyt bank krosno odrzańskie pożyczki prywatne kokos kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 kredyt bank sa kursy walut kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej alior bank kredyt samochodowy opinie umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt pozabankowy do 50 tys kredyt bank w zgorzelcu formularz pożyczki darowizny pożyczki prodomo pozyczki kredyt bank warszawa foksal kredyt bank łódż bednarska kredyt w danske bank kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców śląskich prywatne pozyczki w koszalinie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami gospodarczymi oświęcimiak pożyczki kredyt bank oddział konstancin kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie 2013 kredyt chwilówka 5000 kredyt bank biała podlaska tel pożyczki chwilówki dla studentów kredyt konsolidacyjny bank śląski kredyty chwilówki bez bik usługi bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki kredyty dla rolników kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank oprocentowanie pożyczki społecznościowe prawo umowa pożyczki podatek kredyt bank giżycko telefon pożyczki natychmiastowe unijne mikropożyczki dla firm ruszą kredyt bank zaswiadczenie o zarobkach finan pożyczki legnica kredyt bank witomino bocian pożyczki umowa pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem kredyty w lukas bank bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy pozyczka na weksel wlasny na slasku wrocław pożyczki prywatne pkf skarbiec tanie pożyczki dla ciebie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław kredyt bank tarnów lwowska telefon sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 alior bank kredyt firmowy pożyczki chwilówki łuków kredyt bankowy mieszkaniowy pożyczki bez bik pomorskie kredyt w meritum bank forum kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp bankomaty kredyt banku białystok dobry kredyt kalisz dlugterminowa pozyczka pozabankowa online ekspresowe pożyczki wrocław bez big bik i krd chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 kalkulator pożyczki rapida prywatne pozyczki bez bik krd i erif podkarpacie pozyczki pod weksel olkusz kredyty bez biku przez internet pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt pozabankowy opinie kredyt na mieszkanie w uk forum kredyt bankowy rodzaje kredyt mieszkaniowy w trakcie rozwodu getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń opinie umowa pożyczki dla firmy wzór w jakim banku najszybciej kredyt kredyt bank w dąbrowie tarnowskiej pożyczki trzebiatów tablica kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz pożyczki dla dużych firm koszt pożyczki pożyczka konsolidacyjna w domu klienta kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kalkulator ekspres kasa przedłużenie pożyczki kredyty bez bik ogłoszenia kredyt bank wsparcie techniczne pożyczki gotówkowe porównywarka kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie kontakt pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi szczecin getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia szukam pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki kraków pożyczki w warszawie kredyty bez bik śląskie kredyt bankowy wiem kredyt studencki w banku bgż kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta szamotuly kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank oprocentowanie kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy opinie forum pożyczki pod zastaw środa wlkp wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole załatwie kredyt w banku kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów pożyczki od ręki wrocław kredyty bez biku świdnica pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard adres telefon kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2013 umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji vivus wysokość pożyczki została zmniejszona szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bank sa biuro operacji i windykacji lublin pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki kartuzy kredyty helios kredyt bank w iławie pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe czy bilansowe pożyczki bez bik śrem nr telefonu na pozyczki w uk pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby niepełnosprawnej getin bank kredyt konsolidacja profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy opinie bocian pożyczki oferta pożyczki bez bik krosno uznanie pożyczki prowident krakow pozyczk szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik pożyczki kartuzy kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole kalkulator kredyt samochodowy w mbanku forum kredyt bank marza pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń online kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 bocian pożyczki katowice kredyty bez bik gdynia kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych olsztyn idea bank opinie kredyt na start kredyt bez biku opinie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra pożyczki świnoujście umowa pożyczki spółka komandytowa pożyczki gotówkowe ranking 2013 pożyczki jst gdzie kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik kredyt bank malopolska kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów kredyt bankowy statystyki kredyt odnawialny w banku pko sa wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilowki swidnica kredyty chwilowki lomza kredyt studencki jakie oprocentowanie kredyt samochodowy mbanku pomoc w uzyskaniu kredytu warszawa kredyt bank gryfino kontakt pożyczki prywatne forum o2 bankowy kredyt pod zastaw działki pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych kredyt bez bik do 20 tys ustna umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo czy umowa pożyczki musi być zawarta na piśmie kredyty chwilówki rozdawanie ulotek kredyt bank akademia przedsiębiorcy kredyt bank emilii plater pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 kredyt w banku bz wbk bocian pożyczki myślibórz dyskonto pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe ostrowiec pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe kredyty banki spółdzielcze kredyt bankowy istota funkcje rodzaje kredyt bank w pułtusku restrukturyzacja pożyczki umowa pożyczki oszustwo pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki kredyty w domu klienta kredyt bez biku zabrze pożyczki pozabankowe na telefon pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz usługa udzielenia pożyczki bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie pozyczki bochnia kredyty chwilowki jelenia gora umowa pożyczki z bankiem pcc mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne ewidencja pożyczki długoterminowej kredyt chwilówka online pożyczki chwilówki jak to działa kredyt w orange kod optima pożyczki poznań kredyt bank żniwna poznań godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki włocławek kredyt bank gdańsk noskowskiego godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt bank w ciechocinku kredyt konsolidacyjny alior kalkulator kredyt samochodowy mbank dokumenty kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla firm bez big kredyt w banku bez pracy pożyczki pod zastaw działki umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór kredyty bez bik duze kwoty

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad