kredyty chwilówki gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa spłata pożyczki angielski kredyt bank w rzeszowie getin bank kredyty samochodowe forum bocian pozyczki lebork kredyty plock bocian kredyt bank kapelanka godziny pożyczki bez zaświadczeń płock kod kredyt orange pożyczki chwilówki bez baz pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie eurobank kredyt na dowód kalkulator pożyczki w pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe płock dyskonto pożyczki optima pożyczki telefon kredyt bank w nowym dworze mazowieckim pożyczki online bez bik forum pożyczki bez biku rzeszów kredyt bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczka bez bik na dowód kredyt bank 24 infolinia kredyt studencki pko bp regulamin pożyczki na duży procent historia pożyczki pożyczki kętrzyn jak wyliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki bocian pożyczki kielce forum kredyt bez bik bialystok progresja pożyczki kredyty bank pko bp kredyt w banku nordea pożyczki pod weksel poznań odsetki od pożyczki jako przychód pożyczki sms owe kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik kępno pozyczki siódemka ząbkowice pożyczki pod weksel śląsk pożyczki na dowód chojnów kredyt bank w aleksandrowie kujawskim umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach pożyczki chwilówki vivus umowa pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us kredyty chwilówki tychy kredyt bank szczecin adres kto da kredyt bez biku prestige pozyczki czestochowa pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyty pozabankowe tychy rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank pożyczki pod zastaw auta łódź kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta z ok wrocławia pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź chwilowka do ilu moge dostac kredyt wloclawek czy alior bank udziela pozyczek z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki bez bik w kaliszu kredyty pozabankowe koszalin millennium pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki prywatne kraków kredyt bez bik optima kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet bocian pożyczki i podobne umowa pożyczki spółki z o o kredyt bank walcz kredyt bank lokaty inwestycyjne ubezpieczenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik do 10 tys kredyt online bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla bez wkładu kredyt w fiat bank pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan umorzenie pożyczki po śmierci pracownika pożyczki pozabankowe w ciechanowie pożyczki bez bik warszawa pożyczki z banku pożyczki 2014 kredyt bez bik gdansk pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć kredyt samochodowy na firme bez bik jak otrzymac pozyczke w prodomo kredyty mieszkaniowe dofinansowanie kredyt bank polna warszawa kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki atiz pożyczka kredyty bez bik ruda slaska kredyt pod zastaw domu w banku kredyt bank wyniki 2011 zasady przyznawania pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt studencki w banku bps prawo podatkowe pożyczki lombard 24h pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt samochodowy na firmę odliczenia deutsche bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank belgijski odpracowanie pożyczki kredyt bank wojska polskiego olsztyn prywatne pożyczki pod weksel wrocław alina waclawek kredyty prywatne opinie poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki chwilówki gotówkowe symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyt samochodowy online do kwoty 20000 pln mbank pożyczki z pup kredyt bez bik zus us pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kronos pozyczki piotrkow kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika kredyt bank wypłaty bez prowizji marka pożyczki praca głogowski pożyczki preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko spłata kredyt bank jastrzębie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank założyciele kredyty chwilówki warszawa opinie pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie pożyczki od właścicieli w bilansie pożyczki na rok czasu kredyt bank w stalowej woli pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat kredyt bank grodzka kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu pożyczki kredyty bez bik kraków udziele pozyczki prywatnej na samochód kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole opinie optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt pożyczki międzychód konsolidacja kredytów jak to działa pożyczki tax care opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie credit agricole pożyczki warszawa kredyty chwilowki umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank chrzanów tel kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk kredyt bank polkowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank akcje forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank leszno regon kredyt dla banku nabywcy szybkie pożyczki do 2000 kredyt preferencyjny bank umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 santander bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki unijne dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się konto osobiste w kredyt banku opinie udzielenie pożyczki członkowi rady nadzorczej kredyt refinansowy w banku centralnym pożyczki od 18 lat online pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra szybkie pożyczki dla firm bez bik kredyt bank właściciel kredyty bez bik wodzisław śląski forsa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla samorządów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emerytów pożyczki prywatne warszawa pożyczki de minimis kredyt mieszkaniowy bz wbk forum kredyt bez bik dla zadluzonych kredyty bez biku wroclaw kredyt bank kościuszki sopot kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z poręczeniem umorzenie pożyczki przez bank kredyt na start firmy idea bank opinie pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław advice financial pożyczki pożyczki bez bik świecie kredyt bank bednarska łódź kredyt bank kraków ul długa konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a cit pcc od umowy pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilówki wałcz kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki pożyczki gotówkowe zestawienie kredyt bank żagiel sa kontakt bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński pożyczki bez bik brodnica kredyt w banku a komornik kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator polbank idea bank kredyt oprocentowanie kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie kredyt bank kamienna kredyt bank marki piłsudskiego umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem credit agricole ubezpieczenie pożyczki optima pożyczki piła profit pożyczki ciechanów pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty w jakim banku kredyt w uk rozdzielność majątkowa a kredyt w banku pożyczki pozabankowe chodzież kredyt bank bełchatów umowa pożyczki art 777 kredyt bank nowy swiat warszawa kredyty chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie umowa pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu na start pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie kredyt studencki pko bp spłata oprocentowanie kredytu w millenium bank pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów nieruchomości pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyty chwilówki na spłatę komornika spłata pożyczki w amber gold pożyczki pozabankowe głogów niespłacone pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki jessica pożyczki bez bik we włocławku kredyt w eurobanku dla emeryta umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu mikropożyczki na założenie firmy kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema kredyty bez bik na raty banki kredyty online dobranie pożyczki w providencie pożyczki dla uczących się pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz kredyt online bez bik szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki na nowy biznes numer tel kontaktowego na pożyczke w chełm kredyt samochodowy mbank kalkulator alior bank kredyt studencki kredyt bank w żorach kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja pożyczki na procent śląskie pożyczki na dowód białystok kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański kredyty pko bp opinie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rzeszów kredyt bank warszawa radość kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim do kiedy kredyt bank starogard gdański tel pożyczki gotówkowe włocławek kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kraków kredyt w banku ing forum pozyczki prywatne bydgoszcz warunki pożyczki provident przedawnienie pożyczki udzielonej przez bank pożyczki ranking banków pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów pożyczki prometeusz kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut bocian pożyczki gniezno optima pożyczki na dowód bezzwrotne pożyczki z up kredyt bez bik zgierz kredyt bank rodzaje kont pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw wieliczka pożyczki 24h opinie pożyczki gotówkowe na poczcie kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy bph zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang rata pożyczki kalkulator płock pożyczki bez bik pożyczki chwilówki wejherowo kredyt samochodowy dla lekarza pożyczki pozabankowe wawa profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik kredyt bank podstawowe informacje wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym w jakim banku wziasc kredyt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny kredyt konsolidacyjny jak działa umowa pożyczki przepisy pożyczki społecznościowe opinie kredyt bank reda kredyt bank akcjonariusze gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki prywatne nysa pożyczki bez bik 5000 zł kredyt bank kraków kapelanka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank założenie konta umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem pożyczki bez bik na firmę pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym pożyczki konin kredyt bank białobrzegi godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla pes kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik i krd lublin księgowanie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyty konsolidacyjne oddłużanie kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku opinie kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia kredyt bank starachowice telefon kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt bank ząbki kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki wadowice kredyty bez bik w legnicy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika praktyka w kredyt banku druk zgłoszenia pożyczki do us pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa pożyczki bez bik przez internet bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum księgowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt na dom pozabankowy kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie kredyt bank oferta konta szybkie pożyczki bez bik płock umowa pożyczki odsetki podatek pożyczki pruszcz gdański kredyt samochodowy multibank forum umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus pożyczki na dowód kwidzyn umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami a pcc kredyt bank 24 kb kredyt pozabankowy warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree górna wilda pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy proces zwrot pożyczki udziałowcowi karty kredytowe online z krd szybki kredyt bez bik dla firm kredyt bank przelewy godziny pożyczki pod zastaw tczew podrobiona umowa pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spółce kredyty w banku santander kredyty bez bik od reki przedmiot umowy pożyczki i kredytu szybkie pożyczki bez bik kielce żyrowanie pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne na oświadczenie pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz pożyczki długoterminowe dla zadłużonych kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa kredyt w fm banku opinie pożyczki multika pożyczki dla bezrobotnych forum wzór umowy pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt bez bik bank warszawa pożyczki bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank świdnica kontakt bocian pożyczki wrocław kredyty chwilówki grochowska kredyt bank oddział w białymstoku pozyczki w domu garwolin kredyt bank w swieciu kredyt w domu klienta calkowita splata pozyczki wzor kwituję odbiór pożyczki ranking kredytów samochodowych dla firm pozyczki prywatne przez telefon na terenie lublina warunki otrzymania kredytu w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres pożyczki udzielone i należności własne szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik umowa pożyczki zfśs santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja pożyczki na dowolny cel kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe kredyt bank opłata za kartę pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice kredyty bez bik 5000 kredyt bank jest bankiem pożyczki polskie kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania kredyty mieszkaniowe pułapki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2012 kredyt bank chełm ul lwowska pozyczki scarabeusz praca biala podl pożyczki bez bik staszów kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego pożyczki prywatne zamość kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza kredyt bez biku w banku pożyczki społecznościowe kredyt na dowód w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do us umowa o udzielenie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki online bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank w tarnobrzegu mennica pożyczki opinie pożyczki takie jak w providencie kredyt bank karta prepaid przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt z pierwsza pozyczka za darmo pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych wałbrzych pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów opole kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki a knf nowość pożyczki do domu pożyczki pod zastaw gdynia kredyt bank biłgoraj praca pożyczki chwiłowki kredyt bank w mińsku maz kredyt bank wawa kredyt bank sieradz godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla nastolatków kredyt bank merger przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 pożyczki z pfron pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki kredyty mieszkaniowe raport pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kredyt bank departament windykacji kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe blog pożyczki od ręki kredyty pożyczki prywatne bez przedpłat pożyczki prywatne rybnik pożyczki bez opłaty rejestracyjnej mikropożyczki ekonomia społeczna pozyczki od reki gdynia kredyt bank zielonka telefon optima pożyczki ciechanów umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona zastawem kredyt na dowód jaki bank bocian pożyczki adres pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa reklamacja pożyczki kredyt bank adres korespondencyjny kredyt bank program partnerski pożyczki społecznościowe opinie 2012 kredyt bank prowizja za granicą pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa easy cash pożyczki opinie wymagalność rat pożyczki pozyczki od prywatnych osob kredyty bez baz kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra tanie pożyczki internetowe umowa pożyczki odsetki kredyty pożyczki gwarancje bankowe kredyty w nordea bank kredyt bank zapomniałem hasła kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie kredyty bez bik ogłoszenia pożyczki gotówkowe do domu klienta kredyty z komornikiem pożyczki typu bocian pożyczki w domu częstochowa kredyt bank praca opinie pożyczki gotówkowe tarnów szybkie pożyczki kielce kredyt bank nr rozliczeniowy kredyt bankowy dla firm pozyczka bez bik 5000 doradcy24 pożyczki oddziały kredyt banku szczecin kredyty bez bik legionowo placówki kredyt banku gdańsk kredyt samochodowy dla nowej spółki waldemar piechota pożyczki umowa pożyczki na konto oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank natychmiastowe pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy poznań kredyty chwilówki gorzów wlkp kredyt studencki ing bank kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyty chwilówki opinia o firmie bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 kwota pożyczki bez zgody małżonka kredyt mieszkaniowy kielce kredyt bank focha bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny w paribas kredyty chwilówki warszawa kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku kredyt bank zwrot za paliwo

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad